Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Search results for: Rahil Samani

24 A Single Switch High Step-Up DC/DC Converter with Zero Current Switching Condition

Authors: Rahil Samani, Saeed Soleimani, Ehsan Adib, Majid Pahlevani

Abstract:

This paper presents an inverting high step-up DC/DC converter. Basically, this high step-up DC/DC converter is an appealing interface for solar applications. The proposed topology takes advantage of using coupled inductors. Due to the leakage inductances of these coupled inductors, the power MOSFET has the zero current switching (ZCS) condition, which results in decreased switching losses. This will substantially improve the overall efficiency of the power converter. Furthermore, employing coupled inductors has led to a higher voltage gain. Theoretical analysis and experimental results of a 100W 20V/220V prototype are presented to verify the superior performance of the proposed DC/DC converter.

Keywords: coupled inductors, high step-up DC/DC converter, zero-current switching, Cuk converter, SEPIC converter

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23 Finite Volume Method in Loop Network in Hydraulic Transient

Authors: Hossain Samani, Mohammad Ehteram

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider finite volume method (FVM) in water hammer. We will simulate these techniques on a looped network with complex boundary conditions. After comparing methods, we see the FVM method as the best method. We compare the results of FVM with experimental data. Finite volume using staggered grid is applied for solving water hammer equations.

Keywords: hydraulic transient, water hammer, interpolation, non-liner interpolation

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22 Understanding the Safety Impacts of Imbalances in Truck Parking Supply and Demand

Authors: Rahil Saeedi

Abstract:

The imbalance in truck parking supply and demand can create important safety issues for truck drivers and the public. Research has shown that breaks at specific intervals can increase drivers’ alertness by reducing the monotony of the task. However, if fatigued truck drivers are unable to find a safe parking spot for rest, they may continue to drive or choose to park at remote and insecure areas or undesignated locations. All of these situations pose serious safety and security risks to truck drivers and other roadway users. This study uses 5-year truck crash data in Ohio to develop and test a framework for identifying crashes that happen as a result of imbalances in truck parking supply and demand. The societal impacts of these crashes are then interpreted as monetary values, calculated using the costs associated with various crash severity levels.

Keywords: truck parking, road safety, crash data, geofencing, driver fatigue, undesignated parking

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21 Capture Zone of a Well Field in an Aquifer Bounded by Two Parallel Streams

Authors: S. Nagheli, N. Samani, D. A. Barry

Abstract:

In this paper, the velocity potential and stream function of capture zone for a well field in an aquifer bounded by two parallel streams with or without a uniform regional flow of any directions are presented. The well field includes any number of extraction or injection wells or a combination of both types with any pumping rates. To delineate the capture envelope, the potential and streamlines equations are derived by conformal mapping method. This method can help us to release constrains of other methods. The equations can be applied as useful tools to design in-situ groundwater remediation systems, to evaluate the surface–subsurface water interaction and to manage the water resources.

Keywords: complex potential, conformal mapping, image well theory, Laplace’s equation, superposition principle

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20 Finite State Markov Chain Model of Pollutants from Service Stations

Authors: Amina Boukelkoul, Rahil Boukelkoul, Leila Maachia

Abstract:

The cumulative vapors emitted from the service stations may represent a hazard to the environment and the population. Besides fuel spill and their penetration into deep soil layers are the main contributors to soil and ground-water contamination in the vicinity of the petrol stations. The amount of the effluents from the service stations depends on strategy of maintenance and the policy adopted by the management to reduce the pollution. One key of the proposed approach is the idea of managing the effluents from the service stations which can be captured via use of a finite state Markov chain. Such a model can be embedded within a probabilistic operation and maintenance simulation reflecting the action to be done. In this paper, an approach of estimating a probabilistic percentage of the amount of emitted pollutants is presented. The finite state Markov model is used for decision problems with number of determined periods (life cycle) to predict the amount according to various options of operation.

