Search results for: seed
606 Effect of Seed Treatment on Seed Quality and Storability in Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) in Northwestern Himalayas
Authors: Anubhav Thakur, Karam Chand Dhiman
Abstract:Storage experiment was conducted to study the effect of polymer, fungicides and insecticide on seed quality parameters and storability in wheat. The experimental material consisted of carry over wheat seeds (variety HPW- 155) of rabi 2017 - 18. The observations were recorded bimonthly on parameters viz; germination (%), seedling length (cm), dry weight (g), vigour index - I, vigour - II, speed of germination, field emergence (%), 100 seed weight (g) for 12 months of storage. All parameters declined with the advancement in storage period. The results showed that seeds treated with polymer + vitavax 200 @ 2 g/kg of seed recorded higher germination percentage (95.00 %), seedling length (17.58 cm), seedling dry weight (0.0138 g), vigour index - I (1670) & vigour - II (1.311), speed of germination (19.98), 100 seed weight (5.54 g) and field emergence (87.33 %) which was at par with vitavax 200 @ 2 g/kg of seed, over untreated control (T1). So it can be concluded that for maintain seed quality and enhancing storability, seed of wheat can either be treated with polymer @ 3 ml/kg of seed + vitavax 200 @ 2 g/kg of seed or vitavax 200 @ 2 g/kg of seed.
Keywords: wheat, seed treatment, storability, seed qualityProcedia PDF Downloads 68
605 Effect on Yield and Yield Components of Different Irrigation Levels in Edible Seed Pumpkin Growing
Authors: Musa Seymen, Duran Yavuz, Nurcan Yavuz, Önder Türkmen
Abstract:Edible seed pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) is one of the important edibles preferred by consumer in Turkey due to its higher nutrient contents. However, there is almost very few study on water consumption and irrigation water requirement of confectionary edible seed pumpkin in Turkey. Therefore, a 2-year study (2013-2014) was conducted to determine the effects of irrigation levels on the seed yield and yield components of drip-irrigated confectionary edible seed pumpkin under Turkey conditions. In the study, the experimental design was made in randomized blocks with three replications. Treatments consisted of five irrigation water levels that compensated for the 100% (I100, full irrigation), 75% (I75), 50% (I50), 25% (I25) and 0% (I0, no irrigation) of crop water requirements at 14-day irrigation intervals. Seasonal evapotranspiration of treatments varied from 194.2 to 625.2 mm in 2013 and from 208.6 to 556.6 mm in 2014. In both years, the highest seasonal evapotranspiration was obtained in I100 treatment. Average across years, the seed yields ranged between 1090 (I100) and 422 (I0) kg ha-1. The irrigation treatments were found to significantly affect the yield parameters such as the seed yield, oil seed yield number of seeds per fruit, seed size, seed width, fruit size, fruit width and fruit index.
Keywords: irrigation level, edible seed pumpkin, seed quality, seed yieldProcedia PDF Downloads 224
604 The Effect of Dry Matter Production Growth Rate, Temperature Rapeseed
Authors: Vadood Mobini, Mansoreh Agazadeh Shahrivar, Parvin Hashemi Gelenjkhanlo, Hassan Vazifah
Abstract:Seed number is a function of dry matter accumulation, crop growth rate (CGR), photothermal quotient (PTQ) and temperature during a critical developmental period, which is around flowering in canola (Brassica napus L.). The objective of this experiment was to determine factors such as dry matter, CGR, temperature, and PTQ around flowering which affect seed number. The experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Station of Gonbad, Iran, between 2005 and 2007. Two cultivars of canola (Hyola401 and RGS003), as subplots were grown at 5 sowing dates as main plots, spaced approximately 30 days apart, to obtain different environmental conditions during flowering. The experiment was arranged in two conditions, i.e., supplemental irrigation and rainfed. Seed number per unit area was a key factor for increasing seed yield. Late sowing dates made the critical period of flowering coincide with high temperatures, decreased days to the flowering, seed number per unit area and seed yield. Seed number was driven by the availability of carbohydrates around flowering. Seed number per unit area was maximized for the cultivars when exposed to the highest PTQ, and to the lowest temperature between the beginning of flowering to that of seed filling. The relationship of seed number with aboveground dry matter, CGR, temperature, and PTQ around flowering, over different environmental conditions, showed these variables were generally applicable to seed number determination.
Keywords: flowering, cultivar, seed filling, environmental conditions, seed yieldProcedia PDF Downloads 317
603 Flavonoid Content and Antioxidant Potential of White and Brown Sesame Seed Oils
Authors: Fatima Bello, Ibrahim Sani
Abstract:Medicinal plants are the most important sources of life saving drugs for the majority of world’s population. People of all continents have used hundreds to thousands of indigenous plants in curing and management of many diseases. Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is one of the most widely cultivated species for its nutritious and medicinal seeds and oil. This research was carried out to determine the flavonoid content and antioxidant potential of two varieties of sesame seeds oil. Oil extraction was done using Soxhlet apparatus. The percentage oil yield for white and brown seeds were 47.85% and 20.72%, respectively. Flavonoid was present in both seeds with concentration of 480 mg/g and 360 mg/g in white and brown sesame seeds, respectively. The antioxidant potential was determined at different oil volume; 1.00, 0.75, 0.50 and 0.25ml. The results for the white and brown sesame seed oils were 96.8 and 70.7, 91.0 and 65.2, 83.1 and 55.4, 77.9 and 50.2, respectively. The white seed oil has higher oil yield than the brown seed oil. Likewise, the white seed oil has more flavonoid content than the brown seed oil and also better reducing power than the brown seed oil.
