Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 65

Search results for: Dagmawit Solomon

65 Student Attendance System Applying Reed Solomon ECC

Authors: Mohd Noah A. Rahman, Armandurni Abd Rahman, Afzaal H. Seyal, Md Rizal Md Hendry

Abstract:

The article reports an automated student attendance system modeled and developed for use at a Vocational school. This project focuses on developing an application using a QR code utilizing the Reed-Solomon error correction code using a smartphone scanned through a webcam. This system enables us to speed up the process of taking attendance and would save us valuable teaching time. This is planned to help students avoid consequences that may result from poor attendances which will eventually penalize them from sitting their final examination as required.

Keywords: QR code, Reed-Solomon, error correction, system design.

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
64 Unequal Error Protection of VQ Image Transmission System

Authors: Khelifi Mustapha, A. Moulay lakhdar, I. Elawady

Abstract:

We will study the unequal error protection for VQ image. We have used the Reed Solomon (RS) Codes as Channel coding because they offer better performance in terms of channel error correction over a binary output channel. One such channel (binary input and output) should be considered if it is the case of the application layer, because it includes all the features of the layers located below and on the what it is usually not feasible to make changes.

Keywords: vector quantization, channel error correction, Reed-Solomon channel coding, application

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
63 Characterization of Onboard Reliable Error Correction Code FORSDRAM Controller

Authors: N. Pitcheswara Rao

Abstract:

In the process of conveying the information there may be a chance of signal being corrupted which leads to the erroneous bits in the message. The message may consist of single, double and multiple bit errors. In high-reliability applications, memory can sustain multiple soft errors due to single or multiple event upsets caused by environmental factors. The traditional hamming code with SEC-DED capability cannot be address these types of errors. It is possible to use powerful non-binary BCH code such as Reed-Solomon code to address multiple errors. However, it could take at least a couple dozen cycles of latency to complete first correction and run at a relatively slow speed. In order to overcome this drawback i.e., to increase speed and latency we are using reed-Muller code.

Keywords: SEC-DED, BCH code, Reed-Solomon code, Reed-Muller code

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62 Characterization of Onboard Reliable Error Correction Code for SDRAM Controller

Authors: Pitcheswara Rao Nelapati

Abstract:

In the process of conveying the information there may be a chance of signal being corrupted which leads to the erroneous bits in the message. The message may consist of single, double and multiple bit errors. In high-reliability applications, memory can sustain multiple soft errors due to single or multiple event upsets caused by environmental factors. The traditional hamming code with SEC-DED capability cannot be address these types of errors. It is possible to use powerful non-binary BCH code such as Reed-Solomon code to address multiple errors. However, it could take at least a couple dozen cycles of latency to complete first correction and run at a relatively slow speed. In order to overcome this drawback i.e., to increase speed and latency we are using reed-Muller code.

Keywords: SEC-DED, BCH code, Reed-Solomon code, Reed-Muller code

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
61 A Theoretical Study on Pain Assessment through Human Facial Expresion

Authors: Mrinal Kanti Bhowmik, Debanjana Debnath Jr., Debotosh Bhattacharjee

Abstract:

A facial expression is undeniably the human manners. It is a significant channel for human communication and can be applied to extract emotional features accurately. People in pain often show variations in facial expressions that are readily observable to others. A core of actions is likely to occur or to increase in intensity when people are in pain. To illustrate the changes in the facial appearance, a system known as Facial Action Coding System (FACS) is pioneered by Ekman and Friesen for human observers. According to Prkachin and Solomon, a set of such actions carries the bulk of information about pain. Thus, the Prkachin and Solomon pain intensity (PSPI) metric is defined. So, it is very important to notice that facial expressions, being a behavioral source in communication media, provide an important opening into the issues of non-verbal communication in pain. People express their pain in many ways, and this pain behavior is the basis on which most inferences about pain are drawn in clinical and research settings. Hence, to understand the roles of different pain behaviors, it is essential to study the properties. For the past several years, the studies are concentrated on the properties of one specific form of pain behavior i.e. facial expression. This paper represents a comprehensive study on pain assessment that can model and estimate the intensity of pain that the patient is suffering. It also reviews the historical background of different pain assessment techniques in the context of painful expressions. Different approaches incorporate FACS from psychological views and a pain intensity score using the PSPI metric in pain estimation. This paper investigates in depth analysis of different approaches used in pain estimation and presents different observations found from each technique. It also offers a brief study on different distinguishing features of real and fake pain. Therefore, the necessity of the study lies in the emerging fields of painful face assessment in clinical settings.

