Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 43

Search results for: Suleyman Karaman

43 The Flora of Oyukludag and Its Environs Karaman,Turkey

Authors: Murad Aydin Şanda, Mustafa Küçüködük

Abstract:

The flora and it’s plants ethnobotanical features of Oyukludag were investigated between 2003 and 2006 years; 780 herbarium specimens belonging to 448 taxa, 292 genera and 62 families were collected and identified from the area. The families which have the most taxa in research area are Compositae (Asteraceae) 78 (17%), Leguminosae (Fabaceae) 58 (13%), Cruciferae (Brassicaceae) 34 (8%), Labiatae (Lamiaceae) 33 (7%), Gramineae (Poaceae) 29 (6%), Caryophyllaceae 19 (4%), Umbelliferae (Apiaceae) 18 (4%), Boraginaceae 17 (4%), Liliaceae 16 (4%). The number of cultivated plants are 17. The research area is in the district of Konya and is in the C4 square according to the Grid System. The phytogeographic elements are represented in the study area as follows; Iranian-Turanian (18%), Mediterranean (17%) and Euro-Siberian (2%). The phytogeographic regions of 268 (60%) taxa are either multi-regional or unknown. The number of endemic taxa is 56 (12%).

Keywords: flora, Oyukludag, Yellibel, Karaman, Turkey

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42 Spatial Distribution of Local Sheep Breeds in Antalya Province

Authors: Serife Gulden Yilmaz, Suleyman Karaman

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Sheep breeding is important in terms of meeting both the demand of red meat consumption and the availability of industrial raw materials and the employment of the rural sector in Turkey. It is also very important to ensure the selection and continuity of the breeds that are raised in order to increase quality and productive products related to sheep breeding. The protection of local breeds and crossbreds also enables the development of the sector in the region and the reduction of imports. In this study, the data were obtained from the records of the Turkish Statistical Institute and Antalya Sheep & Goat Breeders' Association. Spatial distribution of sheep breeds in Antalya is reviewed statistically in terms of concentration at the local level for 2015 period spatially. For this reason; mapping, box plot, linear regression are used in this study. Concentration is introduced by means of studbook data on sheep breeding as locals and total sheep farm by mapping. It is observed that Pırlak breed (17.5%) and Merinos crossbreed (16.3%) have the highest concentration in the region. These breeds are respectively followed by Akkaraman breed (11%), Pirlak crossbreed (8%), Merinos breed (7.9%) Akkaraman crossbreed (7.9%) and Ivesi breed (7.2%).

Keywords: sheep breeds, local, spatial distribution, agglomeration, Antalya

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
41 Orange Peel Derived Activated Carbon /Chitosan Composite as Highly Effective and Low-Cost Adsorbent for Adsorption of Methylene Blue

Authors: Onur Karaman, Ceren Karaman

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In this study, the adsorption of Methylene Blue (MB), a cationic dye, onto Orange Peel Derived Activated Carbon (OPAC) and chitosan(OPAC/Chitosan composite) composite (a low-cost absorbent) was carried out using a batch system. The composite was characterised using IR spectra, XRD, FESEM and Pore size studies. The effects of initial pH, adsorbent dose rate and initial dye concentration on the initial adsorption rate, capacity and dye removal efficiency were investigated. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were used to define the adsorption equilibrium of dye-adsorbent system mathematically and it was decided that the Langmuir model was more suitable to describe the adsorption equilibrium for the system. In addition, first order, second order and saturation type kinetic models were applied to kinetic data of adsorption and kinetic constants were calculated. It was concluded that the second order and the saturation type kinetic models defined the adsorption data more accurately. Finally, the evaluated thermodynamic parameters of adsorption show a spontaneous and exothermic behavior. Overall, this study indicates OPAC/Chitosan composite as an effective and low-cost adsorbent for the removal of MB dye from aqueous solutions.

Keywords: activated carbon, adsorption, chitosan, methylene blue, orange peel

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40 Investigation of the Use of Surface-Modified Waste Orange Pulp for the Adsorption of Remazol Black B

Authors: Ceren Karaman, Onur Karaman

Abstract:

The adsorption of Remazol Black B (RBB), an anionic dye, onto dried orange pulp (DOP) adsorbent prepared by only drying and by treating with cetyltrimetylammonium bromide (CTAB), a cationic surfactant, surface-modified orange pulp (SMOP) was studied in a stirred batch experiments system at 25°C. The adsorption of RBB on each adsorbent as a function of surfactant dosage, initial pH of the solution and initial dye concentration was investigated. The optimum amount of CTAB was found to be 25g/l. For RBB adsorption studies, while working pH value for the DOP adsorbent system was determined as 2.0, it was observed that this value shifted to 8.0 when the 25 g/l CTAB treated-orange pulp (SMOP) adsorbent was used. It was obtained that the adsorption rate and capacity increased to a certain value, and the adsorption efficiency decreased with increasing initial RBB concentration for both DOP and SMOP adsorbents at pH 2.0 and pH 8.0. While the highest adsorption capacity for DOP was determined as 62.4 mg/g at pH 2.0, and as 325.0 mg/g for SMOP at pH 8.0. As a result, it can be said that permanent cationic coating of the adsorbent surface by CTAB surfactant shifted the working pH from 2.0 to 8.0 and it increased the dye adsorption rate and capacity of orange pulp much more significantly at pH 8.0. The equilibrium RBB adsorption data on each adsorbent were best described by the Langmuir isotherm model. The adsorption kinetics of RBB on each adsorbent followed a pseudo-second-order model. Moreover, the intraparticle diffusion model was used to describe the kinetic data. It was found that diffusion is not the only rate controlling step. The adsorbent was characterized by the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis, Fourier-transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and scanning-electron-microscopy (SEM). The mechanism for the adsorption of RBB on the SMOP may include hydrophobic interaction, van der Waals interaction, stacking and electrostatic interaction.

Keywords: adsorption, Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide (CTAB), orange pulp, Remazol Black B (RBB), surface modification

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39 A Journey to the Past: Hoşap Castle in Van

Authors: Muhammet Kurucu

Abstract:

Hoşap Castle, located in Gürpınar, Van, is one of the most important symbols of the city because it hosted sacred memories of its time. Besides the location and construction features of Güzelsu, in resort city of Van, Hoşap Castle is a great place with an architecture consisting of an outer fortress and the inner fortress. It is one of the Ottoman castles and was built in the 17th century by Sarı Süleyman who was known as bey of Mahmudi. Although some parts of Hoşap Castle have been destroyed by natural disasters, it has survived until today without total collapse and most places with excavations are revealed. In this study, present condition of the Hoşap Castle is observed and introduced briefly.

Keywords: Güzelsu, Hoşap Castle, natural disasters, restoration, Van

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38 The Effect of Information Technologies on Business Performance: An Application on Small Hotels

Authors: Abdullah Karaman, Kursad Sayin

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In this research, which information technologies are used in small hotel businesses, and the information technologies-performance perception of the managers are pointed out. During the research, the questionnaire was prepared and the small scale hotel managers were interviewed face to face and they filled out the questionnaire and the answers acquired were evaluated. As the result of the research, it was obtained that the managers do not care much about the information technologies usage in practice even though they accepted that the information technologies are important in terms of performance.

Keywords: information technologies, managers, performance, small hotels

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37 Investigation of Bremsstrahlung, Braking Radiation from Beta-Emitting Radioactive Sources

Authors: Metin Kömsöken, Ayşe Güneş Tanır, Onur Karaman

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Usage of high energy charged particles for diagnosis and treatment has been widespread in medicine. The main purpose is to investigate that Bremsstrahlung which occurs by tissue interactions with charged particles should not be neglected. Nuclear stopping power (Bremsstrahlung) was calculated for lung, brain, skin, muscle, bone (cortical) and water targets for the energies of electrons obtained from LINAC used in radiotherapy and of β+ sources used in positron emission tomography (PET). These calculations were done by using the four different analytical functions including classical Bethe-Bloch, Tsoulfanidis, modified Bethe-Bloch and modified Tsoulfanidis equations. It was concluded that obtained results were compatible with that of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST-ESTAR).

Keywords: β- emitting source, bremsstrahlung, therapeutic radionuclides, LINAC

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36 A ZVT-ZCT-PWM DC-DC Boost Converter with Direct Power Transfer

Authors: Naim Suleyman Ting, Yakup Sahin, Ismail Aksoy

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This paper presents a zero voltage transition-zero current transition (ZVT-ZCT)-PWM DC-DC boost converter with direct power transfer. In this converter, the main switch turns on with ZVT and turns off with ZCT. The auxiliary switch turns on and off with zero current switching (ZCS). The main diode turns on with ZVS and turns off with ZCS. Besides, the additional current or voltage stress does not occur on the main device. The converter has features as simple structure, fast dynamic response and easy control. Also, the proposed converter has direct power transfer feature as well as excellent soft switching techniques. In this study, the operating principle of the converter is presented and its operation is verified for 1 kW and 100 kHz model.

