Search results for: Damon Berry
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 51

Search results for: Damon Berry

51 Production of Ginseng Berry Wines and Analysis of Their Properties

Authors: Jae Hee Choi, Seung Il Ahn, Sae Kyul Kim, Byung Wook Yang, Bong Sun Park, Hwan Sup Kim, Young Tae Hahm

Abstract:

The root of Panax ginseng C. A. MEYER, commonly known as Korean ginseng, has several physiologic effects as a cure-all or a panacea. Among the ginseng, ginseng berry can be obtained from 3 or 4-year-old ginseng plant. Ginseng berry contains the high amount of ginsenoside Re, compared with other ginsenosides. Ginseng berry wine was manufactured with berry extract. The concentration of ginsenoside in ginseng berry extract obtained from Anseong Ginseng Nonghyup was 3.6 mg/g. Ethanol content of ginseng berry wine was 15.00±1.00%. Total polyphenol content was 1.62±0.12 mg/ml. In analysis of organic acids, acetic acid was high in ginseng berry extract whereas malic acid in ginseng berry wine was high.Ginseng berry rice wine was manufactured with berry extract with traditional nuruk (yeast). When the ginseng berry rice wine was manufactured, ginseng berry extract was diluted into 5% of total volume of wine. pH values and total acidity were 3.30±0.03 and 1.28±0.0 %, respectively. Residual sugar content was 8.8 ± 0.0 °Brix and ethanol content was 14.00 %. Any residual pesticides were not detected over acceptable range. Overall, the ginseng berry extract were valuable food stuffs for the manufacture of new ginseng product.

Keywords: ginseng berry, ginseng berry wine, ginsenoside, panax ginseng

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50 Social Media as a Distribution Channel for Thailand’s Rice Berry Product

Authors: Phutthiwat Waiyawuththanapoom, Wannapong Waiyawuththanapoom, Pimploi Tirastittam

Abstract:

Nowadays, it is a globalization era which social media plays an important role to the lifestyle as an information source, tools to connect people together and etc. This research is object to find out about the significant level of the social media as a distribution channel to the agriculture product of Thailand. In this research, the agriculture product is the Rice Berry which is the cross-bred unmilled rice producing dark violet grain, is a combination of Hom Nin Rice and Thai Jasmine/ Fragrant Rice 105. Rice Berry has a very high nutrition and nice aroma so the product is in the growth stage of the product cycle. The problem for the Rice Berry product in Thailand is the production and the distribution channel. This study is to confirm that the social media is another option as the distribution channel for the product which is not a mass production product. This will be the role model for the other niche market product to select the distribution channel.

Keywords: distribution, social media, rice berry, distribution channel

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49 Product Development of Standard Multi-Layer Sweet (Khanom- Chan) Recipe to Healthy for Thai Dessert

Authors: Tidarat Sanphom

Abstract:

Aim of this research is to development of Standard Layer pudding (Khanom-Chan) recipe to healthy Thai dessert. The objective are to study about standard recipe in multi-layer sweet. It was found that the appropriate recipe in multi-layer sweet, was consisted of rice starch 56 grams, tapioca starch 172 grams, arrowroot flour 98 grams, mung been-flour 16 grams, coconut milk 774 grams, fine sugar 374 grams, pandan leaf juice 47 grams and oil 5 grams.Then the researcher studied about the ratio of rice-berries flour to rice starch in multi-layer sweet at level of 30:70, 50:50, and only rice-berry flour 100 percentage. Result sensory evaluation, it was found the ratio of rice-berry flour to rice starch 30:70 had well score. The result of multi-layer sweet with rice-berry flour reduced sugar 20, 40 and 60 percentage found that 20 percentage had well score. Calculated total calories and calories from fat in Sweet layer cake with rice-berry flour reduced sugar 20 percentage had 250.04 kcal and 65.16 kcal.

Keywords: multi-layer sweet (Khanom-Chan), rice-berry flour, leaf juice, desert

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48 Impact of Brassinosteroid with GA3, CPPU on Yield and Quality of Newly Introduced Grape cv. Italia

Authors: Senthilkumar S, Vijayakumar R M , Soorianathasundaram K, Durga Devi D

Abstract:

A study was conducted to assess the influence of brassinosteroid and other bioregulators as pre-harvest sprays on yield and quality of newly introduced Californian grape cv. Italia. The vines were exposed to standardized pruning level of pruning 50% of the canes to 5-6 bud level for fruiting and 50% of the canes to two bud level for vegetative growth. The influence of brassinosteroid was assessed using BR (1 ppm) alone and in combination with GA3 and CPPU, sprayed at three different stages over the control (water spray) were given as treatments. The results revealed that the bunches treated with Brassinosteroid (1 ppm) + GA3 (10 ppm) at pea stage i.e., 7-8 mm berry size, recorded the maximum values on yield characters like bunch weight (719.94 g), yield per vine (12.70 kg/vine) and yield per hectare (15.88 t). The berry characters and quality traits were also significantly influenced by the application of bioregulators. The maximum value for all those characters was registered under bunch sprays of Brassinosteroid (1 ppm) + GA3 (10 ppm) at pea stage. The economic feasibility indicated that the treatment combination Brassinosteroid (1 ppm) + GA3 (10 ppm) at pea stage (7-8 mm berry size) had registered the maximum benefit cost ratio of 3.13, as compared to 1.89 in control (water spray). Overall, it was observed that a combined bunch spray of Brassinosteroid (1 ppm) + GA3 (10 ppm) at pea stage (7-8 mm berry size) was adjudged as the best treatment for promoting the crop for better the bunch quality and yield.

