Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15832

Search results for: drying method

15832 Comparative Survival Rates of Yeasts during Freeze-Drying, Traditional Drying and Spray Drying

Authors: Latifa Hamoudi-Belarbi, L'Hadi Nouri, Khaled Belkacemi


The effect of three methods of drying (traditional drying, freeze-drying and spray-drying) on the survival of concentrated cultures of Geotrichum fragrans and Wickerhamomyces anomalus was studied. The survival of yeast cultures was initially compared immediately after freeze-drying using HES 12%(w/v)+Sucrose 7% (w/v) as protectant, traditional drying in dry rice cakes and finally spray-drying with whey proteins. The survival of G. fragrans and W. anomalus was studied during 4 months of storage at 4°C and 25°C, in the darkness, under vacuum and at 0% relative humidity. The results demonstrated that high survival was obtained using traditional method of preservation in rice cakes (60% for G. fragrans and 65% for W. anomalus) and freeze-drying in (68% for G. fragrans and 74% for W. anomalus). However, poor survival was obtained by spray-drying method in whey protein with 20% for G. fragrans and 29% for W. anomalus. During storage at 25°C, yeast cultures of G. fragrans and W. anomalus preserved by traditional and freeze-drying methods showed no significant loss of viable cells up to 3 months of storage. Spray-dried yeast cultures had the greatest loss of viable count during the 4 months of storage at 25°C. During storage at 4°C, preservation of yeasts cultures using traditional method of preservation provided better survival than freeze-drying. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of the traditional method to preserve yeasts cultures compared to the high cost methods like freeze-drying and spray-drying.

Keywords: freeze-drying, traditional drying, spray drying, yeasts

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15831 Influence of Drying Method in Parts of Alumina Obtained for Rapid Prototyping and Uniaxial Dry Pressing

Authors: N. O. Muniz, F. A. Vechietti, L. Treccani, K. Rezwan, Luis Alberto dos Santos


Developing new technologies in the manufacture of biomaterials is a major challenge for researchers in the tissue engineering area. Many in vitro and in vivo studies have revealed the significance of the porous structure of the biomaterials on the promotion of bone ingrowth. The use of Rapid Prototyping in the manufacture of ceramics in the biomedical area has increased in recent years and few studies are conducted on obtaining alumina pieces. The aim of this work was the study of alumina pieces obtained by 3D printing and uniaxial dry pressing (DP) in order to evaluate porosity achieved by this two different techniques. Also, the influence of the powder drying process was determined. The row alumina powders were drying by freeze drying and oven. Apparent porosity, apparent density, retraction after thermal treatment were evaluated. The porosity values obtained by DP, regardless of method of drying powders, were much lower than those obtained by RP as expected. And for the prototyped samples, the method of powder drying significantly influenced porosities, reached 48% for drying oven versus 65% for freeze-drying. Therefore, the method of 3D printing, using different powder drying, allows a better control over the porosity.

Keywords: rapid prototyping, freeze-drying, porosity, alumina

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15830 Mathematical Modeling of the Effect of Pretreatment on the Drying Kinetics, Energy Requirement and Physico-Functional Properties of Yam (Dioscorea Rotundata) and Cocoyam (Colocasia Esculenta)

Authors: Felix U. Asoiro, Kingsley O. Anyichie, Meshack I. Simeon, Chinenye E. Azuka


The work was aimed at studying the effects of microwave drying (450 W) and hot air oven drying on the drying kinetics and physico-functional properties of yams and cocoyams species. The yams and cocoyams were cut into chips of thicknesses of 3mm, 5mm, 7mm, 9mm, and 11mm. The drying characteristics of yam and cocoyam chips were investigated under microwave drying and hot air oven temperatures (50oC – 90oC). Drying methods, temperature, and thickness had a significant effect on the drying characteristics and physico-functional properties of yam and cocoyam. The result of the experiment showed that an increase in the temperature increased the drying time. The result also showed that the microwave drying method took lesser time to dry the samples than the hot air oven drying method. The iodine affinity of starch for yam was higher than that of cocoyam for the microwaved dried samples over those of hot air oven-dried samples. The results of the analysis would be useful in modeling the drying behavior of yams and cocoyams under different drying methods. It could also be useful in the improvement of shelf life for yams and cocoyams as well as designs of efficient systems for drying, handling, storage, packaging, processing, and transportation of yams and cocoyams.

Keywords: coco yam, drying, microwave, modeling, energy consumption, iodine affinity, drying ate

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15829 Dimensioning of a Solar Dryer with Application of an Experiment Design Method for Drying Food Products

Authors: B. Touati, A. Saad, B. Lips, A. Abdenbi, M. Mokhtari.


The purpose of this study is an application of experiment design method for dimensioning of a solar drying system. NIMROD software was used to build up the matrix of experiments and to analyze the results. The software has the advantages of being easy to use and consists of a forced way, with some choices about the number and range of variation of the parameters, and the desired polynomial shape. The first design of experiments performed concern the drying with constant input characteristics of the hot air in the dryer and a second design of experiments in which the drying chamber is coupled with a solar collector. The first design of experiments allows us to study the influence of various parameters and get the studied answers in a polynomial form. The correspondence between the polynomial thus determined, and the model results were good. The results of the polynomials of the second design of experiments and those of the model are worse than the results in the case of drying with constant input conditions. This is due to the strong link between all the input parameters, especially, the surface of the sensor and the drying chamber, and the mass of the product.