Keywords: direct power transfer, boost converter, zero-voltage transition, zero-current transition

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35 1 kW Power Factor Correction Soft Switching Boost Converter with an Active Snubber Cell

Authors: Yakup Sahin, Naim Suleyman Ting, Ismail Aksoy

Abstract:

A 1 kW power factor correction boost converter with an active snubber cell is presented in this paper. In the converter, the main switch turns on under zero voltage transition (ZVT) and turns off under zero current transition (ZCT) without any additional voltage or current stress. The auxiliary switch turns on and off under zero current switching (ZCS). Besides, the main diode turns on under ZVS and turns off under ZCS. The output current and voltage are controlled by the PFC converter in wide line and load range. The simulation results of converter are obtained for 1 kW and 100 kHz. One of the most important feature of the given converter is that it has direct power transfer as well as excellent soft switching techniques. Also, the converter has 0.99 power factor with the sinusoidal input current shape.

Keywords: power factor correction, direct power transfer, zero-voltage transition, zero-current transition, soft switching

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
34 Single Ended Primary Inductance Converter with Internal Model Controller

Authors: Fatih Suleyman Taskincan, Ahmet Karaarslan

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In this article, the study and analysis of Single Ended Primary Inductance Converter (SEPIC) are presented for battery charging applications that will be used in military applications. The usage of this kind of converters come from its advantage of non-reverse polarity at outputs. As capacitors charge and discharge through inductance, peak current does not occur on capacitors. Therefore, the efficiency will be high compared to buck-boost converters. In this study, the converter (SEPIC) is designed to be operated with Internal Model Controller (IMC). The traditional controllers like Proportional Integral Controller are not preferred as its linearity behavior. Hence IMC is designed for this converter. This controller is a model-based control and provides more robustness and better set point monitoring. Moreover, it can be used for an unstable process where the conventional controller cannot handle the dynamic operation. Matlab/Simulink environment is used to simulate the converter and its controller, then, the results are shown and discussed.

Keywords: DC/DC converter, single ended primary inductance converter, SEPIC, internal model controller, IMC, switched mode power supply

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
33 A Taxonomy Proposal on Criterion Structure for Evaluating Freight Village Concepts in Early-Stage Design Projects

Authors: Rıza Gürhan Korkut, Metin Çelik, Süleyman Özkaynak

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The early-stage design and development projects for the freight village initiatives require a comprehensive analysis of both qualitative and quantitative data. Considering the literature review on structural and operational management requirements, this study proposed an original taxonomy on criterion structure to assess freight village conceptualization. The potential challenges and uncertainties of the developed taxonomy are extended. Besides requirement analysis, this study is also expected to contribute to forthcoming research on benchmarking of freight villages in different regions. The methodology used in this research is a systematic review on several articles as per their modelling approaches, sustainability, entities and decisions made together with the uncertainties and features of their models taken into consideration. The major findings of the study that are the categories for assessing the projects attributes on their environmental, socio-economical, accessibility and location aspects.

Keywords: logistics centers, freight village, operational management, taxonomy

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32 A Tagging Algorithm in Augmented Reality for Mobile Device Screens

Authors: Doga Erisik, Ahmet Karaman, Gulfem Alptekin, Ozlem Durmaz Incel

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Augmented reality (AR) is a type of virtual reality aiming to duplicate real world’s environment on a computer’s video feed. The mobile application, which is built for this project (called SARAS), enables annotating real world point of interests (POIs) that are located near mobile user. In this paper, we aim at introducing a robust and simple algorithm for placing labels in an augmented reality system. The system places labels of the POIs on the mobile device screen whose GPS coordinates are given. The proposed algorithm is compared to an existing one in terms of energy consumption and accuracy. The results show that the proposed algorithm gives better results in energy consumption and accuracy while standing still, and acceptably accurate results when driving. The technique provides benefits to AR browsers with its open access algorithm. Going forward, the algorithm will be improved to more rapidly react to position changes while driving.

Keywords: accurate tagging algorithm, augmented reality, localization, location-based AR

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31 Determination of Some Etiologic Agents in Calves with Diarrhea

Authors: Nermin Isik, Ozlem Derinbay Ekici, Oguzhan Avci

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The aim of this study was to determination of role infection in neonatal calves in Central Anatolian, Turkey. A total 300 fecal samples were collected from diarrheic neonatal calves, aged between 0–90 days from Konya, Karaman, and Aksaray from January to April 2014. Fecal specimens from calves with clinically diarrheic symptoms were examined for the presence of Bovine Coronavirus, Bovine Rotavirus, Cryptosporidium sp., and E. coli by commercially available capture direct enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit and Modified Ziehl Neelsen method (MZN). Calves were grouped according to their age as follows: 1-14, 15-29, and 30-90 days. Cryptosporidium sp. infection was detected in 52.8%, 58.8%, and 39.2% by ELISA and 33.9%, 47%, 26.7% by MZN in the respective age groups. The seroprevalance of Rotavirus (12.5 %, 40 %, 12.5 %), Coronavirus (2.5%, 0%, 3.5%) and E. coli (5%, 4.7%, 8.9%) infections were determined according to the age groups respectively. Cryptosporidium sp. was the most detected enteropathogen (52 %) of calves and coronavirus was the least detected (2 %). The detection rate of the mixed enfection was 12.3%. In conclusion, it must be evaluated by mix infections in calves with diarrhea. These results will provide an important contribution against the factors that cause diarrhea