Keywords: bioregulators, brassinosteroid, CPPU, GA3, Italia grape cultivar

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47 Investigating the Feasibility of Berry Production in Central Oregon under Protected and Unprotected Culture

Authors: Clare S. Sullivan

Abstract:

The high desert of central Oregon, USA is a challenging growing environment: short growing season (70-100 days); average annual precipitation of 280 mm; drastic swings in diurnal temperatures; possibility of frost any time of year; and sandy soils low in organic matter. Despite strong demand, there is almost no fruit grown in central Oregon due to potential yield loss caused by early and late frosts. Elsewhere in the USA, protected culture (i.e., high tunnels) has been used to extend fruit production seasons and improve yields. In central Oregon, high tunnels are used to grow multiple high-value vegetable crops, and farmers are unlikely to plant a perennial crop in a high tunnel unless proven profitable. In May 2019, two berry trials were established on a farm in Alfalfa, OR, to evaluate raspberry and strawberry yield, season length, and fruit quality in protected (high tunnels) vs. unprotected culture (open field). The main objective was to determine whether high tunnel berry production is a viable enterprise for the region. Each trial was arranged using a split-plot design. The main factor was the production system (high tunnel vs. open field), and the replicated, subplot factor was berry variety. Four day-neutral strawberry varieties and four primocane-bearing raspberry varieties were planted for the study and were managed using organic practices. Berries were harvested once a week early in the season, and twice a week as production increased. Harvested berries were separated into ‘marketable’ and ‘unmarketable’ in order to calculate percent cull. First-year results revealed berry yield and quality differences between varieties and production systems. Strawberry marketable yield and berry fruit size increased significantly in the high tunnel compared to the field; percent yield increase ranged from 7-46% by variety. Evie 2 was the highest yielding strawberry, although berry quality was lower than other berries. Raspberry marketable yield and berry fruit size tended to increase in the high tunnel compared to the field, although variety had a more significant effect. Joan J was the highest yielding raspberry and out-yielded the other varieties by 250% outdoor and 350% indoor. Overall, strawberry and raspberry yields tended to improve in high tunnels as compared to the field, but data from a second year will help determine whether high tunnel investment is worthwhile. It is expected that the production system will have more of an effect on berry yield and season length for second-year plants in 2020.

Keywords: berries, high tunnel, local food, organic

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46 Berry Phase and Quantum Skyrmions: A Loop Tour in Physics

Authors: Sinuhé Perea Puente

Abstract:

In several physics systems the whole can be obtained as an exact copy of each of its parts, which facilitates the study of a complex system by looking carefully at its elements, separately. Reducionism offers simplified models which makes the problems easier, but “there’s plenty of room...at the mesoscopic scale”. Here we present a tour for two of its representants: Berry phase and skyrmions, studying some of its basic definitions and properties, and two cases in which both arise together, to finish constraining the scale for our mesoscopic system in the quest of quantum skyrmions, discovering which properties are conserved and which others may be destroyed.

Keywords: condensed mattter, quantum physics, skyrmions, topological defects

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45 Eliciting and Confirming Data, Information, Knowledge and Wisdom in a Specialist Health Care Setting - The Wicked Method

Authors: Sinead Impey, Damon Berry, Selma Furtado, Miriam Galvin, Loretto Grogan, Orla Hardiman, Lucy Hederman, Mark Heverin, Vincent Wade, Linda Douris, Declan O'Sullivan, Gaye Stephens

Abstract:

Healthcare is a knowledge-rich environment. This knowledge, while valuable, is not always accessible outside the borders of individual clinics. This research aims to address part of this problem (at a study site) by constructing a maximal data set (knowledge artefact) for motor neurone disease (MND). This data set is proposed as an initial knowledge base for a concurrent project to develop an MND patient data platform. It represents the domain knowledge at the study site for the duration of the research (12 months). A knowledge elicitation method was also developed from the lessons learned during this process - the WICKED method. WICKED is an anagram of the words: eliciting and confirming data, information, knowledge, wisdom. But it is also a reference to the concept of wicked problems, which are complex and challenging, as is eliciting expert knowledge. The method was evaluated at a second site, and benefits and limitations were noted. Benefits include that the method provided a systematic way to manage data, information, knowledge and wisdom (DIKW) from various sources, including healthcare specialists and existing data sets. Limitations surrounded the time required and how the data set produced only represents DIKW known during the research period. Future work is underway to address these limitations.

Keywords: healthcare, knowledge acquisition, maximal data sets, action design science

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44 Design of Lead-Lag Based Internal Model Controller for Binary Distillation Column

Authors: Rakesh Kumar Mishra, Tarun Kumar Dan

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Lead-Lag based Internal Model Control method is proposed based on Internal Model Control (IMC) strategy. In this paper, we have designed the Lead-Lag based Internal Model Control for binary distillation column for SISO process (considering only bottom product). The transfer function has been taken from Wood and Berry model. We have find the composition control and disturbance rejection using Lead-Lag based IMC and comparing with the response of simple Internal Model Controller.

Keywords: SISO, lead-lag, internal model control, wood and berry, distillation column

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43 Using Hybrid Method for Inactivation of Microorganism and Enzymes in a Berry Juice

Authors: Golnoosh Torabian, P. Valtchev, F. Dehghani

Abstract:

The need for efficient nutraceutical products has been dramatically changing the approach of the industrial processes. The development of novel mild processes is highly demanded for the production of such products; especially when both quality and safety need to be guaranteed during their long shelf life. Within this research, for the first time, we investigated the effect of supercritical carbon dioxide treatment for the inactivation of microbes and enzymes in a berry juice possessing therapeutic effect. We demonstrated that a complete inactivation of microbes can be achieved at optimized conditions of treatment. However, the bottle neck of the process was represented by the unpromising inactivation of the degradative enzyme by supercritical carbon dioxide treatment. However, complete enzyme inactivation was achieved by applying two strategies: the first was optimizing juicing method by adding a mechanical step and the second strategy was addition of natural inhibitors to the juice. Overall these results demonstrate that our hybrid process has a significant effect on the inactivation of microorganism and enzymes in the fresh juice. The developed process opens the possibility for the evolution of new products with optimal nutritional and sensorial characteristics, as well as offering a competitive cost and an environmentally friendly alternative for pasteurization and extension of shelf life in a wide range of natural therapeutic products.