Keywords: solar drying, experiment design method, NIMROD, mint leaves

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15828 Persian Pistachio Nut (Pistacia vera L.) Dehydration in Natural and Industrial Conditions

Authors: Hamid Tavakolipour, Mohsen Mokhtarian, Ahmad Kalbasi Ashtari


In this study, the effect of various drying methods (sun drying, shade drying and industrial drying) on final moisture content, shell splitting degree, shrinkage and color change were studied. Sun drying resulted higher degree of pistachio nuts shell splitting on pistachio nuts relative other drying methods. The ANOVA results showed that the different drying methods did not significantly effects on color change of dried pistachio nut. The results illustrated that pistachio nut dried by industrial drying had the lowest moisture content. After the end of drying process, initially, the experimental drying data were fitted with five famous drying models namely Newton, Page, Silva et al., Peleg and Henderson and Pabis. The results indicated that Peleg and Page models gave better results compared with other models to monitor the moisture ratio’s pistachio nut in industrial drying and open sun (or shade drying) methods, respectively.

Keywords: industrial drying, pistachio, quality properties, traditional drying

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15827 Drying Characteristics of Shrimp by Using the Traditional Method of Oven

Authors: I. A. Simsek, S. N. Dogan, A. S. Kipcak, E. Morodor Derun, N. Tugrul


In this study, the drying characteristics of shrimp are studied by using the traditional drying method of oven. Drying temperatures are selected between 60-80°C. Obtained experimental drying results are applied to eleven mathematical models of Alibas, Aghbashlo et al., Henderson and Pabis, Jena and Das, Lewis, Logaritmic, Midilli and Kucuk, Page, Parabolic, Wang and Singh and Weibull. The best model was selected as parabolic based on the highest coefficient of determination (R²) (0.999990 at 80°C) and the lowest χ² (0.000002 at 80°C), and the lowest root mean square error (RMSE) (0.000976 at 80°C) values are compared to other models. The effective moisture diffusivity (Deff) values were calculated using the Fick’s second law’s cylindrical coordinate approximation and are found between 6.61×10⁻⁸ and 6.66×10⁻⁷ m²/s. The activation energy (Ea) was calculated using modified form of Arrhenius equation and is found as 18.315 kW/kg.

Keywords: activation energy, drying, effective moisture diffusivity, modelling, oven, shrimp

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15826 Post Harvest Preservation of Mango Fruit Using Freeze Drying and Tray Drying Methods

Authors: O. A. Adeyeye, E. R. Sadiku, Selvam Sellamuthu Periyar, Babu Perumal Anand, B. Nambiar Reshma


Mango is a tropical fruit which is often labelled as ‘super-fruit’ because of its unquantifiable benefits to human beings. However, despite its great importance, mango is a seasonal fruit, and only very few off-seasonal species are available in the market for consumption. Therefore, in order to overcome the seasonal variation and to increase the shelf-life of mango fruits, different drying methods are considered In this study, freeze drying and tray drying methods were used to preserve two different cultivars of mango from South Africa. Moisture content, total soluble solid, ascorbic acid, total phenol content (TPC), antioxidant activity (DPPH) and organoleptic tests were carried out on the samples before and after drying. The effects of different edible preservatives and selected packaging materials used were analyzed on each sample. The result showed that freeze drying method is the best method of preserving the selected cultivar.

Keywords: postharvest, mangos, cultivar, total soluble solid, total phenol content, antioxidant

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15825 Assessment of Functional Properties and Antioxidant Capacity Murta (Ugni molinae T.) Berry Subjected to Different Drying Methods

Authors: Liliana Zura-Brravo, Antonio Vega-Galvez, Roberto Lemus-Mondaca, Jessica Lopez


Murta (Ugni molinae T.) is an endemic fruit of Southern Chile, possesses qualities exceptional as its high antioxidants content, that make it increasingly more appreciated for marketing. Dehydration has the potential providing safe food products through the decreased activity water while maintaining their functional properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different drying methods on the antioxidant capacity (AC), total flavonoid content (TFC), rehydration indexes and texture the dried murta berry. Five drying technologies were used: convective drying, vacuum drying, sun-air drying, infrared drying and freezing-drying. The antioxidant capacity was measured by the ORAC method, CFT was determined by spectrophotometry, rehydration capacity (CR) and water retention (WHC) by gravimetry, texture profile (TPA) by a texture analyzer TA-XT2 and microstructure by SEM. The results showed that the lyophilized murta had smaller losses AC and TFC with values of 2886.27 routine mg rutin/ 100 g dm and 23359.99 μmol ET/100 g dm, respectively. According to the rehydration indexes, these were affected by the drying methods, where the maximum value of WHC was 92.60 g retained water/100 g sample for the vacuum drying, and the lowest value of CR was 1.43 g water absorbed/g dm for the sun-air drying. Furthermore, the microstructure and TPA showed that lyophilized samples had characteristics similar to the fresh sample. Therefore, it is possible to mention that lyophilization achieved greater extent preserving the characteristics of the murta samples, showing that this method can be used in the food industry and encourage the consumption of dried fruit and thus give it greater added value.