Keywords: antioxidant potential, brown sesame seeds, flavonoid content, sesame seed oil, Sesamum indicum L., white sesame seedsProcedia PDF Downloads 379
602 Production of Biodiesel from Melon Seed Oil Using Sodium Hydroxide as a Catalyst
Authors: Ene Rosemary Ndidiamaka, Nwangwu Florence Chinyere
Abstract:The physiochemical properties of the melon seed oil was studied to determine its potentials as viable feed stock for biodisel production. The melon seed was extracted by solvent extraction using n-hexane as the extracting solvent. In this research, methanol was the alcohol used in the production of biodiesel, although alcohols like ethanol, propanol may also be used. Sodium hydroxide was employed for the catalysis. The melon seed oil was characterized for specific gravity, pH, ash content, iodine value, acid value, saponification value, peroxide value, free fatty acid value, flash point, viscosity, and refractive index using standard methods. The melon seed oil had very high oil content. Specific gravity and flash point of the oil is satisfactory. However, moisture content of the oil exceeded the stipulated ASRTM standard for biodiesel production. The overall results indicates that the melon seed oil is suitable for single-stage transesterification process to biodiesel production.
Keywords: biodiesel, catalyst, melon seed, transesterificationProcedia PDF Downloads 292
601 Effect of Melatonin on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Catharanthus roseus under Cadmium Stress
Authors: Rayhaneh Amooaghaie, Masoomeh Nabaei
Abstract:In this study, 200 µM Cd reduced relative seed germination, root elongation tolerance and seed germination tolerance index of Catharanthus roseus. The melatonin improved seed germination, germination velocity, seedling length and vigor index under Cd stress in a dose-dependent manner and the maximum biological responses obtained by 100 μM melatonin. However, 200-400 μM melatonin and 400 μM SNP had negative effects that evidenced as lower germination indices and poor establishment of seedlings. The cadmium suppressed amylase activity and contents of soluble and reducing sugars in germinating seeds, thereby reduced seed germination and subsequent seedling growth whereas increased electrolyte leakage. These Cd-induced inhibitory effects were ameliorated by melatonin.
Keywords: cadmium, Catharanthus roseus, melatonin, seed germinationProcedia PDF Downloads 116
600 The Effects of Different Sowing Times on Seed Yield and Quality of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.) in East Mediterranean Region of Turkey
Authors: Lale Efe, Zeynep Gokce
Abstract:In this study carried out in 2013-14 growing season in East Mediterranean Region of Turkey, it was aimed to investigate the effects of different sowing times on the seed yield and quality of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graceum L.). Three fenugreek genotypes (Gürarslan, Candidate Line-1 and Genotype-1) were sown on 13.11.2013 and 07.03.2014 according to factorial randomized block design with 3 replications. Plant height (cm), branch number per plant, first pod height (cm), pod length (mm), seed number per pod (g), seed yield per plant (g), seed yield per decar (kg), thousand seed weight (g), mucilage rate (%), seed protein ratio (%), seed oil ratio (%), oleic acid (%), linoleic acid (%), palmitic acid (%) and stearic acid (%) were investigated. Among genotypes, while the highest seed yield per plant was obtained from Genotype-1 (5 g/plant), the lowest seed yield per plant was obtained from cv. Gürarslan (3.4 g/plant). According to genotype x sowing date interactions, it can be said that the highest seed yield per plant was taken in autumn sowing from Genotype-1 (6.6 g/plant) and the lowest seed yield per plant was taken in spring sowing from cv. Gürarslan (2.9 g/plant). Genotype-1 had the highest linoleic acid ratio (41.6 %). Cv. Gürarslan and Candidate Line-1 had the highest oleic acid ratio (respectively 17.8 % and 17.6%).
Keywords: fenugreek, seed yield and quality, sowing times, Trigonella foenum graecum L.Procedia PDF Downloads 142
599 Determination of Some Agricultural Characters of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Genotypes
Authors: Ercan Ceyhan, Ali Kahraman, Hasan Dalgıç
Abstract:This research was made during the 2011 and 2012 growing periods according to “Randomized Blocks Design” with 3 replications. Research material was the following chickpea genotype: CA119, CA128, CA149, CA150, CA222, CA250, CA254 and other 2 commercial varieties named as Gökçe and Yaşa. Some agronomical characteristics such as plant height (cm), number of pod per plant, number of seed per pod, number of seed per plant, 1000 seed weight (g) and seed yield (kg ha-1) were determined. Statistically significant variations were found amongst the genotypes for all variables except seeds per pod. Means of the two years showed the range for plant height was from 52.83 cm (Gökçe) to 73.00 cm (CA150), number of pod per plant was from 14.00 (CA149) to 26.83 (CA261), number of seed per pod was from 1.10 (Gökçe) to 1.19 (CA149 ve CA250), number of seed per plant was from 16.28 (CA149) to 31.65 (CA261), 1000 seed weight was from 295.85 g (CA149) to 437.80 g (CA261) and seed yield was from 1342.73 kg ha-1 (CA261) to 2161.50 kg ha-1 (CA128). Results of the research implicated that the new developed lines were superior compared with the control (commercial) varieties by means of most of the characteristics.