Keywords: facial action coding system (FACS), pain, pain behavior, Prkachin and Solomon pain intensity (PSPI)

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60 Toxic Chemicals from Industries into Pacific Biota. Investigation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Dioxins (PCDD), Furans (PCDF) and Polybrominated Diphenyls (PBDE No. 47) in Tuna and Shellfish in Kiribati, Solomon Islands and the Fiji Islands

Authors: Waisea Votadroka, Bert Van Bavel

Abstract:

The most commonly consumed shellfish species produced in the Pacific, shellfish and tuna fish, were investigated for the occurrence of a range of brominated and chlorinated contaminants in order to establish current levels. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were analysed in the muscle of tuna species Katsuwonis pelamis, yellow fin tuna, and shellfish species from the Fiji Islands. The investigation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), furans (PCDFs) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDE No.47) in tuna and shellfish in Kiribati, Solomon Islands and Fiji is necessary due to the lack of research data in the Pacific region. The health risks involved in the consumption of marine foods laced with toxic organo-chlorinated and brominated compounds makes in the analyses of these compounds in marine foods important particularly when Pacific communities rely on these resources as their main diet. The samples were homogenized in a motor with anhydrous sodium sulphate in the ratio of 1:3 (muscle) and 1:4-1:5 (roe and butter). The tuna and shellfish samples were homogenized and freeze dried at the sampling location at the Institute of Applied Science, Fiji. All samples were stored in amber glss jars at -18 ° C until extraction at Orebro University. PCDD/Fs, PCBs and pesticides were all analysed using an Autospec Ultina HRGC/HRMS operating at 10,000 resolutions with EI ionization at 35 eV. All the measurements were performed in the selective ion recording mode (SIR), monitoring the two most abundant ions of the molecular cluster (PCDD/Fs and PCBs). Results indicated that the Fiji Composite sample for Batissa violacea range 0.7-238.6 pg/g lipid; Fiji sample composite Anadara antiquate range 1.6 – 808.6 pg/g lipid; Solomon Islands Katsuwonis Pelamis 7.5-3770.7 pg/g lipid; Solomon Islands Yellow Fin tuna 2.1 -778.4 pg/g lipid; Kiribati Katsuwonis Pelamis 4.8-1410 pg/g lipids. The study has demonstrated that these species are good bio-indicators of the presence of these toxic organic pollutants in edible marine foods. Our results suggest that for pesticides levels, p,p-DDE is the most dominant for all the groups and seems to be highest at 565.48 pg/g lipid in composite Batissa violacea from Fiji. For PBDE no.47 in comparing all samples, the composite Batissa violacea from Fiji had the highest level of 118.20 pg/g lipid. Based upon this study, the contamination levels found in the study species were quite lower compared with levels reported in impacted ecosystems around the world

Keywords: polychlorinated biphenyl, polybrominated diphenylethers, pesticides, organoclorinated pesticides, PBDEs

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
59 Reducing Road Traffic Accident: Rapid Evidence Synthesis for Low and Middle Income Countries

Authors: Tesfaye Dagne, Dagmawit Solomon, Firmaye Bogale, Yosef Gebreyohannes, Samson Mideksa, Mamuye Hadis, Desalegn Ararso, Ermias Woldie, Tsegaye Getachew, Sabit Ababor, Zelalem Kebede

Abstract:

Globally, road traffic accident (RTA) is causing millions of deaths and injuries every year. It is one of the leading causes of death among people of all age groups and the problem is worse among young reproductive age group. Moreover the problem is increasing with an increasing number of vehicles. The majority of the problem happen in low and middle income countries (LMIC), even if the number of vehicles in these countries is low compared to their population. So, the objective of this paper is to summarize the best available evidence on interventions that can reduce road traffic accidents in low and middle income countries (LMIC). Method: A rapid evidence synthesis approach adapted from the SURE Rapid Response Service was applied to search, appraise and summarize the best available evidence on effective intervention in reducing road traffic injury. To answer the question under review, we searched for relevant studies from databases including PubMed, the Cochrane Library, TRANSPORT, Health system evidence, Epistemonikos, and SUPPORT summary. The following key terms were used for searching: Road traffic accident, RTA, Injury, Reduc*, Prevent*, Minimiz*, “Low and middle-income country”, LMIC. We found 18 articles through a search of different databases mentioned above. After screening for the titles and abstracts of the articles, four of them which satisfy the inclusion criteria were included in the final review. Then we appraised and graded the methodological quality of systematic reviews that are deemed to be highly relevant using AMSTAR. Finding: The identified interventions to reduce road traffic accidents were legislation and enforcement, public awareness/education, speed control/ rumble strips, road improvement, mandatory motorcycle helmet, graduated driver license, street lighting. Legislation and Enforcement: Legislation focusing on mandatory motorcycle helmet usage, banning cellular phone usage when driving, seat belt laws, decreasing the legal blood alcohol content (BAC) level from 0.06 g/L to 0.02 g/L bring the best result where enforcement is there. Public Awareness/Education: focusing on seat belt use, child restraint use, educational training in health centers and schools/universities, and public awareness with media through the distribution of videos, posters/souvenirs, and pamphlets are effective in the short run. Speed Control: through traffic calming bumps, or speed bumps, rumbled strips are effective in reducing accidents and fatality. Mandatory Motorcycle Helmet: is associated with reduction in mortality. Graduated driver’s license (GDL): reduce road traffic injury by 19%. Street lighting: is a low-cost intervention which may reduce road traffic accidents.