Keywords: hybrid method, berry juice, pasteurization, enzymes inactivation

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42 Comparison of Polyphonic Profile of a Berry from Two Different Sources, Using an Optimized Extraction Method

Authors: G. Torabian, A. Fathi, P. Valtchev, F. Dehghani

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The superior polyphenol content of Sambucus nigra berries has high health potentials for the production of nutraceutical products. Numerous factors influence the polyphenol content of the final products including the berries’ source and the subsequent processing production steps. The aim of this study is to compare the polyphenol content of berries from two different sources and also to optimise the polyphenol extraction process from elderberries. Berries from source B obtained more acceptable physical properties than source A; a single berry from source B was double in size and weight (both wet and dry weight) compared with a source A berry. Despite the appropriate physical characteristics of source B berries, their polyphenolic profile was inferior; as source A berries had 2.3 fold higher total anthocyanin content, and nearly two times greater total phenolic content and total flavonoid content compared to source B. Moreover, the result of this study showed that almost 50 percent of the phenolic content of berries are entrapped within their skin and pulp that potentially cannot be extracted by press juicing. To address this challenge and to increase the total polyphenol yield of the extract, we used cold-shock blade grinding method to break the cell walls. The result of this study showed that using cultivars with higher phenolic content as well as using the whole fruit including juice, skin and pulp can increase polyphenol yield significantly; and thus, may boost the potential of using elderberries as therapeutic products.

Keywords: different sources, elderberry, grinding, juicing, polyphenols

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41 Exploring Spin Reorientation Transition and Berry Curvature Driven Anomalous Hall Effect in Quasi-2D vdW Ferromagnet Fe4GeTe2

Authors: Satyabrata Bera, Mintu Mondal

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Two-dimensional (2D) ferromagnetic materials have garnered significant attention due to their potential to host intriguing scientific phenomena such as the anomalous Hall effect, anomalous Nernst effect, and high transport spin polarization. This study focuses on the investigation of air-stable van der Waals(vdW) ferromagnets, FeGeTe₂ (FₙGT with n = 3, 4, and 5). Particular emphasis is placed on the Fe4GeTe2 (F4GT) compound, which exhibits a complex and fascinating magnetic behavior characterized by two distinct transitions: (i) paramagnetic (PM) to ferromagnetic (FM) around T C ∼ 270 K, and (ii) another spins reorientation transition (SRT) at T SRT ∼ 100 K . Scaling analysis of magnetocaloric effect confirms the second-order character of the ferromagnetic transition, while the same analysis at T SRT suggests that SRT is first-order phase transition. Moreover, the F4GT exhibits a large anomalous Hall conductivity (AHC), ∼ 490 S/cm at 2 K . The near-quadratic behavior of the anomalous Hall resistivity with the longitudinal resistivity suggests that a dominant AHC contribution arises from an intrinsic Berry curvature (BC) mechanism. Electronic structure calculations reveal a significant BC resulting from SOC-induced gapped nodal lines around the Fermi level, thereby giving rise to large AHC. Additionally, we reported exceptionally large anomalous Hall angle (≃ 10.6%) and Hall factor (≃ 0.22 V −1 ) values, the largest observed within this vdW family. The findings presented here, provide valuable insights into the fascinating magnetic and transport properties of 2D ferromagnetic materials, in particular, FₙGT family.

Keywords: 2D vdW ferromagnet, spin reorientation transition, anomalous hall effect, berry curvature

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40 Effect of Extraction Methods on the Fatty Acids and Physicochemical Properties of Serendipity Berry Seed Oil

Authors: Olufunmilola A. Abiodun, Adegbola O. Dauda, Ayobami Ojo, Samson A. Oyeyinka

Abstract:

Serendipity berry (Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii diel) is a tropical dioecious rainforest vine and native to tropical Africa. The vine grows during the raining season and is used mainly as sweetener. The sweetener in the berry is known as monellin which is sweeter than sucrose. The sweetener is extracted from the fruits and the seed is discarded. The discarded seeds contain bitter principles but had high yield of oil. Serendipity oil was extracted using three methods (N-hexane, expression and expression/n-hexane). Fatty acids and physicochemical properties of the oil obtained were determined. The oil obtained was clear, liquid and have odour similar to hydrocarbon. The percentage oil yield was 38.59, 12.34 and 49.57% for hexane, expression and expression-hexane method respectively. The seed contained high percentage of oil especially using combination of expression and hexane. Low percentage of oil was obtained using expression method. The refractive index values obtained were 1.443, 1.442 and 1.478 for hexane, expression and expression-hexane methods respectively. Peroxide value obtained for expression-hexane was higher than those for hexane and expression. The viscosities of the oil were 125.8, 128.76 and 126.87 cm³/s for hexane, expression and expression-hexane methods respectively which showed that the oil from expression method was more viscous than the other oils. The major fatty acids in serendipity seed oil were oleic acid (62.81%), linoleic acid (22.65%), linolenic (6.11%), palmitic acid (5.67%), stearic acid (2.21%) in decreasing order. Oleic acid which is monounsaturated fatty acid had the highest value. Total unsaturated fatty acids were 91.574, 92.256 and 90.426% for hexane, expression, and expression-hexane respectively. Combination of expression and hexane for extraction of serendipity oil produced high yield of oil. The oil could be refined for food and non-food application.