Keywords: agricultural characters, chickpea, seed yield, genotype variationsProcedia PDF Downloads 143
598 Alternative Seed System for Enhanced Availability of Quality Seeds and Seed/Varietal Replacement Rate - An Experience
Authors: Basave Gowda, Lokesh K., Prasanth S. M., Bellad S. B., Radha J., Lokesh G. Y., Patil S. B., Vijayakumar D. K., Ganigar B. S., Rakesh C. Mathad
Abstract:Quality seed plays an important role in enhancing the crop productivity. It was reported and confirmed by large scale verification research trials that by use of quality seeds alone, the crop yield can be enhanced by 15 to 20 per cent. At present, the quality seed production and distribution through organised sectors comprising both public and private seed sector was only 20-25% of the requirement and the remaining quantity is met through unorganised sector which include the farmer to farmers saved seeds. With an objective of developing an alternative seed system, the University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur in Karnataka state has implemented Seed Village Programme in more than 100 villages covering around 5000 farmers every year since 2009-10 and in the selected seed villages, a group of 50-150 farmers were supplied the foundation seeds of new varieties to an extent of 0.4 ha at 50 % subsidy. And two to three training programmes were conducted in the targeted villages for quality seed production and the seed produced in the target group was processed locally in the university seed processing units and arranged for distribution in the local villages by the seed growers themselves. By this new innovative and modified seed system, the university can able to replace old varieties of pigeon pea and green gram by producing 1482, 2978, 2729, 2560, and 4581 tonnes of seeds of new varieties on large scale under farmers and scientists participatory seed village programmes respectively during 2009-10, 2010-11, 2011-12, 2012-13 and 2013-14. From this new alternate model of seed system, there should be large scale promotion of regional seed system involving farmers, NGO and voluntary organisation for quick and effective replacement of old, low yielding, disease susceptible varieties with new high yielding, disease resistant for enhanced food production and food security.
Keywords: seed system, seed village, seed replacement, varietal replacementProcedia PDF Downloads 371
597 Storage Influence on Physico-Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Jamun Drink Prepared From Two Types of Pulp
Authors: Muhammad Atif Randhawa, Mahreen Akhtar, Sidrah
Abstract:In this paper, Jamun (Syzygium cumini; Myrtaceae) drink enriched with jamun pulp and seed was assessed for different physicochemical parameters (titratable acidity, pH, TSS, ascorbic acid, and total sugars and reducing sugars) and phytochemical aspects at every 15 days interval till 60 days storage period. Jamun pulp both with seed and without seed were used at levels of 7, 10 and 13 percent to prepare jamun drink in six combinations; T1 (7% pulp without seed), T2 (10% pulp without seed), T3 (13% pulp without seed), T4 (7% pulp with seed), T5 (10% pulp with seed), T6 (13% pulp with seed). Storage period resulted decrease in pH (4.18 to 4.08) and ascorbic acid (21.92%) significantly along with phenolic contents (6.13 to 4.85g of GAE/kg) and antioxidant activity (70.68 to 48.62 percent) within treatments. All treatments showed significant increases in total sugars (11.59 to 11.80%), reducing sugars (2.30 to 2.50%), TSS (12.2 to 13.32 °B) and acidity (0.23% to 0.31%) during storage. Treatments T3, T5 and T6 showed best results in terms of all physicochemical parameters during storage. Statistically significant differences were obtained among sensory parameters as a function of pulp type and concentration, while treatment T5 (10% pulp with seed) obtained highest score (7.16) in terms of all sensory parameters. It can be concluded that nutrient rich jamun drink can be prepared as an attempt to add value to the underutilized jamun fruit of Pakistan.
Keywords: antioxidant activity, Jamun beverage, physicochemical, storageProcedia PDF Downloads 236
596 Transcriptional Profiling of Developing Ovules in Litchi chinensis
Authors: Ashish Kumar Pathak, Ritika Sharma, Vishal Nath, Sudhir Pratap Singh, Rakesh Tuli
Abstract:Litchi is a sub-tropical fruit crop with genotypes bearing delicious juicy fruits with variable seed size (bold to rudimentary size). Small seed size is a desirable trait in litchi, as it increases consumer acceptance and fruit processing. The biochemical activities in mid- stage ovules (e.g. 16, 20, 24 and 28 days after anthesis) determine the fate of seed and fruit development in litchi. Comprehensive ovule-specific transcriptome analysis was performed in two litchi genotypes with contrasting seed size to gain molecular insight on determinants of seed fates in litchi fruits. The transcriptomic data was de-novo assembled in 1,39,608 trinity transcripts, out of which 6,325 trinity transcripts were differentially expressed between the two contrasting genotypes. Differential transcriptional pattern was found among ovule development stages in contrasting litchi genotypes. The putative genes for salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and brassinosteroid pathway were down-regulated in ovules of small-seeded litchi. Embryogenesis, cell expansion, seed size and stress related trinity transcripts exhibited altered expression in small-seeded genotype. The putative regulators of seed maturation and seed storage were down-regulated in small-seed genotype.