Keywords: evidence synthesis, injury, rapid review, reducing, road traffic accident

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58 Bioactive Secondary Metabolites from Culturable Unusual Actinomycetes from Solomon Islands Marine Sediments: Isolation and Characterisation of Bioactive Compounds

Authors: Ahilya Singh, Brad Carte, Ramesh Subramani, William Aalbersberg

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A total of 37 actinomycete strains were purified from 25 Solomon Islands marine sediments using four different types of isolation media. Among them, 54% of the strains had obligate requirement of seawater for growth. The ethyl acetate extract of 100 ml fermentation product of each strain was screened for antimicrobial activity against multidrug resistant human pathogens and cytotoxic activity against brine shrimps. A total of 67% of the ethyl acetate extracts showed antimicrobial and/or cytotoxic activities. A strain F-1915 was selected for isolation and evaluation of bioactive compound(s) based on its bioactive properties and chemical profile analysis using the LC-MS. The strain F-1915 was identified to have 96% sequence similarity to Streptomyces violaceusniger on the basis of 16S rDNA sequences using BLAST analysis. The 16S rDNA revealed that the strain F-1915 is a new member of MAR4 clade of actinomycetes. The MAR4 clade is an interesting clade of actinomycetes known for the production of pharmaceutically important hybrid isoprenoid compounds. The ethyl acetate extract of the fermentation product of this strain was purified by silica gel column chromatography and afforded the isolation of one bioactive pure compound. Based on the 1D and 2D NMR spectral data of compound 1 it was identified as a new mono-brominated phenazinone, Marinophenazimycin A, a structure which has already been studied by external collaborators at Scripps Institution of Oceanography but is yet to be published. Compound 1 displayed significant antimicrobial activity against drug resistant human pathogens. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of compound 1 was against Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was about 1.9 μg/ml and MIC recorded against Amphotericin Resistant Candida albicans (ARCA) was about 0.24 μg/ml. The bioactivity of compound 1 against ARCA was found to be better than the standard antifungal agent amphotericin B. Compound 1 however did not show any cytotoxic activity against brine shrimps.

Keywords: actinomycetes, antimicrobial activity, brominated phenazine, MAR4 clade, marine natural products, multidrug resistent, 1D and 2D NMR

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57 Effect of Viscosity on Propagation of MHD Waves in Astrophysical Plasma

Authors: Alemayehu Mengesha, Solomon Belay

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We determine the general dispersion relation for the propagation of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves in an astrophysical plasma by considering the effect of viscosity with an anisotropic pressure tensor. Basic MHD equations have been derived and linearized by the method of perturbation to develop the general form of the dispersion relation equation. Our result indicates that an astrophysical plasma with an anisotropic pressure tensor is stable in the presence of viscosity and a strong magnetic field at considerable wavelength. Currently, we are doing the numerical analysis of this work.

Keywords: astrophysical, magnetic field, instability, MHD, wavelength, viscosity

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56 On Hankel Matrices Approach to Interpolation Problem in Infinite and Finite Fields

Authors: Ivan Baravy

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Interpolation problem, as it was initially posed in terms of polynomials, is well researched. However, further mathematical developments extended it significantly. Trigonometric interpolation is widely used in Fourier analysis, while its generalized representation as exponential interpolation is applicable to such problem of mathematical physics as modelling of Ziegler-Biersack-Littmark repulsive interatomic potentials. Formulated for finite fields, this problem arises in decoding Reed--Solomon codes. This paper shows the relation between different interpretations of the problem through the class of matrices of special structure - Hankel matrices.

Keywords: Berlekamp-Massey algorithm, exponential interpolation, finite fields, Hankel matrices, Hankel polynomials

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55 A Scheme Cooperating with Cryptography to Enhance Security in Satellite Communications

Authors: Chieh-Fu Chang, Wan-Hsin Hsieh

Abstract:

We have proposed a novel scheme— iterative word-extension (IWE) to enhance the cliff effect of Reed-Solomon codes regarding the error performance at a specific Eb/N0. The scheme can be readily extended to block codes and the important properties of IWE are further investigated here. In order to select proper block codes specifying the desired cliff Eb/N0, the associated features of IWE are explored. These properties and features grant IWE ability to enhance security regarding the received Eb/N0 in physical layer so that IWE scheme can cooperate with the traditional presentation layer approach — cryptography, to meet the secure requirements in diverse applications. The features and feasibility of IWE scheme in satellite communication are finally discussed.