Keywords: environment, markov modeling, pollution, service station

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19 Development of 111In-DOTMP as a New Bone Imaging Agent

Authors: H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri, AR. Jalilian, A. Mirzaei, A. Bahrami-Samani, M. Erfani

Abstract:

The objective of this study is the preparation of 111In-DOTMP as a new bone imaging agent. 111In was produced at the Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School (AMIRS) by means of 30 MeV cyclotron via natCd(p,x)111In reaction. Complexion of In‐111 with DOTMP was carried out by adding 0.1 ml of the stock solution (50 mg/ml in 2 N NaoH) to the vial containing 1 mCi of 111In. pH of the mixture was adjusted to 7-8 by means of phosphate buffer. The radiochemical purity of the complex at the optimized condition was higher than 98% (by using whatman No.1 paper in NH4OH:MeOH: H2O (0.2:2:4)). Both the biodistribution studies and SPECT imaging indicated high bone uptake. The ratio of bone to other soft tissue accumulation was significantly high which permit to observe high quality images. The results show that 111In-DOTMP can be used as a suitable tracer for diagnosis of bone metastases by SPECT imaging.

Keywords: biodistribution, DOTMP, 111In, SPECT

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18 Production, Quality Control and Biodistribution Assessment of 166 Ho-BPAMD as a New Bone Seeking Agent

Authors: H. Yousefnia, N. Amraee, M. Hosntalab, S. Zolghadri, A. Bahrami-Samani

Abstract:

The aim of this study was the preparation of a new agent for bone marrow ablation in patients with multiple myeloma. 166Ho was produced at Tehran research reactor via 165Ho(n,γ)166Ho reaction. Complexion of Ho‐166 with BPAMD was carried out by the addition of about 200µg of BPAMD in absolute water to 1 mci of 166HoCl3 and warming up the mixture 90 0C for 1 h. 166Ho-BPAMD was prepared successfully with radio chemical purity of 95% which was measured by ITLC method. The final solution was injected to wild-type mice and bio distribution was determined up to 48 h. SPECT images were acquired after 2 and 48 h post injection. Both the bio distribution studies and SPECT imaging indicated high bone uptake, while accumulation in other organs was approximately negligible. The results show that 166Ho-BPAMD has suitable characteristics and can be used as a new bone marrow ablative agent.

Keywords: bone marrow ablation, BPAMD, 166Ho, SPECT

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17 Nature, Elixir of Architecture: A Contemplation on Human, Nature and Architecture in Islam

Authors: A. Kabiri-Samani, M. J. Seddighi

Abstract:

There is no doubt that a key factor in the manifestation of architecture is the interaction of human and nature. Explaining the type of relationship defined by “the architect” between architecture and nature opens a window towards understanding the theoretical conceptions of the architect as the creator of “architecture”. Now, if these theoretical foundations are put under scrutiny from the viewpoint of Islam, and an architect considers the relationship of human and nature within the context of Islam, he would let nature to manifest itself in architecture. The reasons for such a relationship is explicable in terms of the degree and nature of knowledge of the architect about nature; while the way it comes to existence is explained by defining the force of nature – ruling the entire nature – and its acts. It is by the scientific command of the architect and his mastery in the hermetic force of nature that the material bodies of buildings evolve from artificial to natural. Additionally, the presence of nature creates hermetic architectural spaces for the spiritual development of humans while serving for living at different levels.

Keywords: nature, Islam, cognition, science, presence, elixir

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16 Preparation and Quality Control of a New Radiolabelled Complex of Spion

Authors: H. Yousefnia, SJ. Ahmadi, S. Sajadi, S. Zolghadri, A. Bahrami-Samani, M. Bagherzadeh

Abstract:

Nowadays, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as the multitask agents have showed advantageous characteristics. The aim of this study was the preparation and quality control of 153Sm-DTPA-DA-SPION complex. Samarium-153 was produced by neutron irradiation of the enriched 152Sm2O3 in a research reactor for 5 d. For radiolabeling purposes, 8 mg of the ligand was added to the vial containing 153SmCl3 and the mixture was sonicated 30 min, while pH was adjusted to 7-8. The radiochemical purity of the complex was checked by the ITLC method using NH4OH:MeOH:H2O (0.2:2:4) as the mobile phase. This new radiolabeled complex was prepared with a radiochemical purity of higher than 98% in 30 min at the optimized condition. The complex was kept at room temperature and in human serum at 37 °C for 48 h, showed no loss of 153Sm from the complex. Considering all of these features, this new radiolabeled complex can be considered as a good therapeutic agent; however, further studies on its biological behavior are still needed.