Keywords: Litchi, seed, transcriptome, defenceProcedia PDF Downloads 175
595 The Possibility of Increase UFA in Milk by Adding of Canola Seed in Holstein Dairy Cow Diets
Authors: H. Mansoori Yarahmadi, A. Aghazadeh, K. Nazeradl
Abstract:This study was done to evaluate the effects of feeding canola seed for enrichment of UFA and milk performance of early lactation dairy cows. Twelve multi parous Holstein cows (635.3±18 kg BW and 36±9 DIM) were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: 1- Control (CON) without canola seed, 2- 7.5% raw canola seed (CUT), and 3- 7.5% Heat-treated canola seed (CHT) of the total ration. Diets contained same crude protein, but varied in net energy. Diets were composed by basis of corn silage and alfalfa. Cows were milked twice daily for 4 wk. The inclusion of canola seed did not alter DM intake, weight gain, or body condition score of cows. Milk fat from CHT cows had greater proportions of UFA and MUFA (P < 0.05). Feeding CUT increased PUFA without significant difference. Milk fat from CHT had a greater proportion of C18 UFA and tended to have a higher proportion of other UFA. FCM milk yields, milk fat and protein percentages and total yield of these components were similar between treatments. Milk urea nitrogen was lower in cows fed CON and CHT. Feeding canola seed to lactating dairy cows resulted in milk fat with higher proportions of healthful fatty acids without adverse affecting milk yield or milk composition.
Keywords: canola seed, fatty acid, dairy cow, milkProcedia PDF Downloads 536
594 Effects of Plant Densities on Seed Yield and Some Agricultural Characteristics of Jofs Pea Variety
Authors: Ayhan Aydoğdu, Ercan Ceyhan, Ali Kahraman, Nursel Çöl
Abstract:This research was conducted to determine effects of plant densities on seed yield and some agricultural characteristics of pea variety- Jofs in Konya ecological conditions during 2012 vegetation period. The trial was set up according to “Randomized Blocks Design” with three replications. The material “Jofs” pea variety was subjected to 3-row spaces (30, 40 and 50 cm) and 3-row distances (5, 10 and 15 cm). According to the results, difference was shown statistically for the effects of row spaces and row distances on seed yield. The highest seed yield was 2582.1 kg ha-1 on 30 cm of row spaces while 2562.2 kg ha-1 on 15 cm of distances. Consequently, the optimum planting density was determined as 30 x 15 cm for Jofs pea variety growing in Konya.
Keywords: pea, row space, row distance, seed yieldProcedia PDF Downloads 504
593 Design and Developing the Infrared Sensor for Detection and Measuring Mass Flow Rate in Seed Drills
Authors: Bahram Besharti, Hossein Navid, Hadi Karimi, Hossein Behfar, Iraj Eskandari
Abstract:Multiple or miss sowing by seed drills is a common problem on the farm. This problem causes overuse of seeds, wasting energy, rising crop treatment cost and reducing crop yield in harvesting. To be informed of mentioned faults and monitoring the performance of seed drills during sowing, developing a seed sensor for detecting seed mass flow rate and monitoring in a delivery tube is essential. In this research, an infrared seed sensor was developed to estimate seed mass flow rate in seed drills. The developed sensor comprised of a pair of spaced apart circuits one acting as an IR transmitter and the other acting as an IR receiver. Optical coverage in the sensing section was obtained by setting IR LEDs and photo-diodes directly on opposite sides. Passing seeds made interruption in radiation beams to the photo-diode which caused output voltages to change. The voltage difference of sensing units summed by a microcontroller and were converted to an analog value by DAC chip. The sensor was tested by using a roller seed metering device with three types of seeds consist of chickpea, wheat, and alfalfa (representing large, medium and fine seed, respectively). The results revealed a good fitting between voltage received from seed sensor and mass flow of seeds in the delivery tube. A linear trend line was set for three seeds collected data as a model of the mass flow of seeds. A final mass flow model was developed for various size seeds based on receiving voltages from the seed sensor, thousand seed weight and equivalent diameter of seeds. The developed infrared seed sensor, besides monitoring mass flow of seeds in field operations, can be used for the assessment of mechanical planter seed metering unit performance in the laboratory and provide an easy calibrating method for seed drills before planting in the field.
Keywords: seed flow, infrared, seed sensor, seed drillsProcedia PDF Downloads 256
592 Spectroscopy Study of Jatropha curcas Seed Oil for Pharmaceutical Applications
Authors: Bashar Mudhaffar Abdullah, Hasniza Zaman Huri, Nany Hairunisa
Abstract:This study was carried out to determine the thermal properties and spectroscopy study of Malaysian Jatropha curcas seed oil. The J. curcas seed oil physicochemical properties such as free fatty acid (FFA %), acid value, saponification value, iodine value, unsaponifiable matter, and viscosity (cp) gave values of 1.89±0.10%, 3.76±0.07, 203.36±0.36 mg/g, 4.90±0.25, 1.76±0.03%, and 32, respectively. Gas chromatography (GC) was used to determine the fatty acids (FAs) composition. J. curcas seed oil is consisting of saturated FAs (19.55%) such as palmitic (13.19%), palmitoleic (0.40%), and stearic (6.36%) acids and unsaturated FAs (80.42%) such as oleic (43.32%) and linoleic (36.70%) acids. The thermal properties using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that crystallized TAG was observed at -6.79°C. The melting curves displayed three major exothermic regions of J. curcas seed oil, monounsaturated (lower-temperature peak) at -31.69°C, di-unsaturated (medium temperature peak) at -20.23°C and tri-unsaturated (higher temperature peak) at -12.72°C. The results of this study showed that the J. curcas seed oil is a plausible source of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) to be developed in the future for pharmaceutical applications.