Keywords: serendipity seed oil, expression method, fatty acid, hexane

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39 The Effect of Magnetic Water on the Growth of Radish Cherry

Authors: Elisha Didam Markus, Thapelo Maqame

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This paper focuses on studying the effects of magnetism on water and their impact to plant growth. Magnetic fields are known to induce higher rate of biochemical reaction and therefore can be used for growth related reactions in plants. For the purpose of this study, two 2 litres bottles were taken, one with two opposite poles magnets (500 mT) one on top and one at the bottom of the bottle. Another bottle was not altered in any way (used as control). Each bottle contained tap water stored up for 24 hours. Plants planted into different pots were watered using water from these bottles. Four pots with soil and manure equally mixed were used and equal volume of radish berry seeds were planted. Two pots were watered with magnetised water and the other two with normal tap water. The developments of plants were monitored in terms of their lengths for a period of 21 days. After 21 days, the lengths of plants watered with magnetised water were found to be 5.6% longer than those watered with tap water.

Keywords: magnetised water, radish berry, growth percentage, magnetic fields

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38 Co-Smoldered Digestate Ash as Additive for Anaerobic Digestion of Berry Fruit Waste: Stability and Enhanced Production Rate

Authors: Arinze Ezieke, Antonio Serrano, William Clarke, Denys Villa-Gomez

Abstract:

Berry cultivation results in discharge of high organic strength putrescible solid waste which potentially contributes to environmental degradation, making it imperative to assess options for its complete management. Anaerobic digestion (AD) could be an ideal option when the target is energy generation; however, due to berry fruit characteristics high carbohydrate composition, the technology could be limited by its high alkalinity requirement which suggests dosing of additives such as buffers and trace elements supplement. Overcoming this limitation in an economically viable way could entail replacement of synthetic additives with recycled by-product waste. Consequently, ash from co-smouldering of high COD characteristic AD digestate and coco-coir could be a promising material to be used to enhance the AD of berry fruit waste, given its characteristic high pH, alkalinity and metal concentrations which is typical of synthetic additives. Therefore, the aim of the research was to evaluate the stability and process performance from the AD of BFW when ash from co-smoldered digestate and coir are supplemented as alkalinity and trace elements (TEs) source. Series of batch experiments were performed to ascertain the necessity for alkalinity addition and to see whether the alkalinity and metals in the co-smouldered digestate ash can provide the necessary buffer and TEs for AD of berry fruit waste. Triplicate assays were performed in batch systems following I/S of 2 (in VS), using serum bottles (160 mL) sealed and placed in a heated room (35±0.5 °C), after creating anaerobic conditions. Control experiment contained inoculum and substrates only, and inoculum, substrate and NaHCO3 for optimal total alkalinity concentration and TEs assays, respectively. Total alkalinity concentration refers to alkalinity of inoculum and the additives. The alkalinity and TE potential of the ash were evaluated by supplementing ash (22.574 g/kg) of equivalent total alkalinity concentration to that of the pre-determined optimal from NaHCO3, and by dosing ash (0.012 – 7.574 g/kg) of varying concentrations of specific essential TEs (Co, Fe, Ni, Se), respectively. The result showed a stable process at all examined conditions. Supplementation of 745 mg/L CaCO3 NaHCO3 resulted to an optimum TAC of 2000 mg/L CaCO3. Equivalent ash supplementation of 22.574 g/kg allowed the achievement of this pre-determined optimum total alkalinity concentration, resulting to a stable process with a 92% increase in the methane production rate (323 versus 168 mL CH4/ (gVS.d)), but a 36% reduction in the cumulative methane production (103 versus 161 mL CH4/gVS). Addition of ashes at incremental dosage as TEs source resulted to a reduction in the Cumulative methane production, with the highest dosage of 7.574 g/kg having the highest effect of -23.5%; however, the seemingly immediate bioavailability of TE at this high dosage allowed for a +15% increase in the methane production rate. With an increased methane production rate, the results demonstrated that the ash at high dosages could be an effective supplementary material for either a buffered or none buffered berry fruit waste AD system.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, alkalinity, co-smoldered digestate ash, trace elements

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37 Assessment of Functional Properties and Antioxidant Capacity Murta (Ugni molinae T.) Berry Subjected to Different Drying Methods

Authors: Liliana Zura-Brravo, Antonio Vega-Galvez, Roberto Lemus-Mondaca, Jessica Lopez

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Murta (Ugni molinae T.) is an endemic fruit of Southern Chile, possesses qualities exceptional as its high antioxidants content, that make it increasingly more appreciated for marketing. Dehydration has the potential providing safe food products through the decreased activity water while maintaining their functional properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different drying methods on the antioxidant capacity (AC), total flavonoid content (TFC), rehydration indexes and texture the dried murta berry. Five drying technologies were used: convective drying, vacuum drying, sun-air drying, infrared drying and freezing-drying. The antioxidant capacity was measured by the ORAC method, CFT was determined by spectrophotometry, rehydration capacity (CR) and water retention (WHC) by gravimetry, texture profile (TPA) by a texture analyzer TA-XT2 and microstructure by SEM. The results showed that the lyophilized murta had smaller losses AC and TFC with values of 2886.27 routine mg rutin/ 100 g dm and 23359.99 μmol ET/100 g dm, respectively. According to the rehydration indexes, these were affected by the drying methods, where the maximum value of WHC was 92.60 g retained water/100 g sample for the vacuum drying, and the lowest value of CR was 1.43 g water absorbed/g dm for the sun-air drying. Furthermore, the microstructure and TPA showed that lyophilized samples had characteristics similar to the fresh sample. Therefore, it is possible to mention that lyophilization achieved greater extent preserving the characteristics of the murta samples, showing that this method can be used in the food industry and encourage the consumption of dried fruit and thus give it greater added value.