Keywords: iron nanoparticles, preparation, quality control, 153Sm

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15 Developing a Multidimensional Adjustment Scale

Authors: Nadereh Sohrabi Shegefti, Siamak Samani

Abstract:

Level of adjustment is the first index to check mental health. The aim of this study was developing a valid and reliable Multidimensional Adjustment Scale (MAS). The sample consisted of 150 college students. Multidimensional adjustment scale and Depression, Anxiety, and stress scale (DASS) were used in this study. Principle factor analysis, Pearson correlation coefficient, and Cornbach's Alpha were used to check the validity and reliability of the MAS. Principle component factor analysis showed a 5 factor solution for the MAS. Alpha coefficients for the MAS sub scales were ranged between .69 to .83. Test-retest reliability for MAS was .88 and the mean of sub scales- total score correlation was .88. All these indexes revealed an acceptable reliability and validity for the MAS. The MAS is a short assessment instrument with good acceptable psychometric properties to use in clinical filed.

Keywords: psychological adjustment, psychometric properties, validity, Pearson correlation

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14 Preparation and Biological Evaluation of 186/188Re-Chitosan for Radiosynovectomy

Authors: N. Ahmadi, H. Yousefnia, A. Bahrami-Samani

Abstract:

Chitosan is a natural and biodegradable polysaccharide with special characteristic for application in intracavital therapy. 166Ho-chitosan has been reported for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and RSV with promising results. The aim of this study was to prepare 186/188Re-chitosan for radiosynovectomy purposes and investigate the probability of its leakage from the knee joint. 186/188Re was produced by neutron irradiation of the natural rhenium in a research reactor. Chemical processing was performed to obtain (186/188Re)-NaReO4- according to the IAEA manual. A stock solution of chitosan was prepared by dissolving in 1 % acetic acid aqueous solution (10 mg/mL). 1.5 mL of this stock solution was added to the vial containing the activity and the mixture was stirred for 5 min in the room temperature. The radiochemical purity of the complex was checked by the ITLC method, showing the purity of higher than 98%. Distribution of the radiolabeled complex was determined after intra-articular injection into the knees of rats. Excellent retention was observed in the joint with approximately no activity in the other organs.

Keywords: chitosan, leakage, radiosynovectomy, rhenium

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13 Production and Quality Control of a Novel 153Sm-Complex for Radiotherapy of Bone-Metastases

Authors: H. Yousefnia, R. Enayati, M. Hosntalab, S. Zolghadri, A. Bahrami-Samani

Abstract:

Bone metastases occur in many cases at an early stage of the tumour disease, however their symptoms are recognized rather late. The aim of this study was the preparation of 153Sm-(4-{[bis-(phosphonomethyl))carbamoyl]methyl}-7,10-bis(carboxymethyl) 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododec-1-yl) acetic acid (BPAMD) for bone pain palliation therapy. 153Sm was produced at Tehran research reactor via 152Sm(n,γ)153Sm reaction. 200 µl of 1mg/ml BPAMD solution was added to the vial containing 1 mCi 153Sm and the mixture was heated up to 90 0C for 1 h. The radiochemical purity of the complex was measured by ITLC method. The final solution with radiochemical purity of more than 95% was injected to BALB mice and bio distribution was determined up to 48 h. SPECT images were acquired after 2 and 24 h post injection. While high bone uptake was confirmed by both the bio distribution studies and SPECT imaging, accumulation in other organs was approximately negligible. The results show that 153Sm-BPAMD can be used as an excellent tracer for bone pain palliation therapy.

Keywords: bone metastases, BPAMD, 153Sm, radiotherapy

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12 Calculation of the Added Mass of a Submerged Object with Variable Sizes at Different Distances from the Wall via Lattice Boltzmann Simulations

Authors: Nastaran Ahmadpour Samani, Shahram Talebi

Abstract:

Added mass is an important quantity in analysis of the motion of a submerged object ,which can be calculated by solving the equation of potential flow around the object . Here, we consider systems in which a square object is submerged in a channel of fluid and moves parallel to the wall. The corresponding added mass at a given distance from the wall d and for the object size s (which is the side of square object) is calculated via lattice Blotzmann simulation . By changing d and s separately, their effect on the added mass is studied systematically. The simulation results reveal that for the systems in which d > 4s, the distance does not influence the added mass any more. The added mass increases when the object approaches the wall and reaches its maximum value as it moves on the wall (d -- > 0). In this case, the added mass is about 73% larger than which of the case d=4s. In addition, it is observed that the added mass increases by increasing of the object size s and vice versa.