Keywords: Jatropha curcas seed oil, thermal properties, crystallization, melting, spectroscopyProcedia PDF Downloads 411
591 Evaluation of Heavy Metal Concentrations of Stem and Seed of Juncus acutus for Grazing Animals and Birds in Kızılırmak Delta
Authors: N. Cetinkaya, F. Erdem
Abstract:Juncus acutus (Juncaceae) is a perennial wetland plant and it is commonly known as spiny rush or sharp rush. It is the most abundant plant in Kizilirmak grassland, Samsun, Turkey. Heavy metals are significant environmental contaminants in delta and their toxicity is an increasing problem for animals whose natural habitat is delta. The objective of this study was to evaluate heavy metal concentrations mainly As, Cd, Sb, Ba, Pb and Hg in stem and seed of Juncus acutus for grazing animals and birds in delta. The Juncus acutus stem and seed samples were collected from Kizilirmak Delta in July, August and September. Heavy metal concentrations of collected samples were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma – Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The obtained mean values of three months for As, Cd, Sb, Ba, Pb and Hg of stem and seed samples of Juncus acutus were 0.11 and 0.23 mg/kg; 0.07 and 0.11 mg/kg; 0.02 and 0.02 mg/kg; 5.26 and 1.75 mg/kg; 0.05 and not detectable in July respectively. Hg was not detected in both stem and seed of Juncus acutus, Pb concentration was determined only in stem of Juncus acutus but not in seed. There were no significant differences between the values of three months for As, Cd, Sb, Ba, Pb and Hg of stem and seed samples of Juncus acutus. The obtained As, Cd, Sb, Ba, Pb and Hg results of stem and seed of Juncus acutus show that seed and stem of Juncus acutus may be safely consumed for grazing animals and birds regarding to heavy metals contamination in Kizilirmak Delta.
Keywords: heavy metals, Juncus acutus, Kizilirmak Delta, wetlandProcedia PDF Downloads 57
590 Olive Seed Tannins as Bioadhesives for Manufacturing Wood-Based Panels
Authors: Ajith K. A. Gedara, Iva Chianella, Jose L. Endrino, Qi Zhang
Abstract:The olive seed is a by-product of the olive oil production industry. Biuret test and ferric chloride test revealed that water or alkali NaOH extractions of olive seed flour are rich in proteins and tannins. Both protein and tannins are well-known bio-based wood adhesives in the wood-based panel industry. In general, tannins-based adhesives show better mechanical and physical properties than protein wood adhesives. This paper explores different methods of extracting tannins from olive seed flour against the tannins yield and their applications as bio-based adhesives in wood-based panels. Once investigated, the physical and the mechanical properties of wood-based panels made using bio-adhesives based tannins extracted from olive seed flour revealed that the resulting products seemed to satisfy the Japanese Industrial Standards JIS A 5908:2015.
Keywords: bio-adhesives, olive seed flour, tannins, wood-based panelsProcedia PDF Downloads 84
589 Determination of the Seed Vigor of Soybean Cultivated as Main and Second Crop in Turkey
Authors: Mehmet Demir Kaya, Engin Gökhan Kulan, Onur İleri, Süleyman Avcı
Abstract:This research was conducted to determine the difference in seed vigor between the seed lots cultivated in main and second crop of soybean in Turkey. Seeds from soybean cv. Cinsoy and Umut-2002 were evaluated in the laboratory for germination, emergence, cool test at 18°C for 10 days, and cold test at 10°C for 4 days and 25°C for 6 days. Result showed that the initial oil contents of Cinsoy and Umut-2002 and seeds were determined to be 19.8 and 20.1% in main crop, and 18.7 and 22.1% in second crop, respectively. It was determined that a clear difference between main and second crop soybean seed lots for seed vigor was found. Germination and emergence percentage were higher in the seed from second crop cultivation of the cultivars. There was no significant difference in germination percentage in cool and cold test while seedling growth was better in the seeds of second crop soybean. The highest seed vigor index (477.6) was found in the seeds of the cultivars grown at second crop. Standard germination percentage did not give a sensitive separation for determining seed vigor of soybean lots. It was concluded that second crop soybean seeds were found the most suitable for seed production while main crop soybean gave higher protein lower oil content.
Keywords: Glycine max L., germination, emergence, protein content, vigor testProcedia PDF Downloads 385
588 Comparative Analysis of the Treatment of Okra Seed and Soy Beans Oil with Crude Enzyme Extract from Malted Rice
Authors: Eduzor Esther, Uhiara Ngozi, Ya’u Abubakar Umar, Anayo Jacob Gabriel, Umar Ahmed
Abstract:The study investigated the characteristic effect of treating okra seed and soybeans seed oil with crude enzymes extract from malted rice. The oils from okra seeds and soybeans were obtained by solvent extraction method using N-hexane solvent. Soybeans seeds had higher percentage oil yield than okra seed. 250ml of each oil was thoroughly mixed with 5ml of the malted rice extract at 400C for 5mins and then filtered and regarded as treated oil while another batch of 250ml of each oil was not mixed with the malted rice extract and regarded as untreated oil. All the oils were analyzed for specific gravity, refractive index, emulsification capacity, absortivity, TSS and viscosity. Treated okra seed and soybeans oil gave higher values for specific gravity, than the untreated oil for okra seed and soybeans oil respectively. The emulsification capacity values were also higher for treated oils, when compared to the untreated oil, for okra seed and soybeans oil respectively. Treated okra seed and soybeans oil also had higher range of values for absorptivity, than the untreated oil for okra seed and soybeans respectively. The ranges of T.S.S values of the treated oil were also higher, than those of the untreated oil for okra seed and soybeans respectively. The results of viscosity showed that the treated oil had higher values, than the untreated oil for okra seed and soybeans oil respectively. However, the results of refractive index showed that the untreated oils had higher values ranges of than the treated oils for okra seed and soybeans respectively. Treated oil show better quality in respect to the parameters analyst, except the refractive index which is slightly less but also is within the rangiest of standard, the oils are high in unsaturation especially okra oil when compared with soya beans oil. It is recommended that, treated oil of okra seeds and soya beans can serve better than many oils that presently in use such as ground nut oil, palm oil and cotton seeds oil.