Keywords: antioxidant, drying method, flavonoid, murta berry, texture

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15824 Drying Kinetics of Vacuum Dried Beef Meat Slices

Authors: Elif Aykin Dincer, Mustafa Erbas


The vacuum drying behavior of beef slices (10 x 4 x 0.2 cm3) was experimentally investigated at the temperature of 60, 70, and 80°C under 25 mbar ultimate vacuum pressure and the mathematical models (Lewis, Page, Midilli, Two-term, Wangh and Singh and Modified Henderson and Pabis) were used to fit the vacuum drying of beef slices. The increase in drying air temperature resulted in a decrease in drying time. It took approximately 206, 180 and 157 min to dry beef slices from an initial moisture content to a final moisture content of 0.05 kg water/kg dry matter at 60, 70 and 80 °C of vacuum drying, respectively. It is also observed that the drying rate increased with increasing drying temperature. The coefficients (R2), the reduced chi-square (x²) and root mean square error (RMSE) values were obtained by application of six models to the experimental drying data. The best model with the highest R2 and, the lowest x² and RMSE values was selected to describe the drying characteristics of beef slices. The Page model has shown a better fit to the experimental drying data as compared to other models. In addition, the effective moisture diffusivities of beef slices in the vacuum drying at 60 - 80 °C varied in the range of 1.05 – 1.09 x 10-10 m2/s. Consequently, this results can be used to simulate vacuum drying process of beef slices and improve efficiency of the drying process.

Keywords: beef slice, drying models, effective diffusivity, vacuum

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15823 Post-Harvest Preservation of Mango Fruit Using Freeze and Tray Drying Methods

Authors: O. A. Adeyeye, E. R. Sadiku, Periyar Selvam Sellamuthu, Anand Babu Perumal, Reshma B. Nambiar


Mango is a tropical fruit which is often labelled as ‘super-fruit’ because of its unquantifiable benefits to human beings. However, despite its great importance, mango is a seasonal fruit and only very few off-seasonal cultivars are available in the market for consumption. Therefore, to overcome the seasonal variation and to increase the shelf-life of mango fruits, different drying methods are considered. In this study, freeze drying and tray drying methods were used to preserve two different cultivars of mango from South Africa. Moisture content, total soluble solid, ascorbic acid, total phenol content (TPC), antioxidant activity (DPPH) and organoleptic tests were carried out on the samples before and after drying. The effects of different edible preservatives and selected packaging materials used were analyzed on each sample. The result showed that freeze drying method is the best method of preserving the selected cultivar.

Keywords: postharvest, Mangos, cultivar, total soluble solid, total phenol content, antioxidant

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15822 Improvement in Drying Characteristics of Raisin by Carbonic Maceration– Process Optimization

Authors: Nursac Akyol, Merve S. Turan, Mustafa Ozcelik, Erdogan Kucukoner, Erkan Karacabey


Traditional raisin production is a long time drying process under sunlight. During this procedure, grapes are open to some environmental effects besides the adverse effects of the long drying period. Thus, there is a need to develop an alternative method being applicable instead of traditional one. To this extent, a combination of a potential pretreatment (carbonic maceration, CM) with convectional oven drying was examined. CM application was used in raisin production (grape drying) as a pretreatment process before oven drying. Pressure, temperature and time were examined as application parameters of CM. In conventional oven drying, the temperature is a process variable. The aim is to find out how CM and convectional drying processes affect the drying characteristics of grapes as well as their physical and chemical properties. For this purpose, the response surface method was used to determine both the effects of the variables and the optimum pretreatment and drying conditions. The optimum conditions of CM for raisin production were 0.3 MPa of pressure value, 4°C of application temperature and 8 hours of application time. The optimized drying temperature was 77°C. The results showed that the application of CM before the drying process improved the drying characteristics. Drying took only 389 minutes for grapes pretreated by CM under optimum conditions and 495 minutes for the control group dried only by the conventional drying process. According to these results, a decrease of 21% was achieved in the time requirement for raisin production. Also, it was observed that the samples dried under optimum conditions had similar physical properties as those the control group had. It was seen that raisin, which was dried under optimum conditions were in better condition in terms of some of the bioactive contents compared to control groups. In light of all results, it is seen that CM has an important potential in the industrial drying of grape samples. The current study was financially supported by TUBITAK, Turkey (Project no: 116R038).

Keywords: drying time, pretreatment, response surface methodlogy, total phenolic

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15821 Effects of Different Drying Methods on the Properties of Viscose Single Jersey Fabrics

Authors: Merve Kucukali Ozturk, Yesim Beceren, Banu Nergis


The study discussed in this paper was conducted in an attempt to investigate effects of different drying methods (line dry and tumble dry) on viscose single jersey fabrics knitted with ring yarn.