Keywords: cryptosporidium sp., bovine coronavirus, bovine rotavirus, E.coli, calve, ELISA

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30 A Single Phase ZVT-ZCT Power Factor Correction Boost Converter

Authors: Yakup Sahin, Naim Suleyman Ting, Ismail Aksoy

Abstract:

In this paper, a single phase soft switched Zero Voltage Transition and Zero Current Transition (ZVT-ZCT) Power Factor Correction (PFC) boost converter is proposed. In the proposed PFC converter, the main switch turns on with ZVT and turns off with ZCT without any additional voltage or current stresses. Auxiliary switch turns on and off with zero current switching (ZCS). Also, the main diode turns on with zero voltage switching (ZVS) and turns off with ZCS. The proposed converter has features like low cost, simple control and structure. The output current and voltage are controlled by the proposed PFC converter in wide line and load range. The theoretical analysis of converter is clarified and the operating steps are given in detail. The simulation results of converter are obtained for 500 W and 100 kHz. It is observed that the semiconductor devices operate with soft switching (SS) perfectly. So, the switching power losses are minimum. Also, the proposed converter has 0.99 power factor with sinusoidal current shape.

Keywords: power factor correction, zero-voltage transition, zero-current transition, soft switching

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
29 The Use of Learning Management Systems during Emerging the Tacit Knowledge

Authors: Ercan Eker, Muhammer Karaman, Akif Aslan, Hakan Tanrikuluoglu

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Deficiency of institutional memory and knowledge management can result in information security breaches, loss of prestige and trustworthiness and the worst the loss of know-how and institutional knowledge. Traditional learning management within organizations is generally handled by personal efforts. That kind of struggle mostly depends on personal desire, motivation and institutional belonging. Even if an organization has highly motivated employees at a certain time, the institutional knowledge and memory life cycle will generally remain limited to these employees’ spending time in this organization. Having a learning management system in an organization can sustain the institutional memory, knowledge and know-how in the organization. Learning management systems are much more needed especially in public organizations where the job rotation is frequently seen and managers are appointed periodically. However, a learning management system should not be seen as an organizations’ website. It is a more comprehensive, interactive and user-friendly knowledge management tool for organizations. In this study, the importance of using learning management systems in the process of emerging tacit knowledge is underlined.

Keywords: knowledge management, learning management systems, tacit knowledge, institutional memory

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28 The Importance of Water Temperature and Curing Conditions on Concrete Curing

Authors: Ahmad Javid Zia, Abdulkerim Ilgun, Suleyman Kamil Akin, Mustafa Altin

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Curing conditions that help concrete, which is one of the most widely used building materials in construction sector, gain strength today is one the important issues. In this study the varying concrete strength depending on water temperature at curing stage is investigated through tests at laboratory. At laboratory the curing conditions has been determined according to both TS EN 12390-2 and regular construction site while performing the experiments on specimens. Five samples have been taken from concrete and cured under five different curing conditions and the compressive strength results of concrete specimens have been compared. One of these five curing conditions has been prepared accordance with TS EN 12390-2, the sample cured at 20 ± 2 ˚C and accepted as reference samples. Two of the remaining sample groups have been cured in 5 ± 2 ˚C and 15 ± 2 ˚C and the other two have been cured outside of the laboratory. One group of the samples which have been cured outside has been watered twice a day and the other group has not been watered at all. The experiments have been carried out on 150x150x150 mm cube samples of C20 (200 kg/cm2) and C25 (250 kg/cm2). 7 and 28 days compressive strength of specimens have been measured and compared.