Keywords: Lattice Boltzmann simulation , added mass, square, variable size

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11 Environmental Study on Urban Disinfection Using an On-site Generation System

Authors: Víctor Martínez del Rey, Kourosh Nasr Esfahani, Amir Masoud Samani Majd

Abstract:

In this experimental study, the behaviors of Mixed Oxidant solution components (MOS) and sodium hypochlorite (HYPO) as the most commonly applied surface disinfectant were compared through the effectiveness of chlorine disinfection as a function of the contact time and residual chlorine. In this regard, the variation of pH, free available chlorine (FAC) concentration, and electric conductivity (EC) of disinfection solutions in different concentrations were monitored over 48 h contact time. In parallel, the plant stress activated by chlorine-based disinfectants was assessed by comparing MOS and HYPO. The elements of pH and EC in the plant-soil and their environmental impacts, spread by disinfection solutions were analyzed through several concentrations of FAC including 500 mg/L, 1000 mg/L, and 5000 mg/L in irrigated water. All the experiments were carried out at the service station of Sant Cugat, Spain. The outcomes indicated lower pH and higher durability of MOS than HYPO at the same concentration of FAC which resulted in promising stability of FAC within MOS. Furthermore, the pH and EC value of plant-soil irrigated by NaOCl solution were higher than that of MOS solution at the same FAC concentration. On-site generation of MOS as a safe chlorination option might be considered an imaginary future of smart cities.

Keywords: disinfection, free available chlorine, on-site generation, sodium hypochlorite

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10 Effect of Nutrition Education on the Control and Function of Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Patients

Authors: Rahil Sahragard, Mahmoud Hatami, Rostam Bahadori Khalili

Abstract:

Diabetes is one of the most important health problems in the world and a chronic disease requiring continuous care and therefore, it is necessary for patients to undergo self-care and nutrition education. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of nutrition education on the metabolic control of diabetic patients in Tehran in 2015. An experimental study was conducted on 100 patients who had previously been approved by a specialist physician for diabetes and at least one year after their onset. At first, patients without any knowledge of the educational program were selected as sample and from them a checklist containing demographic and specific information about diabetes was filled and were taken three fasting blood glucose and three times fasting blood glucose (5 p.m.) Then, the patients received face-to-face training in the same conditions for 2 weeks in a Mehregan hospital of Tehran, and received 3 months of training, while they were fully monitored and during this time, samples that had a cold or blood pressure-related disease or were admitted to the hospital were excluded from the study. After the end of the study, the checklist was filled again and 3 fasting blood glucose and 3 fasting blood glucose samples were taken, the results were statistically analyzed by MC Nemar's statistical test. The research findings were performed on 100 patients 41.7% male and 58.3% women, the range of age was between 22 and 60 years old, with a duration of diabetes ranging from 1 to 15 years. Abnormal fasting blood glucose from 95% to 48.3% (P <0.0001) and non-fasting blood glucose decreased from 91.6% to 71.2% (P <0.001). Research has shown that training on blood glucose control has been successful, therefore, it is recommended that more research is done in the field of education to help patients with diabetes more comfortable.

Keywords: nutrition education, diabetes, function, insulin, chronic, metabolic control

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9 Cover Spalling in Reinforced Concrete Columns

Authors: Bambang Piscesa, Mario M. Attard, Dwi Presetya, Ali K. Samani

Abstract:

A numerical strategy formulated using a plasticity approach is presented to model spalling of the concrete cover in reinforced concrete columns. The stage at which the concrete cover within reinforced concrete column spalls has a direct bearing on the load capacity. The concrete cover can prematurely spall before the full cross-section can be utilized if the concrete is very brittle under compression such as for very high strength concretes. If the confinement to the core is high enough, the column can achieve a higher peak load by utilizing the core. A numerical strategy is presented to model spalling of the concrete cover. Various numerical strategies are employed to model the behavior of reinforced concrete columns which include: (1) adjusting the material properties to incorporate restrained shrinkage; (2) modifying the plastic dilation rate in the presence of the tensile pressure; (3) adding a tension cut-off failure surface and (4) giving the concrete cover region and the column core different material properties. Numerical comparisons against experimental results are carried out that shown excellent agreement with the experimental results and justify the use of the proposed strategies to predict the axial load capacity of reinforce concrete columns.