Keywords: antioxidant, drying method, flavonoid, murta berry, texture

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36 Assessment of Genetic Diversity among Wild Bulgarian Berries as Determined by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD)

Authors: Ilian Badjakov, Ivayla Dincheva, Violeta Kondakova, Rossitza Batchvarova

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In this study, we present our initial results on the assessment of genetic diversity among wild Bulgarian berry accessions (Rubus idaeus L. Fragaria Vesca L., Vaccinium vitis-idaea L., Vaccinium myrtillus L.) using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPDs) markers. Leaves and fruits were collected from two natural habitats - the Balkan Mountain and the Mountain of Orpheus - Rhodope Mountain. All accessions were screened for their polymorphism using five RAPD primers. The phylogenetic distances calculated from RAPD data ranged from 0.29 to 0.82 thus indicating that a high level of gene diversity is present in the selected genotypes. In order to characterize further the structure and grouping of berry accessions, a dendrogram deriving from UPGMA cluster analysis based on the genetic similarity (GS) coefficient matrix was designed. RAPD analysis provided to be efficient for discrimination of accessions within the same species with similar morphological characters

Keywords: Bulgarian wild berries, genetic diversity, RAPD, UPGMA

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35 The Effects of Different Level Cluster Tip Reduction and Foliar Boric Acid Applications on Yield and Yield Components of Italia Grape Cultivar

Authors: A. Akin

Abstract:

This study was carried out on Italia grape variety (Vitis vinifera L.) in Konya province, Turkey in 2016. The cultivar is five years old and grown on 1103 Paulsen rootstock. It was determined the effects of applications of the Control (C), 1/3 Cluster Tip Reduction (1/3 CTR), 1/6 Cluster Tip Reduction (1/6 CTR), 1/9 Cluster Tip Reduction (1/9 CTR), 1/3 CTR+Boric Acid (BA), 1/6 CTR+BA, 1/9 CTR+BA, on yield and yield components of the Italia grape variety. The results were obtained as the highest fresh grape yield (4.74 g) with 1/9 CTR+BA application; the highest cluster weight (220.08 g) with 1/3 CTR application; the highest 100 berry weight (565.85 g) with 1/9 CTR+BA application; as the highest maturity index (49.28) with 1/9 CTR+BA application; as the highest must yield (685.33 ml/kg) with 1/3 CTR+BA and (685.33 ml/kg) with 1/9 CTR+BA applications. To increase the fresh grape yield, 100 berry weight and maturity index in the Italia grape variety, the 1/9 CTR+BA application can be recommended.

Keywords: boric acid, cluster tip reduction, Italia grape variety, yield, yield components

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34 Phytochemicals and Photosynthesis of Grape Berry Exocarp and Seed (Vitis vinifera, cv. Alvarinho): Effects of Foliar Kaolin and Irrigation

Authors: Andreia Garrido, Artur Conde, Ana Cunha, Ric De Vos

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Climate changes predictions point to increases in abiotic stress for crop plants in Portugal, like pronounced temperature variation and decreased precipitation, which will have negative impact on grapevine physiology and consequently, on grape berry and wine quality. Short-term mitigation strategies have, therefore, been implemented to alleviate the impacts caused by adverse climatic periods. These strategies include foliar application of kaolin, an inert mineral, which has radiation reflection proprieties that decreases stress from excessive heat/radiation absorbed by its leaves, as well as smart irrigation strategies to avoid water stress. However, little is known about the influence of these mitigation measures on grape berries, neither on the photosynthetic activity nor on the photosynthesis-related metabolic profiles of its various tissues. Moreover, the role of fruit photosynthesis on berry quality is poorly understood. The main objective of our work was to assess the effects of kaolin and irrigation treatments on the photosynthetic activity of grape berry tissues (exocarp and seeds) and on their global metabolic profile, also investigating their possible relationship. We therefore collected berries of field-grown plants of the white grape variety Alvarinho from two distinct microclimates, i.e. from clusters exposed to high light (HL, 150 µmol photons m⁻² s⁻¹) and low light (LL, 50 µmol photons m⁻² s⁻¹), from both kaolin and non-kaolin (control) treated plants at three fruit developmental stages (green, véraison and mature). Plant irrigation was applied after harvesting the green berries, which also enabled comparison of véraison and mature berries from irrigated and non-irrigated growth conditions. Photosynthesis was assessed by pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorescence imaging analysis, and the metabolite profile of both tissues was assessed by complementary metabolomics approaches. Foliar kaolin application resulted in, for instance, an increased photosynthetic activity of the exocarp of LL-grown berries at green developmental stage, as compared to the control non-kaolin treatment, with a concomitant increase in the levels of several lipid-soluble isoprenoids (chlorophylls, carotenoids, and tocopherols). The exocarp of mature berries grown at HL microclimate on kaolin-sprayed non-irrigated plants had higher total sugar levels content than all other treatments, suggesting that foliar application of this mineral results in an increased accumulation of photoassimilates in mature berries. Unbiased liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based profiling of semi-polar compounds followed by ASCA (ANOVA simultaneous component analysis) and ANOVA statistical analysis indicated that kaolin had no or inconsistent effect on the flavonoid and phenylpropanoid composition in both seed and exocarp at any developmental stage; in contrast, both microclimate and irrigation influenced the level of several of these compounds depending on berry ripening stage. Overall, our study provides more insight into the effects of mitigation strategies on berry tissue photosynthesis and phytochemistry, under contrasting conditions of cluster light microclimate. We hope that this may contribute to develop sustainable management in vineyards and to maintain grape berries and wines with high quality even at increasing abiotic stress challenges.