Keywords: color change, dimensional properties, drying method, fabric tightness, physical properties

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15820 The Study of Heat and Mass Transfer for Ferrous Materials' Filtration Drying

Authors: Dmytro Symak


Drying is a complex technologic, thermal and energy process. Energy cost of drying processes in many cases is the most costly stage of production, and can be over 50% of total costs. As we know, in Ukraine over 85% of Portland cement is produced moist, and the finished product energy costs make up to almost 60%. During the wet cement production, energy costs make up over 5500 kJ / kg of clinker, while during the dry only 3100 kJ / kg, that is, switching to a dry Portland cement will allow result into double cutting energy costs. Therefore, to study raw materials drying process in the manufacture of Portland cement is very actual task. The fine ferrous materials drying (small pyrites, red mud, clay Kyoko) is recommended to do by filtration method, that is one of the most intense. The essence of filtration method drying lies in heat agent filtering through a stationary layer of wet material, which is located on the perforated partition, in the "layer-dispersed material - perforated partition." For the optimum drying purposes, it is necessary to establish the dependence of pressure loss in the layer of dispersed material, and the values of heat and mass transfer, depending on the speed of the gas flow filtering. In our research, the experimentally determined pressure loss in the layer of dispersed material was generalized based on dimensionless complexes in the form and coefficients of heat exchange. We also determined the relation between the coefficients of mass and heat transfer. As a result of theoretic and experimental investigations, it was possible to develop a methodology for calculating the optimal parameters for the thermal agent and the main parameters for the filtration drying installation. The comparison of calculated by known operating expenses methods for the process of small pyrites drying in a rotating drum and filtration method shows to save up to 618 kWh per 1,000 kg of dry material and 700 kWh during filtration drying clay.

Keywords: drying, cement, heat and mass transfer, filtration method

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15819 Mathematical Modelling Of Drying Kinetics Of Cantaloupe In A Solar Assisted Dryer

Authors: Melike Sultan Karasu Asnaz, Ayse Ozdogan Dolcek


Crop drying, which aims to reduce the moisture content to a certain level, is a method used to extend the shelf life and prevent it from spoiling. One of the oldest food preservation techniques is open sunor shade drying. Even though this technique is the most affordable of all drying methods, there are some drawbacks such as contamination by insects, environmental pollution, windborne dust, and direct expose to weather conditions such as wind, rain, hail. However, solar dryers that provide a hygienic and controllable environment to preserve food and extend its shelf life have been developed and used to dry agricultural products. Thus, foods can be dried quickly without being affected by weather variables, and quality products can be obtained. This research is mainly devoted to investigating the modelling of drying kinetics of cantaloupe in a forced convection solar dryer. Mathematical models for the drying process should be defined to simulate the drying behavior of the foodstuff, which will greatly contribute to the development of solar dryer designs. Thus, drying experiments were conducted and replicated five times, and various data such as temperature, relative humidity, solar irradiation, drying air speed, and weight were instantly monitored and recorded. Moisture content of sliced and pretreated cantaloupe were converted into moisture ratio and then fitted against drying time for constructing drying curves. Then, 10 quasi-theoretical and empirical drying models were applied to find the best drying curve equation according to the Levenberg-Marquardt nonlinear optimization method. The best fitted mathematical drying model was selected according to the highest coefficient of determination (R²), and the mean square of the deviations (χ^²) and root mean square error (RMSE) criterial. The best fitted model was utilized to simulate a thin layer solar drying of cantaloupe, and the simulation results were compared with the experimental data for validation purposes.

Keywords: solar dryer, mathematical modelling, drying kinetics, cantaloupe drying

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15818 Experimental Study on Drying Parameters of Freeze Drying Systems

Authors: Ali Osman Suiçmez, Emrah Deniz


In this study, control experiments were made on a freeze drying system of which were built a prototype. In experiments, apple slices in different geometrical shapes were dried and drying curves were gained. Then, the shapes which were the fastest for drying were determined. Twenty samples for each apple shapes were put in the prototype and dried. After the experiments, the humidity ratio of the samples and water activity values of the samples have been obtained. Obtained results show that the prototype is working and by comparing the results the shape which dried fastest was determined.

Keywords: freeze drying, vacuum, energy consumption, drying process, apple

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15817 Power Ultrasound Application on Convective Drying of Banana (Musa paradisiaca), Mango (Mangifera indica L.) and Guava (Psidium guajava L.)

Authors: Erika K. Méndez, Carlos E. Orrego, Diana L. Manrique, Juan D. Gonzalez, Doménica Vallejo


High moisture content in fruits generates post-harvest problems such as mechanical, biochemical, microbial and physical losses. Dehydration, which is based on the reduction of water activity of the fruit, is a common option for overcoming such losses. However, regular hot air drying could affect negatively the quality properties of the fruit due to the long residence time at high temperature. Power ultrasound (US) application during the convective drying has been used as a novel method able to enhance drying rate and, consequently, to decrease drying time. In the present study, a new approach was tested to evaluate the effect of US on the drying time, the final antioxidant activity (AA) and the total polyphenol content (TPC) of banana slices (BS), mango slices (MS) and guava slices (GS). There were also studied the drying kinetics with nine different models from which water effective diffusivities (Deff) (with or without shrinkage corrections) were calculated. Compared with the corresponding control tests, US assisted drying for fruit slices showed reductions in drying time between 16.23 and 30.19%, 11.34 and 32.73%, and 19.25 and 47.51% for the MS, BS and GS respectively. Considering shrinkage effects, Deff calculated values ranged from 1.67*10-10 to 3.18*10-10 m2/s, 3.96*10-10 and 5.57*10-10 m2/s and 4.61*10-10 to 8.16*10-10 m2/s for the BS, MS and GS samples respectively. Reductions of TPC and AA (as DPPH) were observed compared with the original content in fresh fruit data in all kinds of drying assays.