Keywords: security, IWE, cliff effect, space communications

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54 Social Norms around Adolescent Girls’ Marriage Practices in Ethiopia: A Qualitative Exploration

Authors: Dagmawit Tewahido

Abstract:

Purpose: This qualitative study was conducted to explore social norms around adolescent girls’ marriage practices in West Hararghe, Ethiopia, where early marriage is prohibited by law. Methods: Twenty Focus Group Discussions were conducted with Married and Unmarried adolescent girls, adolescent boys and parents of girls using locally developed vignettes. A total of 32 in-depth interviews were conducted with married and unmarried adolescent girls, husbands of adolescent girls and mothers-in-law. Key informant interviews were conducted with 36 district officials. Data analysis was assisted by Open Code computer software. The Social Norms Analysis Plot (SNAP) framework developed by CARE guided the development and analysis of vignettes. A thematic data analysis approach was utilized to summarize the data. Results: Early marriage is seen as a positive phenomenon in our study context, and girls who are not married by the perceived ideal age of 15 are socially sanctioned. They are particularly influenced by their peers to marry. Marrying early is considered a chance given by God and a symbol of good luck. The two common types of marriage are decided: 1) by adolescent girl and boy themselves without seeking parental permission (’Jalaa-deemaa’- meaning ‘to go along’), and 2) by just informing girl’s parents (‘Cabsaa’- meaning ‘to break the culture’). Relatives and marriage brokers also arrange early marriages. Girls usually accept the first marriage proposal regardless of their age. Parents generally tend not to oppose marriage arrangements chosen by their daughters. Conclusions: In the study context social norms encourage early marriage despite the existence of a law prohibiting marriage before the age of eighteen years. Early marriage commonly happens through consensual arrangements between adolescent girls and boys. Interventions to reduce early marriage need to consider the influence of Reference Groups on the decision makers for marriages, especially girls’ own peers.

Keywords: adolescent girls, social norms, early marriage, Ethiopia

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53 The Effect of Group Counseling on the Victimhood Perceptions of Adolescent Who Are the Subject of Peer Victimization and on Their Coping Strategies

Authors: İsmail Seçer, Taştan Seçer

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In this study, the effect of the group counseling on the victimhood perceptions of the primary school 7th and 8th grade students who are determined to be the subject of peer victimization and their dealing way with it was analyzed. The research model is Solomon Four Group Experimental Model. In this model, there are four groups that were determined with random sampling. Two of the groups have been used as experimental group and the other two have been used as control group. Solomon model is defined as real experimental model. In real experimental models, there are multiple groups consisting of subject which have similar characteristics, and selection of the subjects is done with random sampling. For this purpose, 230 students from Kültür Kurumu Primary School in Erzurum were asked to fill Adolescent Peer Victim Form. 100 students whose victim scores were higher and who were determined to be the subject of bullying were talked face to face and informed about the current study, and they were asked if they were willing to participate or not. As a result of these interviews, 60 students were determined to participate in the experimental study and four group consisting of 15 people were created with simple random sampling method. After the groups had been formed, experimental and control group were determined with casting lots. After determining experimental and control groups, an 11-session group counseling activity which was prepared by the researcher according to the literature was applied. The purpose of applying group counseling is to change the ineffective dealing ways with bullying and their victimhood perceptions. Each session was planned to be 75 minutes and applied as planned. In the control groups, counseling activities in the primary school counseling curricula was applied for 11 weeks. As a result of the study, physical, emotional and verbal victimhood perceptions of the participants in the experimental groups were decreased significantly compared to pre-experimental situations and to those in control group. Besides, it was determined that this change observed in the victimhood perceptions of the experimental group occurred independently from the effect of variables such as gender, age and academic success. The first evidence of the study related to the dealing ways is that the scores of the participants in the experimental group related to the ineffective dealing ways such as despair and avoidance is decreased significantly compared to the pre-experimental situation and to those in control group. The second evidence related to the dealing ways is that the scores of the participants in the experimental group related to effective dealing ways such as seeking for help, consulting social support, resistance and optimism is increased significantly compared to the pre-experimental situation and to those in control group. According to the evidence obtained through the study, it can be said that group counseling is an effective approach to change the victimhood perceptions of the individuals who are the subject of bullying and their dealing strategies with it.

Keywords: bullying, perception of victimization, coping strategies, ancova analysis

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52 Sustainable Harvesting, Conservation and Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Polygonatum Verticillatum Linn.