Keywords: spalling, concrete, plastic dilation, reinforced concrete columns

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8 Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Tars and Metatars Region of Dromedary Camel

Authors: Aboozar Dehghan, S. Sharifi, A. Ardeshiri, F. Jafari, F. Samani

Abstract:

Ultrasonography is a safe, particular, available and easy to use method to evaluate soft tissues. Tendons play the main role to body locomotors system. Ultrasonography performed in tarsus and metatarsus region of rare limb of eight adult, Dromedary camels (camelus dromedaries) in both sex. Clinical examination and gate analysis was performed before slaughtering. From the tarsus to the 1st phalanx was divided to 4 equal region include 1a, 2a, 1b and 2b. Flexor surface was clipped and covered by enough ultrasonography gel. Ultrasonography was performed by linear phased array 8-12 Mhz transducer in transverse and longitudinal section and Superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT), deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT) and suspensory ligament (SL) were imaged. Echogenicity and diameter of these structures were recorded. Size of tendons and SL measured after necropsy too. statistical analysis obtained that SDFT diameter larger than others in all described regions and mean of DDFT diameter larger than suspensory ligament. Echogenicity of SL more than SDFT and DDFT. No Significant relationship was seen between left and right rare limb structures size. Between sex and tendons and SL diameter, significant relationship not seen.

Keywords: dromedary camel, tars and metatars, ultrasonography

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7 Production, Quality Control, and Biodistribution Studies of 141ce-Edtmp as a Potential Bone Pain Palliation Agent

Authors: Fatemeh Soltani, Simindokht Shirvani Arani, Ali Bahrami Samani, Mahdi Sadeghi, Kamal Yavari

Abstract:

Cerium-141 [T1/2 = 32.501 days, Eβ (max) = 0.580 (29.8%) and 0.435(70.2%) MeV, Eγ=145.44 (48.2%) keV] possesses radionuclidic properties suitable for use in palliative therapy of bone metastases. 141Ce also has gamma energy of 145.44 keV, which resembles that of 99mTc. Therefore, the energy window is adjustable on the Tc-99m energy because of imaging studies. 141Ce can be produced through a relatively easy route that involves thermal neutron bombardment on natural CeO2 in medium flux research reactors (4–5×1013 neutrons/cm2•s). The requirement for an enriched target does not arise. Ethylenediamine tetramethylene phosphonic acid (EDTMP) was synthesized and radiolabeled with 141Ce. Complexation parameters were optimized to achieve maximum yields (>99%). The radiochemical purity of 141Ce-EDTMP was evaluated by radio-thin layer chromatography. The stability of the prepared formulation was monitored for one week at room temperature, and results showed that the preparation was stable during this period (>99%). Biodistribution studies of the complexes carried out in wild-type rats exhibited significant bone uptake with rapid clearance from blood. The properties of produced 141Ce-EDTMP suggest applying a new efficient bone pain palliative therapeutic agent to overcome metastatic bone pains.

Keywords: bone pain palliative, cerium-141, EDTMP, radiopharmaceutical

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6 Hydrogen Production at the Forecourt from Off-Peak Electricity and Its Role in Balancing the Grid

Authors: Abdulla Rahil, Rupert Gammon, Neil Brown

Abstract:

The rapid growth of renewable energy sources and their integration into the grid have been motivated by the depletion of fossil fuels and environmental issues. Unfortunately, the grid is unable to cope with the predicted growth of renewable energy which would lead to its instability. To solve this problem, energy storage devices could be used. Electrolytic hydrogen production from an electrolyser is considered a promising option since it is a clean energy source (zero emissions). Choosing flexible operation of an electrolyser (producing hydrogen during the off-peak electricity period and stopping at other times) could bring about many benefits like reducing the cost of hydrogen and helping to balance the electric systems. This paper investigates the price of hydrogen during flexible operation compared with continuous operation, while serving the customer (hydrogen filling station) without interruption. The optimization algorithm is applied to investigate the hydrogen station in both cases (flexible and continuous operation). Three different scenarios are tested to see whether the off-peak electricity price could enhance the reduction of the hydrogen cost. These scenarios are: Standard tariff (1 tier system) during the day (assumed 12 p/kWh) while still satisfying the demand for hydrogen; using off-peak electricity at a lower price (assumed 5 p/kWh) and shutting down the electrolyser at other times; using lower price electricity at off-peak times and high price electricity at other times. This study looks at Derna city, which is located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea (32° 46′ 0 N, 22° 38′ 0 E) with a high potential for wind resource. Hourly wind speed data which were collected over 24½ years from 1990 to 2014 were in addition to data on hourly radiation and hourly electricity demand collected over a one-year period, together with the petrol station data.