Keywords: concrete curing, curing conditions, water temperature, concrete compressive strength

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27 A Soft Switching PWM DC-DC Boost Converter with Increased Efficiency by Using ZVT-ZCT Techniques

Authors: Yakup Sahin, Naim Suleyman Ting, Ismail Aksoy

Abstract:

In this paper, an improved active snubber cell is proposed on account of soft switching (SS) family of pulse width modulation (PWM) DC-DC converters. The improved snubber cell provides zero-voltage transition (ZVT) turn on and zero-current transition (ZCT) turn off for main switch. The snubber cell decreases EMI noise and operates with SS in a wide range of line and load voltages. Besides, all of the semiconductor devices in the converter operate with SS. There is no additional voltage and current stress on the main devices. Additionally, extra voltage stress does not occur on the auxiliary switch and its current stress is acceptable value. The improved converter has a low cost and simple structure. The theoretical analysis of converter is clarified and the operating states are given in detail. The experimental results of converter are obtained by prototype of 500 W and 100 kHz. It is observed that the experimental results and theoretical analysis of converter are suitable with each other perfectly.

Keywords: active snubber cells, DC-DC converters, zero-voltage transition, zero-current transition

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
26 Determining a Suitable Time and Temperature Combination for Electricial Conductivity Test in Sorghum

Authors: Mehmet Demir Kaya, Onur İleri, Süleyman Avcı

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This study was conducted to determine a suitable time and temperature combination for the electrical conductivity test to be used in sorghum seeds. Fifty seeds known initial seed moisture content and weight of fresh and dead seeds (105°C for 6h) of seven sorghum cultivars were used as material. The electrical conductivities of soak water were measured using EC meter at 20, 25 and 30°C for 4, 8, 12 and 24 h using 50 mL deionized water. The experimental design was three factors factorial (7 × 3 × 4) arranged in a completely randomized design; with four replications and 50 seeds per replicate. The results showed that increased time and temperature caused a remarkable increase in EC values of all of the cultivars. Temperature significantly affected the electrical conductivity values and the best results were obtained at 25°C. The cultivars having the lowest germination percentage gave the highest electrical conductivity value. Dead seeds always gave higher electrical conductivity at 25°C for all periods. It was concluded that the temperature of 25°C and higher period than 12 h was the optimum combination for the electrical conductivity test in sorghum.

Keywords: Sorghum bicolor, seed vigor, cultivar, temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
25 Tolerance and Perspective towards Disability: A Mixed Methods Study

Authors: L. Koštić, P. Karaman

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Society has a lot of diversities according to sex, age, religion, abilities or disabilities, education, etc. According to differences, everybody needs to be tolerated and equally included in society. In order to provide quality inclusion, society needs to tolerate differences. This study relates to the differences in disability. To examine tolerance towards disability and inclusion, this study was conducted with students attending regular elementary and high school. The main goal was to examine their attitudes towards their classmates and elderly people with disabilities. The study begins with the hypothesis that the environment has a highly developed tolerance towards people with disabilities, regardless of age. The sample was divided according to tasks and methodology analysis. Students attending regular elementary school were asked to make drawings of their classmates with disabilities. The drawings were analyzed using quantitative methodology according to the colors children used and the position of character on the paper. Students attending high school and members of general population were asked to complete a questionnaire designed for this study during a workshop held on the International Day for Tolerance. Responses were analyzed using qualitative methodology. The hypothesis was confirmed.

Keywords: classmates, disability, students, tolerance

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24 Tourism in the Information Age

Authors: Suleyman Karacor

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The main purpose of this study is to investigate tourism marketing in the information age because of the importance and sensitivity. In the twenty-first century as a result of today's the increasing competition and product diversification in the tourism sector, tourism businesses must take into account exogenous variables such as new technological developments, commercial experience and consumer demand. In the information age, tourist product consumers tend to reserve their leisure time and expenditure on more active opportunities for different experiences instead of living the same experience again. Increasing the number of agents in the tourism sector, travel opportunities offering different experiences and more intensive use of modern technology helps to present diversification of leisure activities for tourists. From the perspective of tourists, travel costs are still important for buying the touristic products but maintaining a high level of tourist satisfaction is also of increasing importance. Tourists tend to prefer activities that add value. A real tourist product must be able to create value and new priorities for tourists. Therefore this study aims to review recent significant developments in international tourism marketing research and practices. To this end, this study reviews tourism marketing-focused articles.

Keywords: information age, tourism marketing, tourism marketing mix, management

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
23 Characterization of Electrospun Carbon Nanofiber Doped Polymer Composites

Authors: Atilla Evcin, Bahri Ersoy, Süleyman Akpınar, I. Sinan Atlı

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Ceramic, polymer and composite nanofibers are nowadays begun to be utilized in many fields of nanotechnology. By the means of dimensions, these fibers are as small as nano scale but because of having large surface area and microstructural characteristics, they provide unique mechanic, optical, magnetic, electronic and chemical properties. In terms of nanofiber production, electrospinning has been the most widely used technique in recent years. In this study, carbon nanofibers have been synthesized from solutions of Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/ N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) by electrospinning method. The carbon nanofibers have been stabilized by oxidation at 250 °C for 2 h in air and carbonized at 750 °C for 1 h in H2/N2. Images of carbon nanofibers have been taken with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The images have been analyzed to study the fiber morphology and to determine the distribution of the fiber diameter using FibraQuant 1.3 software. Then polymer composites have been produced from mixture of carbon nanofibers and silicone polymer. The final polymer composites have been characterized by X-ray diffraction method and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) measurements. These results have been reported and discussed. At result, homogeneous carbon nanofibers with 100-167 nm of diameter were obtained with optimized electrospinning conditions.