Keywords: banana, drying, effective diffusivity, guava, mango, ultrasound

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15816 Convective Hot Air Drying of Different Varieties of Blanched Sweet Potato Slices

Authors: M. O. Oke, T. S. Workneh


Drying behaviour of blanched sweet potato in a cabinet dryer using different five air temperatures (40-80oC) and ten sweet potato varieties sliced to 5 mm thickness were investigated. The drying data were fitted to eight models. The Modified Henderson and Pabis model gave the best fit to the experimental moisture ratio data obtained during the drying of all the varieties while Newton (Lewis) and Wang and Singh models gave the least fit. The values of Deff obtained for Bophelo variety (1.27 x 10-9 to 1.77 x 10-9 m2/s) was the least while that of S191 (1.93 x 10-9 to 2.47 x 10-9 m2/s) was the highest which indicates that moisture diffusivity in sweet potato is affected by the genetic factor. Activation energy values ranged from 0.27-6.54 kJ/mol. The lower activation energy indicates that drying of sweet potato slices requires less energy and is hence a cost and energy saving method. The drying behavior of blanched sweet potato was investigated in a cabinet dryer. Drying time decreased considerably with increase in hot air temperature. Out of the eight models fitted, the Modified Henderson and Pabis model gave the best fit to the experimental moisture ratio data on all the varieties while Newton, Wang and Singh models gave the least. The lower activation energy (0.27-6.54 kJ/mol) obtained indicates that drying of sweet potato slices requires less energy and is hence a cost and energy saving method.

Keywords: sweet potato slice, drying models, moisture ratio, moisture diffusivity, activation energy

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15815 Performance of an Improved Fluidized System for Processing Green Tea

Authors: Nickson Kipng’etich Lang’at, Thomas Thoruwa, John Abraham, John Wanyoko


Green tea is made from the top two leaves and buds of a shrub, Camellia sinensis, of the family Theaceae and the order Theales. The green tea leaves are picked and immediately sent to be dried or steamed to prevent fermentation. Fluid bed drying technique is a common drying method used in drying green tea because of its ease in design and construction and fluidization of fine tea particles. Major problems in this method are significant loss of chemical content of the leaf and green appearance of tea, retention of high moisture content in the leaves and bed channeling and defluidization. The energy associated with the drying technology has been shown to be a vital factor in determining the quality of green tea. As part of the implementation, prototype dryer was built that facilitated sequence of operations involving steaming, cooling, pre-drying and final drying. The major findings of the project were in terms of quality characteristics of tea leaves and energy consumption during processing. The optimal design achieved a moisture content of 4.2 ± 0.84%. With the optimum drying temperature of 100 ºC, the specific energy consumption was 1697.8 kj.Kg-1 and evaporation rate of 4.272 x 10-4 Kg.m-2.s-1. The energy consumption in a fluidized system can be further reduced by focusing on energy saving designs.

Keywords: evaporation rate, fluid bed dryer, maceration, specific energy consumption

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15814 Effect of Three Drying Methods on Antioxidant Efficiency and Vitamin C Content of Moringa oleifera Leaf Extract

Authors: Kenia Martínez, Geniel Talavera, Juan Alonso


Moringa oleifera is a plant containing many nutrients that are mostly concentrated within the leaves. Commonly, the separation process of these nutrients involves solid-liquid extraction followed by evaporation and drying to obtain a concentrated extract, which is rich in proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, and other essential nutrients that can be used in the food industry. In this work, three drying methods were used, which involved very different temperature and pressure conditions, to evaluate the effect of each method on the vitamin C content and the antioxidant efficiency of the extracts. Solid-liquid extractions of Moringa leaf (LE) were carried out by employing an ethanol solution (35% v/v) at 50 °C for 2 hours. The resulting extracts were then dried i) in a convective oven (CO) at 100 °C and at an atmospheric pressure of 750 mbar for 8 hours, ii) in a vacuum evaporator (VE) at 50 °C and at 300 mbar for 2 hours, and iii) in a freeze-drier (FD) at -40 °C and at 0.050 mbar for 36 hours. The antioxidant capacity (EC50, mg solids/g DPPH) of the dry solids was calculated by the free radical inhibition method employing DPPH˙ at 517 nm, resulting in a value of 2902.5 ± 14.8 for LE, 3433.1 ± 85.2 for FD, 3980.1 ± 37.2 for VE, and 8123.5 ± 263.3 for CO. The calculated antioxidant efficiency (AE, g DPPH/(mg solids·min)) was 2.920 × 10-5 for LE, 2.884 × 10-5 for FD, 2.512 × 10-5 for VE, and 1.009 × 10-5 for CO. Further, the content of vitamin C (mg/L) determined by HPLC was 59.0 ± 0.3 for LE, 49.7 ± 0.6 for FD, 45.0 ± 0.4 for VE, and 23.6 ± 0.7 for CO. The results indicate that the convective drying preserves vitamin C and antioxidant efficiency to 40% and 34% of the initial value, respectively, while vacuum drying to 76% and 86%, and freeze-drying to 84% and 98%, respectively.