Keywords: hydrogen filling station off-peak electricity, renewable energy, off-peak electricity, electrolytic hydrogen

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5 Psychological Nano-Therapy: A New Method in Family Therapy

Authors: Siamak Samani, Nadereh Sohrabi

Abstract:

Psychological nano-therapy is a new method based on systems theory. According to the theory, systems with severe dysfunctions are resistant to changes. Psychological nano-therapy helps the therapists to break this ice. Two key concepts in psychological nano-therapy are nano-functions and nano-behaviors. The most important step in psychological nano-therapy in family therapy is selecting the most effective nano-function and nano-behavior. The aim of this study was to check the effectiveness of psychological nano-therapy for family therapy. One group pre-test-post-test design (quasi-experimental Design) was applied for research. The sample consisted of ten families with severe marital conflict. The important character of these families was resistance for participating in family therapy. In this study, sending respectful (nano-function) text massages (nano-behavior) with cell phone were applied as a treatment. Cohesion/respect sub scale from self-report family processes scale and family readiness for therapy scale were used to assess all family members in pre-test and post-test. In this study, one of family members was asked to send a respectful text massage to other family members every day for a week. The content of the text massages were selected and checked by therapist. To compare the scores of families in pre-test and post-test paired sample t-test was used. The results of the test showed significant differences in both cohesion/respect score and family readiness for therapy between per-test and post-test. The results revealed that these families have found a better atmosphere for participation in a complete family therapy program. Indeed, this study showed that psychological nano-therapy is an effective method to make family readiness for therapy.

Keywords: family therapy, family conflicts, nano-therapy, family readiness

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4 Organic Oils Fumigation and Ozonated Cold Storage Influence Storage Life and Fruit Quality in Granny Smith Apples

Authors: Rahil Malekipoor, Zora Singh, Alan Payne

Abstract:

Ethylene management during storage life of organically grown apples is a challenging issue due to limited available options. The objective of this investigation was to examine the effects of lemon and cinnamon oils fumigation on storage life, the incidence of superficial scald and quality of Granny Smith apple which were kept in cold storage with and without ozone. The fruit was fumigated with 3µl L⁻¹ lemon or cinnamon oil for 24 h and untreated fruit was kept as a control. Following the treatments, the fruit was stored at (0.5 to -1°C) with and without ozone for 100 and 150 days. After each storage period, ethylene production and respiration rate, superficial scald and various fruit quality parameters were estimated. Lemon oil fumigated fruit showed significantly reduced the mean climacteric peak ethylene production rate in both 100 and 150 days stored fruit. Mean climacteric peak ethylene production rate was significantly reduced in the apples which were kept in an ozonated as compared to cold stored without ozone for 100 days only. The climacteric ethylene peak was delayed only in 100 days cold stored fruit with ozone (8.78 d) as compared to without ozone (3.89 d). Firmness was significantly higher in the fruit fumigated with lemon or cinnamon oil compared to control for both storage time. The fruit stored for 150 days in cold storage without ozone exhibited higher mean firmness than those stored in ozonated. Lemon or cinnamon oil fumigation significantly reduced superficial scald in both cold stored fruit with or without ozone. Levels of total phenols were significantly higher in cinnamon oil treated fruit and stored for 100 days as compared to all other treatments. In 150 days stored fruit fumigated with lemon oil showed the significantly higher level of total phenols compared to cinnamon oil fumigation and control. The fruit fumigated with lemon oil or cinnamon oil following 150 days cold storage resulted in significantly higher levels of ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity as compared to the control fruit. In conclusion, lemon oil fumigation was more effective in suppressing ethylene production in 100-150 days cold stored fruit than cinnamon oil. Whilst, fumigation of both lemon or cinnamon oil were effective in reducing superficial scald and maintaining quality in 100-150 days cold stored fruit.