Authors: Anchal Rana

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Indian Himalayas with their diverse climatic conditions are home to many rare and endangered medicinal flora. One such species is Polygonatum verticillatum Linn., popularly known as King Solomon’s Seal or Solomon’s Seal. Its mention as an incredible medicinal herb comes from 5000 years ago in Indian Materia Medica as a component of Ashtavarga, a poly-herbal formulation comprising of eight herbs illustrated as world’s first ever revitalizing and rejuvenating nutraceutical food, which is now commercialised in the name ‘Chaywanprash’. It is an erect tall (60 to 120 cm) perennial herb with sessile, linear leaves and white pendulous flowers. The species grows well in an altitude range of 1600 to 3600 m amsl, and propagates mostly through rhizomes. The rhizomes are potential source for significant phytochemicals like flavonoids, phenolics, lectins, terpenoids, allantoin, diosgenin, β-Sitosterol and quinine. The presence of such phytochemicals makes the species an asset for antioxidant, cardiotonic, demulcent, diuretic, energizer, emollient, aphrodisiac, appetizer, glactagogue, etc. properties. Having profound concentrations of macro and micronutrients, species has fine prospects of being used as a diet supplement. However, due to unscientific and gregarious uprooting, it has been assigned a status of ‘vulnerable’ and ‘endangered’ in the Conservation Assessment and Management Plan (CAMP) process conducted by Foundation for Revitalisation of Local Health Traditions (FRLHT) during 2010, according to IUCN Red-List Criteria. Further, destructive harvesting, land use disturbances, heavy livestock grazing, climatic changes and habitat fragmentation have substantially contributed towards anomaly of the species. It, therefore, became imperative to conserve the diversity of the species and make judicious use in future research and commercial programme and schemes. A Gene Bank was therefore established at High Altitude Herbal Garden of the Forest Research Institute, Dehradun, India situated at Chakarata (30042’52.99’’N, 77051’36.77’’E, 2205 m amsl) consisting 149 accessions collected from thirty-one geographical locations spread over three Himalayan States of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, and Uttarakhand. The present investigations purport towards sampling and collection of divergent germplasm followed by planting and cultivation techniques. The ultimate aim is thereby focussed on analysing genetic diversity of the species and capturing promising genotypes for carrying out further genetic improvement programme so to contribute towards sustainable development and healthcare.

Keywords: Polygonatum verticillatum Linn., phytochemicals, genetic diversity, conservation, gene bank

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51 Women Empowerment and Sustainable Community Development: Understanding the Challenges for Responsive Action

Authors: Albert T. Akume, Ankama G. Rosecana, Micheal Solomon

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Every citizen has rights that must be respected by others in the community. Ironically however, women in most communities are not accorded some of those rights as the male folks. This has not only facilitated their disempowerment but inhibited them from being treated with equal dignity that they deserve as their male counterpart; despite their valuable contribution to the society. Those forces against women empowerment are not limited to socio-cultural practices alone, but the character and nature of the state in Nigeria point to indicators of systemic and structural exclusion embedded in its framework. The consequence of this is that the vital contributions of women to sustainable community development have eluded many communities in Nigeria with adverse tell-tell signs on the environment. It is for this reason that the objective of this study is not only to highlight the causes and challenges associated with women disempowerment, but also to draw attention to the need to correct those anomaly against women in order to genuinely empower them to contribute to sustainable community development in Nigeria.

Keywords: capacity development, community, social sustainability, sustainable development, women empowerment

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50 The Design, Control and Dynamic Performance of an Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator for Wind Power System

Authors: Olusegun Solomon

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This paper describes the concept for the design and maximum power point tracking control for an interior permanent magnet synchronous generator wind turbine system. Two design concepts are compared to outline the effect of magnet design on the performance of the interior permanent magnet synchronous generator. An approximate model that includes the effect of core losses has been developed for the machine to simulate the dynamic performance of the wind energy system. An algorithm for Maximum Power Point Tracking control is included to describe the process for maximum power extraction.

Keywords: permanent magnet synchronous generator, wind power system, wind turbine

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49 Discriminant Analysis as a Function of Predictive Learning to Select Evolutionary Algorithms in Intelligent Transportation System

Authors: Jorge A. Ruiz-Vanoye, Ocotlán Díaz-Parra, Alejandro Fuentes-Penna, Daniel Vélez-Díaz, Edith Olaco García

Abstract:

In this paper, we present the use of the discriminant analysis to select evolutionary algorithms that better solve instances of the vehicle routing problem with time windows. We use indicators as independent variables to obtain the classification criteria, and the best algorithm from the generic genetic algorithm (GA), random search (RS), steady-state genetic algorithm (SSGA), and sexual genetic algorithm (SXGA) as the dependent variable for the classification. The discriminant classification was trained with classic instances of the vehicle routing problem with time windows obtained from the Solomon benchmark. We obtained a classification of the discriminant analysis of 66.7%.