Keywords: climate change, grape berry tissues, metabolomics, mitigation strategies

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33 Establishments of an Efficient Platform for Genome Editing in Grapevine

Authors: S. Najafi, E. Bertini, M. Pezzotti, G.B. Tornielli, S. Zenoni

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Grapevine is an important agricultural fruit crop plant consumed worldwide and with a key role in the global economy. Grapevine is strongly affected by both biotic and abiotic stresses, which impact grape growth at different stages, such as during plant and berry development and pre- and post-harvest, consequently causing significant economic losses. Recently global warming has propelled the anticipation of the onset of berry ripening, determining the reduction of a grape color and increased volatilization of aroma compounds. Climate change could negatively alter the physiological characteristics of the grape and affect the berry and wine quality. Modern plant breeding can provide tools such as genome editing for improving grape resilience traits while maintaining intact the viticultural and oenological quality characteristics of the genotype. This study aims at developing a platform for genome editing application in grapevine plants with the final goal to improve berry quality, biotic, and abiotic resilience traits. We chose to directly deliver ribonucleoproteins (RNP, preassembled Cas protein and guide RNA) into plant protoplasts, and, from these cell structures, regenerate grapevine plants edited in specific selected genes controlling traits of interest. Edited plants regenerated by somatic embryogenesis from protoplasts will then be sequenced and molecularly characterized. Embryogenic calli of Sultana and Shiraz cultivars were initiated from unopened leaves of in-vitro shoot tip cultures and from stamens, respectively. Leaves were placed on NB2 medium while stamens on callus initiation medium (PIV) medium and incubated in the dark at 28 °C for three months. Viable protoplasts, tested by FDA staining, isolated from embryogenic calli were cultured by disc method at 1*105 protoplasts/ml. Mature well-shaped somatic embryos developed directly in the protoplast culture medium two months later and were transferred in the light into to shooting medium for further growth. Regenerated plants were then transferred to the greenhouse; no phenotypic alterations were observed when compared to non in-vitro cultured plants. The performed experiments allowed to established an efficient protocol of embryogenic calli production, protoplast isolation, and regeneration of the whole plant through somatic embryogenesis in both Sultana and Shiraz. Regenerated plants, through direct somatic embryogenesis deriving from a single cell, avoid the risk of chimerism during the regeneration process, therefore improving the genome editing process. As pre-requisite of genome editing, an efficient method for transfection of protoplast by yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) marker genes was also established and experiments of direct delivery of CRISPR–Cas9 ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) in protoplasts to achieve efficient DNA-free targeted mutations are in progress.

Keywords: CRISPR-cas9, plant regeneration, protoplast isolation, Vitis vinifera

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32 Analysis of Intra-Varietal Diversity for Some Lebanese Grapevine Cultivars

Authors: Stephanie Khater, Ali Chehade, Lamis Chalak

Abstract:

The progressive replacement of the Lebanese autochthonous grapevine cultivars during the last decade by the imported foreign varieties almost resulted in the genetic erosion of the local germplasm and the confusion with cultivars' names. Hence there is a need to characterize these local cultivars and to assess the possible existing variability at the cultivar level. This work was conducted in an attempt to evaluate the intra-varietal diversity within Lebanese traditional cultivars 'Aswad', 'Maghdoushe', 'Maryame', 'Merweh', 'Meksese' and 'Obeide'. A total of 50 accessions distributed over five main geographical areas in Lebanon were collected and submitted to both ampelographic description and ISSR DNA analysis. A set of 35 ampelographic descriptors previously established by the International Office of Vine and Wine and related to leaf, bunch, berry, and phenological stages, were examined. Variability was observed between accessions within cultivars for blade shape, density of prostrate and erect hairs, teeth shape, berry shape, size and color, cluster shape and size, and flesh juiciness. At the molecular level, nine ISSR (inter-simple sequence repeat) primers, previously developed for grapevine, were used in this study. These primers generated a total of 35 bands, of which 30 (85.7%) were polymorphic. Totally, 29 genetic profiles were differentiated, of which 9 revealed within 'Obeide', 6 for 'Maghdoushe', 5 for 'Merweh', 4 within 'Maryame', 3 for 'Aswad' and 2 within 'Meksese'. Findings of this study indicate the existence of several genotypes that form the basis of the main indigenous cultivars grown in Lebanon and which should be further considered in the establishment of new vineyards and selection programs.

Keywords: ampelography, autochthonous cultivars, ISSR markers, Lebanon, Vitis vinifera L.

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31 Biocompatible Porous Titanium Scaffolds Produced Using a Novel Space Holder Technique

Authors: Yunhui Chen, Damon Kent, Matthew Dargusch

Abstract:

Synthetic scaffolds are a highly promising new approach to replace both autografts and allografts to repair and remodel damaged bone tissue. Biocompatible porous titanium scaffold was manufactured through a powder metallurgy approach. Magnesium powder was used as space holder material which was compacted with titanium powder and removed during sintering. Evaluation of the porosity and mechanical properties showed a high level of compatibility with human bone. Interconnectivity between pores is higher than 95% for porosity as low as 30%. The elastic moduli are 39 GPa, 16 GPa and 9 GPa for 30%, 40% and 50% porosity samples which match well to that of natural bone (4-30 GPa). The yield strengths for 30% and 40% porosity samples of 315 MPa and 175 MPa are superior to that of human bone (130-180 MPa). In-vitro cell culture tests on the scaffold samples using Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSCs) demonstrated their biocompatibility and indicated osseointegration potential. The scaffolds allowed cells to adhere and spread both on the surface and inside the pore structures. With increasing levels of porosity/interconnectivity, improved cell proliferation is obtained within the pores. It is concluded that samples with 30% porosity exhibit the best biocompatibility. The results suggest that porous titanium scaffolds generated using this manufacturing route have excellent potential for hard tissue engineering applications.