Keywords: extract, malted, oil, okra, rice, seed, soybeansProcedia PDF Downloads 360
587 Antimicrobial Activity of Seed Oil of Garlic and Moringa oleifera against Some Food-Borne Microorganisms
Authors: Mansur Abdulrasheed, Ibrahim I. Hussein, Ahmed M. Mubarak, Ahmed F. Umar
Abstract:This study was aimed at evaluating the phytochemical constituents and the antimicrobial activity of the seed oil of Moringa oleifera and garlic against some selected food-borne microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) using disc diffusion method. The results of the phytochemical screening revealed differences in the presence of the phytochemicals among the extracts. Saponins were detected in both Moringa oleifera and garlic seed oil, while alkaloid and tannins were observed in seed oil of garlic. Furthermore, the antibacterial assay results show that the seed oil of Moringa oleifera was inactive against all the tested organisms, even at 100 % concentration. In contrast, garlic oil was found to be active against all the tested organisms. The highest inhibition was observed in E. coli (12 mm) at 100 % concentration, while at 20 % concentration, Salmonella Sp and P. aeruginosa showed the least inhibiton (6 mm). The antimicrobial activity of the seed oil of garlic may be attributed to its phytochemicals components which were not detected in the seed oil of Moringa oleifera. The results of this study have shown the potentials of the seed oil of garlic as an antimicrobial agent more especially in foods, by inhibiting the growth of the test organisms, which range from food-borne pathogens to food spoilage organisms.
Keywords: antimicrobial, garlic, Moringa oleifera, food borne pathogensProcedia PDF Downloads 432
586 Comparison of Antimicrobial Activity of Seed Oil of Garlic and Moringa oleifera against Some Food-Borne Microorganisms
Authors: Mansur Abdulrasheed, Ibrahim I. Hussein, Ahmed M. Mubarak, Ahmed F. Umar
Abstract:This study was aimed at evaluating the phytochemical constituents and the antimicrobial activity of the seed oil of Moringa oleifera and garlic against some selected food-borne microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) using disc diffusion method. The results of the phytochemical screening revealed differences in the presence of the phytochemicals among the extracts. Saponins were detected in both Moringa oleifera and garlic seed oil, while alkaloid and tannins were observed in seed oil of garlic. Furthermore, the antibacterial assay results show that the seed oil of Moringa oleifera was inactive against all the tested organisms, even at 100 % concentration. In contrast, garlic oil was found to be active against all the tested organisms. The highest inhibition was observed in E. coli (12 mm)at 100 % concentration, while at 20 % concentration, Salmonella Sp and P. aeruginosa showed the least inhibit on (6 mm). The antimicrobial activity of the seed oil of garlic may be attributed to its phytochemicals components which were not detected in the seed oil of Moringa oleifera. The results of this study have shown the potentials of the seed oil of garlic as an antimicrobial agent more especially in foods, by inhibiting the growth of the test organisms, which range from food-borne pathogens to food spoilage organisms.
Keywords: antimicrobial, garlic, Moringa oleifera, food borne pathogensProcedia PDF Downloads 342
585 Pollination Effectiveness of Native Bee Species in Quality Seed Production of Berseem
Authors: Awais Ahmad, Mudssar Ali
Abstract:Berseem is the major fodder crop grown in Pakistan and is highly preferred by cattle farmers due to its multicut nature and nutritious value. The quality seed production in berseem is largely dependent upon the activities of insect pollinators, particularly bees. In order to determine the effectiveness of native bee species in quality seed production of berseem, an experiment was conducted in the research field of MNS-University of Agriculture, Multan, Pakistan. The pollinator community of berseem was composed of four bees, three syrphid fly, and two butterfly species. Pesudapis sp. was the most abundant insect visitor, followed by Apis mellifera and A. dorsata. The visitation rate of A. mellifera was found highest, followed by Pesudapis sp. and A. dorsata. Moreover, single-visit efficacy in terms of seed per head and 1000 seed weight proved A. mellifera and Pesudapis sp as the most effective pollinators. Conserving these bee species may lead to sustainable berseem seed production in Pakistan.
Keywords: honey bees, syrphid fly, visitation rate, single visitProcedia PDF Downloads 73
584 Effect of Nanoparticles on Wheat Seed Germination and Seedling Growth
Authors: Pankaj Singh Rawat, Rajeew Kumar, Pradeep Ram, Priyanka Pandey
Abstract:Wheat is an important cereal crop for food security. Boosting the wheat production and productivity is the major challenge across the nation. Good quality of seed is required for maintaining optimum plant stand which ultimately increases grain yield. Ensuring a good germination is one of the key steps to ensure proper plant stand and moisture assurance during seed germination may help to speed up the germination. The tiny size of nanoparticles may help in entry of water into seed without disturbing their internal structure. Considering above, a laboratory experiment was conducted during 2012-13 at G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, India. The completely randomized design was used for statistical analysis. The experiment was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, the appropriate concentration of nanoparticles for seed treatment was screened. In second phase seed soaking hours of nanoparticles for better seed germination were standardized. Wheat variety UP2526 was taken as test crop. Four nanoparticles (TiO2, ZnO, nickel and chitosan) were taken for study. The crop germination studies were done in petri dishes and standard package and practices were used to raise the seedlings. The germination studies were done by following standard procedure. In first phase of the experiment, seeds were treated with 50 and 300 ppm of nanoparticles and control was also maintained for comparison. In the second phase of experiment, seeds were soaked for 4 hours, 6 hours and 8 hours with 50 ppm nanoparticles of TiO2, ZnO, nickel and chitosan along with control treatment to identify the soaking time for better seed germination. Experiment revealed that the application of nanoparticles help to enhance seed germination. The study revealed that seed treatment with nanoparticles at 50 ppm concentration increases root length, shoot length, seedling length, shoot dry weight, seedling dry weight, seedling vigour index I and seedling vigour index II as compared to seed soaking at 300 ppm concentration. This experiment showed that seed soaking up to 4 hr was better as compared to 6 and 8 hrs. Seed soaking with nanoparticles specially TiO2, ZnO, and chitosan proved to enhance germination and seedling growth indices of wheat crop.