Keywords: Intelligent Transportation Systems, data-mining techniques, evolutionary algorithms, discriminant analysis, machine learning

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48 Migration and Policy Dedication in Ethiopia: A Study of Migration of Hadiya People

Authors: Solomon Tagesse

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This study has been conducted on “Migration and Policy Dedication in Ethiopia: A Study of Migration of Hadiya People,” which was aimed at scrutinizing the reason for Hadiya people's migration from Ethiopia to the Republic of South Africa. Basically, a qualitative research approach has been employed to address the justified problem and to achieve the objectives stated accordingly. The purposive and snowball sampling techniques were employed to identify the study sites and respondents for the study. Field observations, interviews, focus group discussions and recording of data were used as instruments to collect data. It has been observed that lack of jobs and peer pressure, lack of interest to learn and work, scarcity and low wages were push factors; whereas job opportunity and better income; the existence of families, relatives and friends pull factors. Communication, transportation, the existence of brokers, etc., were also found to be intermediary factors. Based on the findings, recommendations and policy suggestions have been made in specific areas of the study.

Keywords: migration, reason, migrant, households

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47 Kinetic Parameter Estimation from Thermogravimetry and Microscale Combustion Calorimetry

Authors: Rhoda Afriyie Mensah, Lin Jiang, Solomon Asante-Okyere, Xu Qiang, Cong Jin

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Flammability analysis of extruded polystyrene (XPS) has become crucial due to its utilization as insulation material for energy efficient buildings. Using the Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa methods, the degradation kinetics of two pure XPS from the local market, red and grey ones, were obtained from the results of thermogravity analysis (TG) and microscale combustion calorimetry (MCC) experiments performed under the same heating rates. From the experiments, it was discovered that red XPS released more heat than grey XPS and both materials showed two mass loss stages. Consequently, the kinetic parameters for red XPS were higher than grey XPS. A comparative evaluation of activation energies from MCC and TG showed an insignificant degree of deviation signifying an equivalent apparent activation energy from both methods. However, different activation energy profiles as a result of the different chemical pathways were presented when the dependencies of the activation energies on extent of conversion for TG and MCC were compared.

Keywords: flammability, microscale combustion calorimetry, thermogravity analysis, thermal degradation, kinetic analysis

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46 The Role of Regional Economic Communities in Fighting Terrorism in Africa: The Case of Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD)

Authors: Memar Ayalew Demeke, Solomon Gebreyohans Gebru

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In Africa, Regional Economic Communities (RECs) were initially established to tackle the economic challenges of the continent. However, overtime, they expanded their mandate to deal with the security threats of the continent such as terrorism. In fact, the fight against terrorism has been internationalized following the September 9/11 terrorist attack in the U.S.A. Since then, RECs have been giving considerable attention to preventing and combating terrorism in their respective regions. Similarly, IGAD has been involved in preventing and combating terrorism. So far, however, little has been done with regard to what IGAD has performed in fighting terrorism. Therefore, this study was intended to describe and analyze the legal and practical activities carried out by IGAD in its fight against terrorism in the region general and in Somalia in particular. Both descriptive and analytical methods were employed and data were analyzed through qualitative approach. Finally, based on the findings, the study argues that, instead of over-reliance on hard power as a means of fighting terrorism, IGAD should invest more on the political and socio-economic problems of its member states so as to address the root causes.

Keywords: regional economic communities, IGAD, terrorism, treaties, conventions

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45 Relationship of Teachers' Personality and Peer Pressure on Adolescents' Personality Development in Mainland Local Government Area, Lagos State, Nigeria

Authors: Solomon Olusegun Olugbenro

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The purpose of this study is to ascertain the relationship of teachers' personalty and peer pressure on adolescents' personalty in mainland local government, Lagos State, Nigeria. The research design for this study was survey. A representative fraction of the population of mainland local government of lagos was used as sample. One hundred and fifty (150) teenagers whose age ranged from 11-19 from six randomly selected public and private secondary schools in mainland local government area of lagos were used. A four-point likert type questionnaire was constructed for eliciting data for this study. Data were analysed using t-test. The study revealed that there is a significant relationship between teachers' and adolescents' personality development. The study also revealed that there is significant relationship between peer pressure and adolescents' personality development. It was recommended that teachers should be role models to students as they manipulate environmental factors to assist adolescents in their personality development.

Keywords: adolescents, behavior, development, peer pressure, personality, relationship, significant, teachers

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44 Use of Waste Road-Asphalt as Aggregate in Pavement Block Production

Authors: Babagana Mohammed, Abdulmuminu Mustapha Ali, Solomon Ibrahim, Buba Ahmad Umdagas

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This research investigated the possibility of replacing coarse and fine aggregates with waste road-asphalt (RWA), when sieved appropriately, in concrete production. Interlock pavement block is used widely in many parts of the world as modern day solution to outdoor flooring applications. The weight-percentage replacements of both coarse and fine aggregates with RWA at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% respectively using a concrete mix ratio of 1:2:4 and water-to-cement ratio of 0.45 were carried out. The interlock block samples produced were then cured for 28days. Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) and the water absorption properties of the samples were then tested. Comparison of the results of the RWA-containing samples to those of the respective control samples shows significant benefits of using RWA in interlock block production. UCS results of RWA-containing samples compared well with those of the control samples and the RWA content also influenced the lowering of the water absorption of the samples. Overall, the research shows that it is possible to replace both coarse and fine aggregates with RWA materials when sieved appropriately, hence indicating that RWA could be recycled beneficially.