Keywords: antioxidant efficiency, convective drying, freeze-drying, Moringa oleifera, vacuum drying, vitamin C content

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15813 Mathematical Modeling of Eggplant Slices Drying Using Microwave-Oven

Authors: M.H. Keshek, M.N. Omar, A.H. Amer


Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is considered one of the most important crops in summer season, and it is grown in most cultivated area in Egypt. Eggplant has a very limited shelf life for freshness and physiological changes occur after harvest. Nowadays, microwave drying offers an alternative way to drying agricultural products. microwave drying is not only faster but also requiring less energy consumption than conventional drying. The main objective of this research was to evaluate using the microwave oven in Eggplant drying, to determine the optimum drying time of higher drying efficiency and lower energy consumption. The eggplants slices, having a thickness of about 5, 10, 15, and 20 mm, with diameter 50±2 mm was dried using microwave oven (KOR-9G2B) using three different levels were 450, 630, and 810 Watt (50%, 70%, and 90% of 900 Watt). The results show that, the initial moisture content of the eggplant slices was around 93 % wet basis (13.28 g water/g dry matter). The results indicated that, the moisture transfer within the sample was more rapidly during higher microwave power heating (810 watt) and lower thickness (5 mm) of the eggplant slices. In addition, the results show that, the drying efficiency increases by increasing slices thickness at power levels 450, 630 and 810 Watt. The higher drying efficiency was 83.13% occurred when drying the eggplant slices 20 mm thickness in microwave oven at power 630 Watt. the higher total energy consumption per dry kilogram was 1.275 (kWh/ dry kg) occurred at used microwave 810 Watt for drying eggplant slices 5 mm thickness, and the lower total energy consumption per dry kilogram was 0.55 (kWh/ dry kg) occurred at used microwave 810 Watt for drying eggplant slices 20 mm thickness.

Keywords: microwave drying, eggplant, drying rate, drying efficiency, energy consumption

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15812 Empirical Research to Improve Performances of Paddy Columnar Dryer

Authors: Duong Thi Hong, Nguyen Van Hung, Martin Gummert


Good practices of mechanical drying can reduce losses of grain quality. Recently, with demands of higher capacity for paddy drying in the Mekong River Delta of Vietnam, columnar dryers have been introduced rapidly in this area. To improve the technology, this study was conducted to investigate and optimize the parameters for drying Jasmine paddy using an empirical cross-flow columnar dryer. The optimum parameters were resulted in air flow rate and drying temperature that are 1-1.5 m³ s-¹ t-¹ of paddy and 40-42°C, respectively. The investigation also addressed a solution of reversing drying air to achieve the uniformity of grain temperature and quality. Results of this study should be significant for developments of grain drying, contributing to reduce post harvest losses

Keywords: paddy drying, columnar dryer, air flow rate, drying temperature

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15811 Effect of Drying on the Concrete Structures

Authors: A. Brahma


The drying of hydraulics materials is unavoidable and conducted to important spontaneous deformations. In this study, we show that it is possible to describe the drying shrinkage of the high-performance concrete by a simple expression. A multiple regression model was developed for the prediction of the drying shrinkage of the high-performance concrete. The assessment of the proposed model has been done by a set of statistical tests. The model developed takes in consideration the main parameters of confection and conservation. There was a very good agreement between drying shrinkage predicted by the multiple regression model and experimental results. The developed model adjusts easily to all hydraulic concrete types.

Keywords: hydraulic concretes, drying, shrinkage, prediction, modeling

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15810 Preparation of Amla (Phyllanthus emblica) Powder Using Spray Drying Technique

Authors: Shubham Mandliya, Pooja Pandey, H. N. Mishra


Amla (Phyllanthus emblica), a plant of Euphorbiaceous is widely distributed in subtropical and tropical areas of China, India, Indonesia, and Malaysia. Amla is very high in vitamin C content. Spray drying of fruit juices represents another alternative way to improve the physicochemical stability and increase their shelf life. Samples of amla powder were produced using the spray drying method to investigate the effect of inlet temperatures and maltodextrin levels. The spray dryer model used was a laboratory scale dryer and samples were run at different temperatures and concentrations. The response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the spray-drying process for the development of amla powder. The resultant powders were then analyzed for vitamin C, moisture, solubility and dispersibility. The spray dried amla powder contains higher amounts of vitamin C when compared to commercial fruit juice powders. SEM analysis revealed that lower maltodextrin levels and higher inlet air temperatures resulted in smaller but smoother particles. At lower temperature, vitamin C content is high as compared to higher temperature. Spray drying is an effective as well as an economic method which can be commercially used for making powder rather than by tray or solar drying as more fraction is retained with less cost.