Keywords: scaffolds, MG-63 cell culture, titanium, space holder

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30 Records of Lepidopteron Borers (Lepidoptera) on Stored Seeds of Indian Himalayan Conifers

Authors: Pawan Kumar, Pitamber Singh Negi

Abstract:

Many of the regeneration failures in conifers are often being attributed to heavy insect attack and pathogens during the period of seed formation and under storage conditions. Conifer berries and seed insects occur throughout the known range of the hosts and also limit the production of seed for nursery stock. On occasion, even entire seed crops are lost due to insect attacks. The berry and seeds of both the species have been found to be infected with insects. Recently, heavy damage to the berry and seeds of Juniper and Chilgoza Pine was observed in the field as well as in stored conditions, leading to reduction in the viability of seeds to germinate. Both the species are under great threat and regeneration of the species is very low. Due to lack of adequate literature, the study on the damage potential of seed insects was urgently required to know the exact status of the insect-pests attacking seeds/berries of both the pine species so as to develop pest management practices against the insect pests attack. As both the species are also under threat and are fighting for survival, so the study is important to develop management practices for the insect-pests of seeds/berries of Juniper and Chilgoza pine so as to evaluate in the nursery, as these species form major vegetation of their distribution zones. A six-year study on the management of insect pests of seeds of Chilgoza revealed that seeds of this species are prone to insect pests mainly borers. During present investigations, it was recorded that cones of are heavily attacked only by Dioryctria abietella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in natural conditions, but seeds which are economically important are heavily infected, (sometimes up to 100% damage was also recorded) by insect borer, Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and is recorded for the first time ‘to author’s best knowledge’ infesting the stored Chilgoza seeds. Similarly, Juniper berries and seeds were heavily attacked only by a single borer, Homaloxestis cholopis (Lepidoptera: Lecithoceridae) recorded as a new report in natural habitat as well as in stored conditions. During the present investigation details of insect pest attack on Juniper and Chilgoza pine seeds and berries was observed and suitable management practices were also developed to contain the insect-pests attack.

Keywords: borer, chilgozapine, cones, conifer, Lepidoptera, juniper, management, seed

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29 A Desire to be ‘Recognizable and Reformed’: Natives’ Identity in Walcott’s “Dream on Monkey Mountain”

Authors: S. Khurram, N. Mubashar

Abstract:

The paper examines, through the lens of Postcolonial Theory, how natives resist and react in Derrek Walcott’s “Dream on Monkey Mountain”. It aims at how natives, for being ‘recognized and reformed’, mimic and adapt the white’s ways of living. It also focuses how Walcott expresses natives’ reaction when they cannot construct their identity. Moreover, the paper exploits the Homi. K Bhaba’s concept of Mimicry and Berry’s concepts of Hybridity to explain Caribbean native’s plight. Furthermore, it bring forth Walcott’s deep insight into the psychology of the Caribbean natives. He digs deep into the colonial discourse to reconstruct post-colonial identity and he, as a post-colonial writer, does so by deconstructing colonial ideology of racism by resisting against it.

Keywords: postcolonial theory, mimicry, hybridity, reaction

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28 How Tattoos and Brands Impact the Recovery of Sex Trafficking Victim: An Exploratory Study of Sex Trafficking Survivors.

Authors: Jeremy Berry, Shannon Rodrigue, Caroline Norris

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This study explores the impact of tattoos and/or brands on the recovery of sex trafficking survivors. Many victims of sex trafficking are forced or coerced to take markings of ownership while in the sex trafficking trade in the form of painful tattoos or brands. As a result, victims who are rescued and in recovery often must live with permanent reminders of their traumatic experiences or are left to resort to expensive cosmetic or cover-up jobs, which for many are out of reach. As is often true of domestic violence victims who are left with scars from their abusers, the impact of these permanent markers can delay the healing process and contribute to post-traumatic stress. This study tells the story from the perspectives of the survivors of sex trafficking, how these specific permanent reminders impacted their healing. The study employs a thematic analysis of interviews with sex trafficking victims via focus group interviews.

Keywords: sex trafficking, tattoos, trauma, healing

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27 Running Head: Psychological Inflexibility and Distress

Authors: Steven M. Sanders, April T. Berry, David W. Hollingsworth

Abstract:

Previous research has shown that veterans have higher rates of mental health concerns compared to non-veteran populations. A potential risk factor for the development of mental health concerns (i.e., depression & anxiety), particularly in Black veterans, is psychological inflexibility. Psychological inflexibility, a component of Acceptance & Commitment Therapy (ACT), is a process by which behavior is expressed in ways that attempt to control emotional and psychological reactions to uncomfortable stimuli and situations rather than by direct contingencies or personal values. The present study explored the relationship between psychological inflexibility, symptoms of depression, and symptoms of anxiety in a sample of 131 Black veterans. Results demonstrated that Black veterans who endorsed psychological inflexibility also endorsed higher levels of both depression and anxiety symptomology. These findings indicate the deleterious consequences of experiencing psychological inflexibility, which could be treated through ACT.

Keywords: psychological flexibility, veteran, black, psychological distress

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26 The Cross-cultural Adaptation Experience of Foreign Scholars in China

Authors: Jiexiu Chen

Abstract:

This research aims to examine several vital issues relating to the foreign scholars’ cross-cultural adaptation in China, including how they perceive about the adaptation process, what the affecting factors are in the adaptation, and which strategies they will apply to deal with perceived cultural differences. The target population of this research is academics regularly working or long-term visiting in these joint colleges, and semi-structured interviews are used in data collection. Moreover, the theoretical perspectives mainly include Ward’s sociocultural and psychological adaptation theory, Berry’s adaptation strategies and Black and his colleague’s expatriate’s adjustment model. This research offers an in-depth profile as well as theory-based analysis about this unique group, and the results of this research are profound in offering directory suggestions for foreign scholars to facilitate their adaptation in China better and for the Chinese universities to eliminate intercultural obstacles, and optimize the international cooperation programs in China.