Keywords: nanoparticles, seed germination, seed soaking, wheatProcedia PDF Downloads 160
583 Effect of Pollination on Qualitative Characters of Rapeseed (Brassica campestris l. Var. Toria) Seed in Chitwan, Nepal
Authors: Rameshwor Pudasaini
Abstract:An experiment was conducted to study the effect of pollination quality of rapeseed seed in Chitwan during 2012-2013. The experiment was designed in Randomized Complete Block with four replications and five pollination treatments. The rapeseed plots were caged with mosquito nets at 10% flowering except natural pollination. Two-framed colonies of Apis mellifera L. and Apis cerana F. were introduced separately for pollination, and control plot caged without pollinators. The highest germination percent was observed on Apis cerana F. pollinated plot seeds (90.50% germination) and lowest on control plots (42.00% germination) seeds. Similarly, seed test weight of Apis cerana F. pollinated plots (3.22 gm/ 1000 seed) and Apis mellifera L. pollinated plots (2.93 gm/1000 seed) were and control plots (2.26 gm/ 1000 seed) recorded respectively. However, oil content was recorded highest on pollinated by Apis cerana F. (36.1 %) and lowest on control plots (32.8%). This study clearly indicated pollination increases the seed quality of rapeseed and therefore, management of honeybee is necessary for higher quality of rapeseed under Chitwan condition.
Keywords: apis cerana, apis mellifera, rapeseed pollination, rapeseed qualityProcedia PDF Downloads 271
582 Influence of Salicylic Acid on Yield and Some Physiological Parameters in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)
Authors: Farid Shekari
Abstract:Salicylic Acid (SA) is a plant hormone that improves some physiological responses of plants under stress conditions. Seeds of two desi type chickpea cultivars, viz., Kaka and Pirooz, primed with 250, 500, 750, and 1000 μM of SA and a group of seeds without any treating (as control) were evaluated under rain fed conditions. Seed priming in both cultivars led to higher efficiency compare to non-primed treatments. In general, seed priming with 500 and 750 μM of SA had appropriate effects; however the cultivars responses were different in this regard. Kaka showed better performance both in primed and non-primed seed than Pirooz. Results of this study revealed that not only yield quantity but also yield quality, as seed protein amounts, could positively affect by SA treatments. It seems that SA by enhancing of soluble sugars and proline amounts enhanced total water potential (ψ) and RWC. The increment in RWC led to rose of chlorophyll content of plants chlorophyll stability. In general, SA increased water use efficiency, both in biologic and seed yield base, and drought tolerance of chickpea plants. HI was a little decreased in SA treatments and it shows that SA more effective in biomass production than seed yield.
Keywords: chlorophyll, harvest index, proline, seed protein, soluble sugar, water use efficiency, yield componentProcedia PDF Downloads 323
581 Effect of Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Seed Oil on Keratinocytes in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis
Authors: Fardis Teifoori, Mehdi Dehghani, Idoia Postigo, Jorge Martinez
Abstract:Introduction: Many skin disorders, such as atopic dermatitis (AD), is characterized by inflammation, infection, and hyperplasia. In this work, keratinocytes from AD patients are used to study the pomegranate seed oil properties for skin care. Material and methods: Isolated keratinocytes from patients with AD were cultured and stimulated by IL-9 (20 ng/ml) and TNF-α (50ng/ml) for 48h to induce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) production, respectively, in the presence of different concentrations of pomegranate seed oil (20, 50, 100, and 200 µM). Finally, the concentrations of RANTES and VEGF in the cell culture supernatant were quantified according to the standard protocol of commercial ELISA kits. Results: The results indicated that pomegranate seed oil concentrations of 50, 100, and 200 µM could significantly inhibit the production of VEGF and RANTES by stimulating keratinocytes with IL-9 (20 ng/ml) and TNF-α (50ng/ml), respectively. The decrease in VEGF and RANTES concentration in the presence of the pomegranate seed oil concentrations of 20 and 50 uM was not significant. Conclusion: It was concluded that pomegranate seed oil (PSO) counteracts atopic dermatitis conditions dose-dependently: with the highest effect at the concentration of 200 µM. We suggest that the inexpensive and easily available pomegranate seed oil is a good candidate for cosmetics and clinical utilization for skin care.