Keywords: Amla powder, physiochemical properties, response surface methodology, spray drying

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15809 Preservation of High Quality Fruit Products: Microwave Freeze Drying as a Substitute for the Conventional Freeze Drying Process

Authors: Sabine Ambros, Ulrich Kulozik


Berries such as blue- and raspberries belong to the most valuable fruits. To preserve the characteristic flavor and the high contents of vitamins and anthocyanins, the very sensitive berries are usually dried by lyophilization. As this method is very time- and energy-consuming, the dried fruit is extremely expensive. However, healthy snack foods are growing in popularity. Especially dried fruit free of any additives or additional sugar are more and more asked for. To make these products affordable, the fruits have to be dried by a method that is more energy-efficient than freeze drying but reveals the same high product quality. The additional insertion of microwaves to a freeze drying process was examined in this work to overcome the inconveniences of freeze drying. As microwaves penetrate the product volumetrically, sublimation takes place simultaneously all over the product and leads to a many times shorter process duration. A range of microwave and pressure settings was applied to find the optimum drying condition. The influence of the process parameters microwave power and chamber pressure on drying kinetics, product temperature and product quality was investigated to find the best condition for an energy-efficient process with high product quality. The product quality was evaluated by rehydration capacitiy, crispiness, shrinkage, color, vitamin C content and antioxidative capacity. The conclusion could be drawn that microwave freeze dried berries were almost equal to freeze dried fruit in all measured quality parameters or even could overcome it. Additionally, sensory evaluations could confirm the analytical studies. Drying time could be reduced by more than 75% at much lower energy consumption rates. Thus, an energy-efficient and cost saving method compared to the conventional freeze drying technique for the gentle production of tasty fruit or vegetable snacks has been found. This technique will make dried high-quality snacks available for many of consumers.

Keywords: blueberries, freeze drying, microwave freeze drying, process parameters, product quality

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15808 Effect of Pretreatment and Drying Method on Selected Quality Parameters of Dried Bell Pepper

Authors: Toyosi Yewande Tunde-Akintunde, Grace Oluwatoyin Ogunlakin, Bosede Folake Olanipekun


Peppers are excellent sources of nutrients but its high moisture content makes it susceptible to spoilage. Drying, a common processing method, results in a reduction of these nutrients in the final product. Pre-treatment of pepper before drying can be used to reduce the level of degradation of nutrients. Thus this study investigated the effect of pre-treatment (hot water blanching and soaking in brine-sodium chloride) and drying methods (oven, microwave and sun) on selected quality parameters (proximate composition, capsaicin, reducing sugar and phenolic content, pH, total solid (TS), Titratable acidity (TA), water absorption capacity (WAC) and colour) of pepper. The protein and moisture content value ranged from 9.09 to 10.23% and 5.63 to 8.48% respectively. Sun dried samples had the highest value while oven dried samples had the lowest. Brine treated samples had higher protein but lower moisture content than blanched samples. Capsaicin, reducing sugar and phenolic content values ranged from 0.68 to 0.87 mg/dm3; 3.18 to 3.79 µg/ml; and 40.67 to 84.01 mg GAE/100 g d.m respectively. The sun dried samples had higher values while the lowest values were from microwave dried samples. The brine treated samples had higher values in capsaicin while the blanched samples had higher reducing sugar and phenolic contents. The values of L, a* and b* for the dried pepper varied from 58.76 to 63.13; 7.09 to 7.34; and 11.79 to 12.36 respectively. Oven dried samples had the lowest values for a*, while its L values were the highest. The L and a* values for brine treated samples were higher than blanched samples. The pre-treatment and drying method considered resulted in different values of the quality parameters considered which indicates that drying and pre-treatment has an effect on the quality of the final dried pepper samples.

Keywords: Bell pepper, microwave drying, oven drying, quality, sun drying

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15807 Drying Effect on the Proximate Composition and Functional Properties of Cocoyam Flour

Authors: K. Maliki, A. Ajayi, O. M. Makanjuola, O. J. Adebowale


Cocoyam is herbaceous perennial plant which belongs to the family Araceae and genus xanthosoma or cococasia is mostly cultivated as food crop. It is very rich in Vitamin B6, Magnesium and also in dietary fiber. Matured cocoyam is eaten boiled, Fried or roasted in Nigeria. It can also be dried and used to make flour. Food drying is a method of food preservation in which food is dried, thus inhibit the growth of bacteria yeast and mold through the removal of water. Drying effect on the proximate composition and functional properties of cocoyam flour were investigated. Freshly harvested cocoyam cultivars at matured level were washed with portable water, peeled, sliced into 0.3mm thickness blanch in boiling water at 100°C for 15 minutes and dried using sun drying oven and cabinet dryers. The blanched slices were divided into three lots and were subjected to different drying methods. The dried cocoyam slices were milled into flour using Apex mill and packed into Low Density Polyethylene Film (LDPE) 75 Micron 4 thickness and kept for four months under ambient temperature before analysis. The results showed that the moisture content, ash, crude fiber, fat, protein and carbohydrate ranged from 7.35% to 13.89%, 1.45% to 3.3%, 1.2% to 3.41%, 2.1% to 3.1%, 6.30% to 9.1% and 66% to 82% respectively. The functional properties of the cocoyam flour ranged from 1. 65ml/g to 4.24ml/g water absorption capacity, 0.85ml/g to 2.11ml/g oil absorption capacity 0.56ml/g and 0.78ml/g bulk density and 4.91% to 6.80% swelling capacity. The result showed that there was not significant difference (P ≥ 0.5) across the various drying methods used. Cabinet drying method was found to have the best quality characteristic values than the other drying methods. In conclusion, drying of cocoyam could be used for value addition and provide extension to shelf-life.