Keywords: electrospinning, characterization, composites, nanofiber

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22 The Use of Facebook as a Social Media by Political Parties in the June 7 Election in Konya

Authors: Yasemin Gülşen Yılmaz, Süleyman Hakan Yılmaz, Muhammet Erbay

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Social media is among the most important means of communication. Social media offers individuals and groups with an opportunity for participatory socialization over the internet, which is free of any time and place restrictions. Social media is a kind of interactive communication and bilateral social network. Various communication contents can be shared and put into mass circulation easily and quickly through social media. These sharings are not only limited to individuals but also happen to groups, institutions, and different constitutions. Their contents consist of any type of written message, audio and video files. We are living in the social media era now. It is not surprising that social media which has extensive communication facilities and massive prevalence is used in politics. Therefore, the use of social media (Facebook) by political parties during the Turkish general elections held on June 7, 2015, has been chosen as our research subject. Four parties namely, AKP, CHP, MHP and HDP who have the majority of votes in Turkey and participate in elections in Konya have been selected for our study. Their provincial centers’ and parliamentary candidates` use of social media (Facebook) on the last three days prior to the election have been examined and subjected to a qualitative analysis by means of content analysis.

Keywords: social media, June 7 general elections, politics, Facebook

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21 Public and Private Spaces Producing Social Connectedness in Traditional Environment: A Study on Old Medina District of Casablanca

Authors: Asmaa Sokrat, Aykut Karaman

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Public and private spaces are major components of the morphology of the city. This research aims to study the interactions between public and private domains in terms of urban space in Casablanca. The research focuses on a general vision of a socio-spatial issue. It plans to identify the public, private, and transition (semi-public, semi-private) spaces as the constituent of the urban space. Moreover, the study investigates the link between public and private spaces with the social dimensions. Additionally, the research argues that the public space is a place of social interaction; as a reflection, this interaction is the intersection between urban space and social connectedness. Besides, social interaction can be the key to distinguishing between the public and private spheres. The methodological approach of the research is based on the literature review and field study. The article is targeting a case study on the old Medina of Casablanca, from daily use of the public and private spaces, the urban tissue, and the urban space types. In conclusion, the research exhibits that a public space could influence the privacy of the residents of a local urban area; thus, this privacy is inverted on the social interaction. This social interaction is the link between the urban space and social connectedness. Hence, this equation affects the typology of the private space.

Keywords: public sphere, private sphere, social connectedness, old Medina of Casablanca

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20 Neutron Contamination in 18 MV Medical Linear Accelerator

Authors: Onur Karaman, A. Gunes Tanir

Abstract:

Photon radiation therapy used to treat cancer is one of the most important methods. However, photon beam collimator materials in Linear Accelerator (LINAC) head generally contains heavy elements is used and the interaction of bremsstrahlung photon with such heavy nuclei, the neutron can be produced inside the treatment rooms. In radiation therapy, neutron contamination contributes to the risk of secondary malignancies in patients, also physicians working in this field. Since the neutron is more dangerous than photon, it is important to determine neutron dose during radiotherapy treatment. In this study, it is aimed to analyze the effect of field size, distance from axis and depth on the amount of in-field and out-field neutron contamination for ElektaVmat accelerator with 18 MV nominal energy. The photon spectra at the distance of 75, 150, 225, 300 cm from target and on the isocenter of beam were scored for 5x5, 10x10, 20x20, 30x30 and 40x40 cm2 fields. Results demonstrated that the neutron spectra and dose are dependent on field size and distances. Beyond 225 cm of isocenter, the dependence of the neutron dose on field size is minimal. As a result, it is concluded that as the open field increases, neutron dose determined decreases. It is important to remember that when treating with high energy photons, the dose from contamination neutrons must be considered as it is much greater than the photon dose.