Keywords: aggregate, block-production, pavement, road-asphalt, use, waste

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43 The Influence of Theories and Approaches to Educational Policy and Planning in Ghana’s Current Educational Developments

Authors: Ruth Donkoh, Wing On Lee, Solomon A. Boateng, Portia Oware Twerefoo, Josephine Donkor

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In this paper we defend the value of theories and approaches to educational policy and planning in enhancing the educational developments in Ghana. This mission is achieved by enumerating the recent educational developments in Ghana and juxtaposing it with some educational theories, approaches to policy making, and policy planning to see if the educational developments conform with the theory principles as well as policy making and planning processes. Data collection for the research was made through textual analysis of policy documents as well as review of relevant literatures. The findings reveled that educational developments in Ghana are unable to attain its objectives due to the policies not conforming with the policy formation and planning principles. In addition, was that education planning in Ghana does not follow the policy-administration dichotomy theory principles and likewise the distribution of educational needs goes contrary to the equity theory. We recommend that educational policies in Ghana should be in conformity with the principles of theories as well as the approaches to educational policy making and planning to help meet the needs of learners, attain educational quality, and to help in the accomplishment of educational development objectives.

Keywords: Ghana education, equity theories, politics- administration dichotomy theory, educational policies, educational planning

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42 Drying Kinetics, Energy Requirement, Bioactive Composition, and Mathematical Modeling of Allium Cepa Slices

Authors: Felix U. Asoiro, Meshack I. Simeon, Chinenye E. Azuka, Harami Solomon, Chukwuemeka J. Ohagwu

Abstract:

The drying kinetics, specific energy consumed (SEC), effective moisture diffusivity (EMD), flavonoid, phenolic, and vitamin C contents of onion slices dried under convective oven drying (COD) were compared with microwave drying (MD). Drying was performed with onion slice thicknesses of 2, 4, 6, and 8 mm; air drying temperatures of 60, 80, and 100°C for COD, and microwave power of 450 W for MD. A decrease in slice thickness and an increase in drying air temperature led to a drop in the drying time. As thickness increased from 2 – 8 mm, EMD rose from 1.1-4.35 x 10⁻⁸ at 60°C, 1.1-5.6 x 10⁻⁸ at 80°C, and 1.25-6.12 x 10⁻⁸ at 100°C with MD treatments yielding the highest mean value (6.65 x 10⁻⁸ m² s⁻¹) at 8 mm. Maximum SEC for onion slices in COD was 238.27 kWh/kg H₂O (2 mm thickness), and the minimum was 39.4 kWh/kg H₂O (8 mm thickness) whereas maximum during MD was 25.33 kWh/kg H₂O (8 mm thickness) and minimum, 18.7 kWh/kg H₂O (2 mm thickness). MD treatment gave a significant (p 0.05) increase in the flavonoid (39.42 – 64.4%), phenolic (38.0 – 46.84%), and vitamin C (3.7 – 4.23 mg 100 g⁻¹) contents, while COD treatment at 60°C and 100°C had positive effects on only vitamin C and phenolic contents, respectively. In comparison, the Weibull model gave the overall best fit (highest R²=0.999; lowest SSE=0.0002, RSME=0.0123, and χ²= 0.0004) when drying 2 mm onion slices at 100°C.

Keywords: allium cepa, drying kinetics, specific energy consumption, flavonoid, vitamin C, microwave oven drying

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41 Performance of Coded Multi-Line Copper Wire for G.fast Communications in the Presence of Impulsive Noise

Authors: Israa Al-Neami, Ali J. Al-Askery, Martin Johnston, Charalampos Tsimenidis

Abstract:

In this paper, we focus on the design of a multi-line copper wire (MLCW) communication system. First, we construct our proposed MLCW channel and verify its characteristics based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. In addition, we apply Middleton class A impulsive noise (IN) to the copper channel for further investigation. Second, the MIMO G.fast system is adopted utilizing the proposed MLCW channel model and is compared to a single line G-fast system. Second, the performance of the coded system is obtained utilizing concatenated interleaved Reed-Solomon (RS) code with four-dimensional trellis-coded modulation (4D TCM), and compared to the single line G-fast system. Simulations are obtained for high quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) constellations that are commonly used with G-fast communications, the results demonstrate that the bit error rate (BER) performance of the coded MLCW system shows an improvement compared to the single line G-fast systems.