Keywords: cocoyam flour, drying, cabinet dryer, oven dryer

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15806 Effect of Blanching and Drying Methods on the Degradation Kinetics and Color Stability of Radish (Raphanus sativus) Leaves

Authors: K. Radha Krishnan, Mirajul Alom


Dehydrated powder prepared from fresh radish (Raphanus sativus) leaves were investigated for the color stability by different drying methods (tray, sun and solar). The effect of blanching conditions, drying methods as well as drying temperatures (50 – 90°C) were considered for studying the color degradation kinetics of chlorophyll in the dehydrated powder. The hunter color parameters (L*, a*, b*) and total color difference (TCD) were determined in order to investigate the color degradation kinetics of chlorophyll. Blanching conditions, drying method and drying temperature influenced the changes in L*, a*, b* and TCD values. The changes in color values during processing were described by a first order kinetic model. The temperature dependence of chlorophyll degradation was adequately modeled by Arrhenius equation. To predict the losses in green color, a mathematical model was developed from the steady state kinetic parameters. The results from this study indicated the protective effect of blanching conditions on the color stability of dehydrated radish powder.

Keywords: chlorophyll, color stability, degradation kinetics, drying

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15805 Drying Kinetics, Energy Requirement, Bioactive Composition, and Mathematical Modeling of Allium Cepa Slices

Authors: Felix U. Asoiro, Meshack I. Simeon, Chinenye E. Azuka, Harami Solomon, Chukwuemeka J. Ohagwu


The drying kinetics, specific energy consumed (SEC), effective moisture diffusivity (EMD), flavonoid, phenolic, and vitamin C contents of onion slices dried under convective oven drying (COD) were compared with microwave drying (MD). Drying was performed with onion slice thicknesses of 2, 4, 6, and 8 mm; air drying temperatures of 60, 80, and 100°C for COD, and microwave power of 450 W for MD. A decrease in slice thickness and an increase in drying air temperature led to a drop in the drying time. As thickness increased from 2 – 8 mm, EMD rose from 1.1-4.35 x 10⁻⁸ at 60°C, 1.1-5.6 x 10⁻⁸ at 80°C, and 1.25-6.12 x 10⁻⁸ at 100°C with MD treatments yielding the highest mean value (6.65 x 10⁻⁸ m² s⁻¹) at 8 mm. Maximum SEC for onion slices in COD was 238.27 kWh/kg H₂O (2 mm thickness), and the minimum was 39.4 kWh/kg H₂O (8 mm thickness) whereas maximum during MD was 25.33 kWh/kg H₂O (8 mm thickness) and minimum, 18.7 kWh/kg H₂O (2 mm thickness). MD treatment gave a significant (p 0.05) increase in the flavonoid (39.42 – 64.4%), phenolic (38.0 – 46.84%), and vitamin C (3.7 – 4.23 mg 100 g⁻¹) contents, while COD treatment at 60°C and 100°C had positive effects on only vitamin C and phenolic contents, respectively. In comparison, the Weibull model gave the overall best fit (highest R²=0.999; lowest SSE=0.0002, RSME=0.0123, and χ²= 0.0004) when drying 2 mm onion slices at 100°C.

Keywords: allium cepa, drying kinetics, specific energy consumption, flavonoid, vitamin C, microwave oven drying

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15804 Transparency Phenomenon in Kuew Teow

Authors: Muhammad Heikal Ismail, Law Chung Lim, Hii Ching Lik


In maintaining food quality and shelf life, drying is employed in food industry as the most reliable perseverance technique. In this way, heat pump drying and hot air drying of fresh rice noodles was deduced to freeze drying in achieving quality attributes of oil content Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images, texture, and colour. Soxthlet analysis shows freeze dried noodles contain more than 10 times oil content, distinct pores of SEM images, higher hardness by more than three times, and wider colour changes by average more than two times to both methods to explain the less transparency physical outlook of freeze dried samples.

Keywords: freeze drying, heat pump drying, noodles, Soxthlet

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15803 Eucalyptus camendulensis and Its Drying Effect on Water and Essential Oil Content

Authors: Mehani Mouna, Segni Ladjel


Medicinal and aromatic plants are promising and are characterized by the biosynthesis of odorous molecules that make up the so-called essential oils (EO), which have long been known for their antiseptic and therapeutic activity in folk medicine. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of drying in the shade on the water content and on the content of essential oils extracted from leaves of Eucalyptus camendulensis for better quality control of medicinal and aromatic plants. The water content of the Eucalyptus camendulensis plant material decreases during the drying process. It increased from 100 % to 0.006 % for the drying in the shade after ten days. The moisture content is practically constant at the end of the drying period. The drying in the shade increases the concentration of essential oils of Eucalyptus camendulensis. When the leaves of Eucalyptus camendulensis plant are in the shade, the maximum of the essential oil content was obtained on the eighth days; the recorded value was 1.43% ± 0.01%. Beyond these periods, the content continuously drops in before stabilizing. The optimum drying time is between 6 and 9 days.

Keywords: Eucalyptus camendulensis, drying, essential oils, water, content

Procedia PDF Downloads 264