Keywords: radiotherapy, neutron contamination, linear accelerators, photon

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19 Chemical Partitioning of Trace Metals in Sub-Surface Sediments of Lake Acigol, Denizli, Turkey

Authors: M. Budakoglu, M. Karaman, D. Kiran, Z. Doner, B. Zeytuncu, B. Tanç, M. Kumral

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Lake Acıgöl is one of the large saline lacustrine environment in Turkey. Eleven trace metals (Cr, Mn, Fe, Al, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and As) in 9 surface and subsurface sediment samples from the Lake Acıgöl were analyzed with the bulk and sequential extraction analysis methods by ICP-MS to obtain the metal distribution patterns in this extreme environment. Five stepped sequential extraction technique (1- exchangeable, 2- bond to carbonates, 3- bond to iron and manganese oxides/hydroxides, 4- bond to organic matter and sulphides, and 5- residual fraction incorporated into clay and silicate mineral lattices) was used to characterize the various forms of metals in the <63μ size sediments. The metal contents (ppm) and their percentages for each extraction step were reported and compared with the results obtained from the total digestion. Results indicate that sum of the four fraction are in good agreement with the total digestion results of Ni, Cd, As, Zn, Cu and Fe with the satisfactory recoveries (94.04–109.0%) and the method used is reliable and repeatable for these elements. It was found that there were high correlations between Fe vs. Ni loads in the fraction of F2 and F4 with R2= 0,91 and 0,81, respectively. Comparison of totally 135 chemical analysis results in three sampling location and for 5 fraction between Fe-Co, Co-Ni and Fe-Ni element couples were presented elevated correlations with R2=0,98, 0,92 and 0,91, respectively.

Keywords: Lake Acigol, sequancial extraction, recent lake sediment, geochemical speciation of heavy metals

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18 Geochemical Approach of Rare Earth Element Distribution: A Case Study from Lake Acigol, Denizli, Turkey

Authors: M. Budakoglu, M. Karaman, A. Abdelnasser, D. Kiran, M. Kumral

Abstract:

About 50 mg lake sediment was digested in two steps. While first stage was completed with 6 ml 37% HCl, 2 ml 65% HNO3 and 1 ml 38-40% HF in an pressure and temperature controlled Teflon beaker using Berghoff Microwave™ at average 135°C, digestion procedure was completed with the addition of 6 ml 5% boric acid solution. REE contents of sediment samples were determined by Perkin Elmer DRC II ICP-MS in Geochemistry Research Laboratories (JAL/GRL) of Faculty of Mines, Istanbul Technical University. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of Lake Acıgöl sediments show generally high abundance of REE compared to chondritic concentrations, with particular enrichment in LREE [(La/Lu)N = 4.85-19.90], [(La/Lu)N = 7.09-15.14], [(La/Lu)N = 9.42-15.52] and [(La/Lu)N = 7.69-15.63] for the surface sediment and 0-10 cm-, 10-20 cm- and 20-30 cm-subsurface sediments respectively. Also these samples showed flat HREE normalized to chondrite as (La/Sm)N ranging from 2.98 to 4.8 for surface sediments and for subsurface sediments from 3.28 to 3.97 (0-10 cm), 3.57 to 3.94 (10-20 cm) and 3.36 to 3.94 (20-30 cm) while (Gd/Yb)N ranging from 2.14 to 2.93, from 2.03 to 2.76, from 2.26 to 2.79 and from 2.05 to 2.76 from the surface and subsurface sediments respectively. Moreover, their REE profiles are similar to profiles of the continental collision basin (CCB) with negative Eu anomalies. In addition, their REE patterns illustrate generally low abundance of REE compared to concentrations of NASC, PAAS and UCC with very slight enrichment of LREE and positive Eu* anomalies. Therefore there is no comparable between our samples of surface and subsurface sediments and these types of international sediments.

Keywords: chondrite-normalized REE patterns, hypersaline lake, surface sediments, subsurface sediments, Lake Acıgöl, Turkey

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17 Spatial REE Geochemical Modeling at Lake Acıgöl, Denizli, Turkey: Analytical Approaches on Spatial Interpolation and Spatial Correlation

Authors: M. Budakoglu, M. Karaman, A. Abdelnasser, M. Kumral

Abstract:

The spatial interpolation and spatial correlation of the rare earth elements (REE) of lake surface sediments of Lake Acıgöl and its surrounding lithological units is carried out by using GIS techniques like Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) techniques. IDW technique which makes the spatial interpolation shows that the lithological units like Hayrettin Formation at north of Lake Acigol have high REE contents than lake sediments as well as ∑LREE and ∑HREE contents. However, Eu/Eu* values (based on chondrite-normalized REE pattern) show high value in some lake surface sediments than in lithological units and that refers to negative Eu-anomaly. Also, the spatial interpolation of the V/Cr ratio indicated that Acıgöl lithological units and lake sediments deposited in in oxic and dysoxic conditions. But, the spatial correlation is carried out by GWR technique. This technique shows high spatial correlation coefficient between ∑LREE and ∑HREE which is higher in the lithological units (Hayrettin Formation and Cameli Formation) than in the other lithological units and lake surface sediments. Also, the matching between REEs and Sc and Al refers to REE abundances of Lake Acıgöl sediments weathered from local bedrock around the lake.