Keywords: cross-cultural adaptation, foreign scholars, expatriates

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25 Ancelim: Health System Restoration Protocol for Cancer Patients

Authors: Mark Berry

Abstract:

A number of studies have identified several factors involved in the malignant progression of cancer cells. The Primary modulator in driving inflammation to these transformed cells has been identified as the transcription factor known as nuclear factor-κB. This essential regulator of inflammation and the development of cancer, combined with a microenvironment of inflammation and signaling molecules, plays a major role in the malignant progression of cancer, and this progression is the result of the mutagenic predisposition of persistent substances that combat infection at tumor sites and other areas of chronic inflammation. Inflammation-induced tumors, and their inflammatory cells and regulators may be the primary source of metastasis of tumor cells through angiogenesis. Previous research on cytokines and chemokines, including their downstream targets, has been the focus of the cancer/inflammation connection. The identification of the biological mechanisms of other proteins vital to the inflammation cascade and their interactions are crucial to novel and effective therapeutic protocols for the treatment of inflammation-induced cancers. The Ancelim HSRP Protocol is just such a therapeutic intervention.

Keywords: ancelim, cancer, inflammation, tumor

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24 The Effects on Yield and Yield Components of Different Level Cluster Tip Reduction and Foliar Boric Acid Applications on Alphonse Lavallee Grape Cultivar

Authors: A. Akın, H. Çoban

Abstract:

This study was carried out to determine the effects of Control (C), 1/3 Cluster Tip Reduction (1/3 CTR), 1/6 Cluster Tip Reduction (1/6 CTR), 1/9 Cluster Tip Reduction (1/9 CTR), 1/3 CTR + Boric Acid (BA), 1/6 CTR + BA, 1/9 CTR + BA applications on yield and yield components of four years old Alphonse Lavallee grape variety (Vitis vinifera L.) grown on grafted 110 Paulsen rootstock in Konya province in Turkey in the vegetation period in 2015. According to the results, the highest maturity index 21.46 with 1/9 CTR application; the highest grape juice yields 736.67 ml with 1/3 CTR + BA application; the highest L* color value 32.07 with 1/9 CTR application; the highest a* color value 1.74 with 1/9 CTR application; the highest b* color value 3.72 with 1/9 CTR application were obtained. The effects of applications on grape fresh yield, cluster weight and berry weight were not found statistically significant.

Keywords: alphonse lavallee grape cultivar, different cluster tip reduction (1/3, 1/6, 1/9), foliar boric acid application, yield, quality

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23 The Effects of Yield and Yield Components of Some Quality Increase Applications on Ismailoglu Grape Type in Turkey

Authors: Yaşar Önal, Aydın Akın

Abstract:

This study was conducted Ismailoglu grape type (Vitis vinifera L.) and its vine which was aged 15 was grown on its own root in a vegetation period of 2013 in Nevşehir province in Turkey. In this research, it was investigated whether the applications of Control (C), 1/3 cluster tip reduction (1/3 CTR), shoot tip reduction (STR), 1/3 CTR + STR, TKI-HUMAS (TKI-HM) (Soil) (S), TKI-HM (Foliar) (F), TKI-HM (S + F), 1/3 CTR + TKI-HM (S), 1/3 CTR + TKI-HM (F), 1/3 CTR + TKI-HM (S+F), STR + TKI-HM (S), STR + TKI-HM (F), STR + TKI-HM (S + F), 1/3 CTR + STR+TKI-HM (S), 1/3 CTR + STR + TKI-HM (F), 1/3 CTR + STR + TKI-HM (S + F) on yield and yield components of Ismailoglu grape type. The results were obtained as the highest fresh grape yield (16.15 kg/vine) with TKI-HM (S), as the highest cluster weight (652.39 g) with 1/3 CTR + STR, as the highest 100 berry weight (419.07 g) with 1/3 CTR + STR + TKI-HM (F), as the highest maturity index (44.06) with 1/3 CTR, as the highest must yield (810.00 ml) with STR + TKI-HM (F), as the highest intensity of L* color (42.04) with TKI-HM (S + F), as the highest intensity of a* color (2.60) with 1/3 CTR + TKI-HM (S), as the highest intensity of b* color (7.16) with 1/3 CTR + TKI-HM (S) applications. To increase the fresh grape yield of Ismailoglu grape type can be recommended TKI-HM (S) application.

Keywords: 1/3 cluster tip reduction, shoot tip reduction, TKI-Humas application, yield and yield components

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22 Biodiversity and Distribution of Tettigonioidea, Ensifera of Pakistan

Authors: Riffat Sultana Pathan, Waheed Ali Panhwar, Muhammad Saeed Wagan

Abstract:

Tettigonioidea are phytophagous insects damaging agricultural crops, forest, fruit orchards, berry shrubs, and grasses. The material was collected from different agricultural fields of rice, sugarcane, wheat, maize surrounding by different grasses. Beside this, forest, hilly areas, semi-desert and desert regions were also inspected time to time. All material was captured, killed and stored by using the standard entomological method. As a result of extensive survey fair numbers were captured from the different climatic zone of country. Seven sub-families of Tettigonioidea viz: Pseudophyllinae, Phaneropterinae, Conocephalinae, Tettigoniinae, Hexacentrinae, Mecopodinae and Decticinae came in collection. This fauna contributes 29 new records to Pakistan and 5 new species to science. Beside this, a brief description of each supra-generic category of Tettigonioidea along with photographs and synonymy is also documented. In addition to this, detailed list of host plants from Pakistan was also composed. This study provides important data for Integrated Pest Management (IPM) of Tettigonioidea biodiversity conservation and grassland restoration in Pakistan.

Keywords: agriculture, conocephalinae, pest, phaneropterinae, tettigoniidae

Procedia PDF Downloads 323