Keywords: apple, cold storage, organic oil, ozone

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3 Comparison of Depth of Cure and Degree of Conversion between Opus Bulk Fill and X-Tra Fill Bulk Fill Composites

Authors: Yasaman Samani, Ali Golmohammadi

Abstract:

Introduction: The degree of conversion and depth of cure affects the clinical success of resin composite restorations directly. One of the main challenges in achieving a successful composite restoration is the achievement of sufficient depth of cure. The insufficient polymerization may lead to a decrease in the physical/mechanical and biological properties of resin composites and, as a result of that, unsuccessful composite restoration. Thus, because of the importance of studying and evaluating the depth of cure and degree of conversion in bulk-fill composites, we decided to evaluate and compare the degree of conversion and depth of cure in two bulk-fill composites; x-tra fill (Voco, Germany) and Opus Bulk fill APS (FGM, Brazil). Materials and Methods: Composite resin specimens (n=10) per group were prepared as cylinder blocks (4×8 mm) with bulk-fill composites, x-tra fil (Voco, Germany) designated as Group A, and Opus Bulk fill APS (FGM, Brazil) designated as Group B. Depth of cure was determined according to “ISO 4049; Depth of Cure” method, In which each specimen were cured (iLED, Woodpecker, China) 40 seconds and FTIR spectroscopy method was used to estimate the degree of conversion of both the bulk-fill composites. The degree of conversion of monomer to polymer was estimated individually in the coronal half (Group A1 and B1) and pulpal half (Group A2 and Group B2) by dividing each specimen into two halves. The data were analyzed using a Student’s t-test and one-way ANOVA at a 5% level of significance. Results: The mean depth of cure in x-tra fil (Voco, Germany) was 3.99 (±0.16), and for Opus Bulk fill, APS (FGM, Brazil) was 2.14 (±0.3). The degree of conversion percentage in Group A1 was 82.7 (±6.1), in group A2 was 73.4 (±5.2), in group B1 was 63.3 (±4.7) and in Group B2 was 56.5 (±7.7). Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference in the depth of cure between the two bulk-fill composites with x-tra fil (Voco, Germany) higher than Opus Bulk fill APS (FGM, Brazil) (P<0.001). The degree of conversion percentage also showed a significant difference, Group A1 being higher than A2 (P=0.0085), B1, and B2 (P<0.001). Group A2 was also higher than B1 (P=0.003) and B2 (P<0.001). There was no significant difference between B1 and B2 (P=0.072). Conclusion: The results indicate that x-tra fill has more depth of cure and a higher percentage of the degree of conversion than Opus Bulk fill APS. The coronal half of x-tra fil had the highest depth of cure percentage (82.66%), and the pulpal half of Opus Bulk fill APS had the lowest percentage (56.45%). Even though both bulk-fill composite materials had an acceptable degree of conversion (55% and higher), x-tra fill has shown better results.

Keywords: depth of cure, degree of conversion, bulk-fill composite, FTIR

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2 Debunking Sexual Myths in Bangladesh through an Intervention on the Internet

Authors: E. Rommes, Els Toonen, Rahil Roodsaz, Suborna Camellia, Farhana Alam, Saad Khan, Jhalok Ranjon Talukder, Tanveer Hassan, Syeda Farjana Ahmed, Sabina Faiz Rashid

Abstract:

In Bangladesh, a country in which adults (both parents and teachers) find it particularly hard to speak with youth about sexuality, adolescents seem to struggle with various insecurities about their sexual feelings, thoughts, behavior and physical characteristics. On the basis of a large number of interviews and focus groups with rural and urban Bangla adolescent girls and boys of lower and middle class as part of the large-scale three-year project ‘Breaking the Shame’, we have identified ten sexual themes or ‘myths’ that youth struggle with most. These encompass amongst others beliefs and insecurities on masturbation, discharge, same-sex behavior and feelings, the effects of watching porn and gender norms. We argue that the Internet is a particularly suitable medium to ‘debunk’ those myths, as youth can consult it anonymously and privately and so avoid social shame. Moreover, amongst the myths, we have identified two kinds which may need different debunking techniques. One kind of myth concerns scientifically uncontested, generally biological related information, such as the effects of having sex with a pregnant woman, questions on the effects of a penile or vaginal discharge or questions on the effects of masturbation. The second kind of myths concerns more diverse information sources and deals with e.g. religious or culturally specific norms, such as on the meaning and existence of homosexuality or gender appropriate norms of behavior in Bangladesh. For addressing both kinds of myths, expert information including a wealth of references to information resources needs to be provided, which the Internet is very suitable for. For the second kind of myths, adolescents also need to learn how to deal with sometimes conflicting norms and information sources, and they need to develop and reflect on their own opinions as part of their identity formation. On the basis of a literature review, we thus distinguish general information needs from identity formation needs, which includes the need to be able to relate information and opinions to one’s own opinions and situation. Hence, we argue that youth not only need abstract expert information to be able to debunk sexual myths, but also the option to discuss this information with other adolescents and compare their own situation and opinions with other peers, who in that way serve as ‘warm experts’ for each other. In this paper, we will describe the outcomes of our qualitative study above. In addition, we will present our findings of an intervention by presenting youth with general, uncontested information on the Internet with additional peer discussion options to compare the debunking effects on different kinds of myths.

Keywords: peer discussion, intervention, sexual myths, shame

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1 Sexuality Education through Media and Technology: Addressing Unmet Needs of Adolescents in Bangladesh

Authors: Farhana Alam Bhuiyan, Saad Khan, Tanveer Hassan, Jhalok Ranjon Talukder, Syeda Farjana Ahmed, Rahil Roodsaz, Els Rommes, Sabina Faiz Rashid

Abstract:

Breaking the shame’ is a 3 year (2015-2018) qualitative implementation research project which investigates several aspects of sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) issues for adolescents living in Bangladesh. Scope of learning SRHR issues for adolescents is limited here due to cultural and religious taboos. This study adds to the ongoing discussions around adolescent’s SRHR needs and aims to, 1) understand the overall SRHR needs of urban and rural unmarried female and male adolescents and the challenges they face, 2) explore existing gaps in the content of SRHR curriculum and 3) finally, addresses some critical knowledge gaps by developing and implementing innovative SRHR educational materials. 18 in-depth interviews (IDIs) and 10 focus-group discussions (FGDs) with boys and 21 IDIs and 14 FGDs with girls of ages 13-19, from both urban and rural setting took place. Curriculum materials from two leading organizations, Unite for Body Rights (UBR) Alliance Bangladesh and BRAC Adolescent Development Program (ADP) were also reviewed, with discussions with 12 key program staff. This paper critically analyses the relevance of some of the SRHR topics that are covered, the challenges with existing pedagogic approaches and key sexuality issues that are not covered in the content, but are important for adolescents. Adolescents asked for content and guidance on a number of topics which remain missing from the core curriculum, such as emotional coping mechanisms particularly in relationships, bullying, impact of exposure to porn, and sexual performance anxiety. Other core areas of concern were effects of masturbation, condom use, sexual desire and orientation, which are mentioned in the content, but never discussed properly, resulting in confusion. Due to lack of open discussion around sexuality, porn becomes a source of information for the adolescents. For these reasons, several myths and misconceptions regarding SRHR issues like body, sexuality, agency, and gender roles still persist. The pedagogical approach is very didactic, and teachers felt uncomfortable to have discussions on certain SRHR topics due to cultural taboos or shame and stigma. Certain topics are favored- such as family planning, menstruation- and presented with an emphasis on biology and risk. Rigid formal teaching style, hierarchical power relations between students and most teachers discourage questions and frank conversations. Pedagogy approaches within classrooms play a critical role in the sharing of knowledge. The paper also describes the pilot approaches to implementing new content in SRHR curriculum. After a review of findings, three areas were selected as critically important, 1) myths and misconceptions 2) emotional management challenges, and 3) how to use condom, that have come up from adolescents. Technology centric educational materials such as web page based information platform and you tube videos are opted for which allow adolescents to bypass gatekeepers and learn facts and information from a legitimate educational site. In the era of social media, when information is always a click away, adolescents need sources that are reliable and not overwhelming. The research aims to ensure that adolescents learn and apply knowledge effectively, through creating the new materials and making it accessible to adolescents.

Keywords: adolescents, Bangladesh, media, sexuality education, unmet needs

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