Keywords: spatial geochemical modeling, IDW, GWR techniques, REE, lake sediments, Lake Acıgöl, Turkey

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16 Cyber Operational Design and Military Decision Making Process

Authors: M. Karaman, H. Catalkaya

Abstract:

Due to the complex nature of cyber attacks and their effects ranging from personal to governmental level, it becomes one of the priority tasks for operation planners to take into account the risks, influences and effects of cyber attacks. However it can also be embedded or integrated technically with electronic warfare planning, cyber operation planning is needed to have a sole and broadened perspective. This perspective embodies itself firstly in operational design and then military decision making process. In order to find out the ill-structured problems, understand or visualize the operational environment and frame the problem, operational design can help support cyber operation planners and commanders. After having a broadened and conceptual startup with cyber operational design, military decision making process will follow the principles of design into more concrete elements like reaching results after risk management and center of gravity analysis of our and the enemy. In this paper we tried to emphasize the importance of cyber operational design, cyber operation planning and its integration to military decision making problem. In this foggy, uncertain and unaccountable cyber security environment, it is inevitable to stay away from cyber attacks. Therefore, a cyber operational design should be formed with line of operations, decisive points and end states in cyber then a tactical military decision making process should be followed with cyber security focus in order to support the whole operation.

Keywords: cyber operational design, military decision making process (MDMP), operation planning, end state

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15 Determination of the Seed Vigor of Soybean Cultivated as Main and Second Crop in Turkey

Authors: Mehmet Demir Kaya, Engin Gökhan Kulan, Onur İleri, Süleyman Avcı

Abstract:

This research was conducted to determine the difference in seed vigor between the seed lots cultivated in main and second crop of soybean in Turkey. Seeds from soybean cv. Cinsoy and Umut-2002 were evaluated in the laboratory for germination, emergence, cool test at 18°C for 10 days, and cold test at 10°C for 4 days and 25°C for 6 days. Result showed that the initial oil contents of Cinsoy and Umut-2002 and seeds were determined to be 19.8 and 20.1% in main crop, and 18.7 and 22.1% in second crop, respectively. It was determined that a clear difference between main and second crop soybean seed lots for seed vigor was found. Germination and emergence percentage were higher in the seed from second crop cultivation of the cultivars. There was no significant difference in germination percentage in cool and cold test while seedling growth was better in the seeds of second crop soybean. The highest seed vigor index (477.6) was found in the seeds of the cultivars grown at second crop. Standard germination percentage did not give a sensitive separation for determining seed vigor of soybean lots. It was concluded that second crop soybean seeds were found the most suitable for seed production while main crop soybean gave higher protein lower oil content.

Keywords: Glycine max L., germination, emergence, protein content, vigor test

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14 The Views of Teachers, Students and Parents on the FATIH Project

Authors: Şemsettin Şahin, Ahmet Oğuz Aktürk, İsmail Çelik

Abstract:

This study investigated the views of teachers, students and students' parents on the FATIH (Movement of Enhancing Opportunities and Improving Technology) Project, which was put into service by the Ministry of National Education in cooperation with the Ministry of Transportation in Turkey in November 2010 for the purpose of increasing students' success and planned to be completed within 5 years. The study group consisted of teachers employed in a pilot school in the province of Karaman in central Turkey included within the scope of the FATIH Project, students attending this school and parents whose children are students in that school. The research data were collected through forms developed by the researchers to determine the views of teachers, students and students' parents on the FATIH Project. The descriptive analysis method, one of the qualitative research methods, was used in the study. An analysis of the data revealed that a large majority of the teachers and the students believed that if computers were used to serve their set purpose, then they could make considerable contributions to education. A large majority of the students' parents, on the other hand, regard the use of computers in education as a great opportunity for the students. The views of the teachers, students and students' parents on the FATIH Project usually overlap. Most of the participants in the study pointed out that the FATIH Project was intended to use technology effectively in education. Moreover, each individual participant described their role in the FATIH Project in accordance with their relative position and stated that they could perform whatever was expected of them for the effective and efficient use and progress of the project. The views of the participants regarding the FATİH Project vary according to the kind of the participants.

Keywords: education, FATIH project, technology, students

Procedia PDF Downloads 343