Keywords: atopic dermatitis, pomegranate, Punica granatum, RANTES, VEGFProcedia PDF Downloads 20
580 Physicochemical Properties of Rambutan Seed Oil (RSO)
Authors: Nadya Hajar, Naemaa Mohamad, Nurul Azlin Tokiman, Nursabrina Munawar, Noor Hasvenda Abd Rahim
Abstract:Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) fruit is abundantly present in Malaysia during their season of the year. Its short shelf life at ambient temperature has contributed to fruit wastage. Thus, the initiative of producing canned Rambutan is an innovation that makes Rambutan fruit available throughout the year. The canned Rambutan industry leaves large amount of Rambutan seed. This study focused on utilization of Rambutan seed as a valuable product which is Rambutan Seed Oil (RSO). The RSO was extracted using Soxhlet Extraction Method for 8 hours. The objective of this study was to determine the physicochemical properties of RSO: melting point (°C), Refractive Index (RI), Total Carotene Content (TCC), water activity (Aw), acid value, peroxide value and saponification value. The results showed: 38.00±1.00 – 48.83±1.61°C melting point, 1.46±0.00 RI, 1.18±0.06mg/kg TCC, 0.4721±0.0176 Aw, 1.2162±0.1520mg KOH/g acid value, 9.6000±0.4000g/g peroxide value and 146.8040±18.0182mg KOH/g saponification value, respectively. According to the results, RSO showed high industrial potential as cocoa butter replacement in chocolates and cosmetics production.
Keywords: Cocoa butter replacer, Rambutan, Rambutan seed, Rambutan seed oil (RSO)Procedia PDF Downloads 372
579 Effect of Chemical, Organic and Biological Nitrogen on Yield and Yield Components of Soybean Cultivars
Authors: Hamid Hatami
Abstract:This experiment was included two cultivars i.e. Habbit and L17 (Main factor) with six fertilizer treatments i.e. control, seed inoculated with rhyzobium, base nitrogen + top-dress urea at R2 stage, base nitrogen + seed inoculated with rhyzobium + top-dress nitrogen at R2 stage, seed treated with humax + top-dress humax at R2 stage, base nitrogen + seed treated with humax + top-dress humax at R2 stage (sub factors ), as split-plot on the basis of RCBD with 3 replications at 2014. Treatment fertilizer of base nitrogen + seed treated with humax + top- dress humax at R2 stage and base nitrogen + top-dress urea in R2 stage had a significant superiority than the other fertilizer treatment in biological yield. L17 and Habbit with base nitrogen + seed treated with humax + top-dress humax in R2 stage and yield economical 5600 and 5767 kg/ha respectively, showed the most economical yield and Habbit cultivar with control and economical yield 3085 kg/ha showed the least economical yield among all the treatments. Results showed that fertilizer treatment of base nitrogen + seed treated with humax + top-dress humax in R2 stage and Habbit variety were suitable in this study.
Keywords: soybean, humax, rhyzobium, habbitProcedia PDF Downloads 329
578 Determination of Some Agricultural Characters of Developed Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Lines
Authors: Ercan Ceyhan, Mehmet Ali Avci
Abstract:This research was made during the 2015 growing periods in the trial filed of ‘Research Station for Department of Field Crops, Agricultural Faculty, Selcuk University’ according to ‘Randomized Blocks Design’ with 3 replications. Research material was the following pea lines; PS16, PS18, PS21, PS23, PS24, PS25, PS36, PS47, PS49, PS51, PS54, PS58, PS67, PS69, PS71, PS73, PS83, PS84, PS87 and PSKY and three cultivars and other 2 commercial varieties named as Bolero, Rondo and Ultrello. Some agronomical characteristics such as plant height (cm) number of pod per plant number of seed per pod number of seed per plant 100 seed weight (g) and seed yield (kg ha-1) were determined. Results of the research implicated that the new developed lines were superior compared with the control (commercial) varieties by means of most of the characteristics. Nevertheless, similar researches should be continued in different locations and years.
Keywords: agricultural characters, pea, Pisum sativum, seed yieldProcedia PDF Downloads 164
577 Effects of Fenugreek Seed Extract on in vitro Maturation and Subsequent Development of Sheep Oocytes
Authors: Ibrahim A. H. Barakat, Ahmed R. Al-Himaidi
Abstract:The present study was conducted to determine the role and optimum concentration of fenugreek seed extract during in-vitro maturation on in-vitro maturation and developmental competence of Neaimi sheep oocytes following in-vitro fertilization. The Cumulus Oocyte Complexes (COCs) collected from sheep slaughterhouse ovaries were randomly divided into three groups, and they were matured for 24 hrs. in maturation medium containing fenugreek seed extract (0, 1 and 10 µg ml-1). Oocytes of a control group were matured in a medium containing 1 µg ml-1 estradiol 17β. After maturation, half of oocytes were fixed and stained for evaluation of nuclear maturation. The rest of oocytes were fertilized in vitro with fresh semen, then cultured for 9 days for the assessment of the developmental capacity of the oocytes. The results showed that the mean values of oocytes with expanded cumulus cells percentage were not significantly different among all groups (P < 0.05). But nuclear maturation rate of oocytes matured with 10 µg ml-1 fenugreek seed extract was significantly higher than that of the control group. The maturation rate and development to morula and blastocyst stage for oocytes matured at 10 µg ml-1 fenugreek seed extract was significantly higher than those matured at 1µg ml-1 of fenugreek seed extract and the control group. In conclusion, better maturation and developmental capacity rate to morula and blastocyst stage were obtained by the addition of 10 µg ml-1 fenugreek seed extract to maturation medium than addition of 1 µg ml-1 estradiol-17β (P < 0.05).
Keywords: fenugreek seed extract, in vitro maturation, sheep oocytes, in vitro fertilization, embryo developmentProcedia PDF Downloads 330