Keywords: G.fast, Middleton Class A impulsive noise, mitigation techniques, Copper channel model

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40 Ethical Leadership: A Theological and Ethical Alternative to the Culture of Greed in South African Government

Authors: Mookgo Solomon Kgatle

Abstract:

Introductory Statement: The effect of corruption in South Africa has seriously constrained development of the national economy and has significantly inhibited good governance in the country. The significance of this paper is a demonstration that Corruption in a South African government is greatly influenced by the culture of greed by leaders in government. Many leaders in government are not satisfied with what they receive on monthly basis in the form of salaries and allowances. Thus, the quest to accumulate, as many material possessions by cabinet ministers and public servants is what is crippling the annual budget and disadvantaging the poor masses of our people including women, children and the elderly. Basic Methodology: In order to deal with this dilemma, this paper proposes ethical leadership as a theological and ethical alternative and antidote to the culture of greed in government. Research Findings: Ethical leadership is proposed because unlike the culture of greed, it is a leadership that is based on respect for ethical principles and standards and for the dignity and privileges of others. Ethical leadership is synonymous with principles like trust, morality, consideration, equality, and justice. Conclusion: The conclusion is that ethical leadership is one of the solutions that can assist the South African government to deal with the root causes of corruption, that is, the culture of greed.

Keywords: ethical leadership, theological ethics, culture of greed, corruption, governance

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39 Antibiotic Potential of Bioactive Compounds from a Marine Streptomyces Isolated from South Pacific Sediments

Authors: Ilaisa Kacivakanadina, Samson Viulu, Brad Carte, Katy Soapi

Abstract:

Two bioactive compounds namely Vulgamycin (also known as enterocin A) and 5-deoxyenterocin were purified from a marine bacterial strain 1903. Strain 1903 was isolated from marine sediments collected from the Solomon Islands. Morphological features of strain 1903 showed that it belongs to the genus Streptomyces. The two secondary metabolites were extracted using EtOAc and purified by chromatographic methods using EtOAc and hexane solvents. Mass spectrum and NMR data of pure compounds were used to elucidate the chemical structures. In this study, results showed that both compounds were strongly active against Wild Type Staphylococcus aureus (WTSA) (MIC < 1 µg/mL) and in Brine shrimp assays (BSA) (MIC < 1 µg/mL). 5-deoxyenterocin was also active against Rifamycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (RRSA) (MIC, 250 µg/mL) while vulgamycin showed bioactivity against Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (MIC 250 µg/mL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that showed the bio-activity of 5-deoxyenterocin. This is also the first time that Vulgamycin has been reported to be active in a BSA. There has not been any mechanism of action studies for these two compounds against pathogens. This warrants further studies on their mechanism of action against microbial pathogens.

Keywords: 5-deoxyenterocin, bioactivity, brine shrimp assay (BSA), vulgamycin

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38 Mechanical Response of Aluminum Foam Under Biaxial Combined Quasi-Static Compression-Torsional Loads

Authors: Solomon Huluka, Akrum Abdul-Latif, Rachid Baleh

Abstract:

Metal foams have been developed intensively as a new class of materials for the last two decades due to their unique structural and multifunctional properties. The aim of this experimental work was to characterize the effect of biaxial loading complexity (combined compression-torsion) on the plastic response of highly uniform architecture open-cell aluminum foams of spherical porous with a density of 80%. For foam manufacturing, the Kelvin cells model was used to generate the generally spherical shape with a cell diameter of 11 mm. A patented rig called ACTP (Absorption par Compression-Torsion Plastique), was used to investigate the foam response under quasi-static complex loading paths having different torsional components (i.e. 0°, 45° and 60°). The key mechanical responses to be examined are yield stress, stress plateau, and energy absorption capacity. The collapse mode was also investigated. It was concluded that the higher the loading complexity, the greater the yield strength and the greater energy absorption capacity of the foam. Experimentally, it was also noticed that there were large softening effects that occurred after the first pick stress for both biaxial-45° and biaxial-60° loading.

Keywords: aluminum foam, loading complexity, characterization, biaxial loading

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37 Effect of Large English Studies Classes on Linguistic Achievement and Classroom Discourse at Junior Secondary Level in Yobe State

Authors: Clifford Irikefe Gbeyonron

Abstract:

Applied linguists concur that there is low-level achievement in English language use among Nigerian secondary school students. One of the factors that exacerbate this is classroom feature of which large class size is obvious. This study investigated the impact of large classes on learning English as a second language (ESL) at junior secondary school (JSS) in Yobe State. To achieve this, Solomon four-group experimental design was used. 382 subjects were divided into four groups and taught ESL for thirteen weeks. 356 subjects wrote the post-test. Data from the systematic observation and post-test were analyzed via chi square and ANOVA. Results indicated that learners in large classes (LLC) attain lower linguistic progress than learners in small classes (LSC). Furthermore, LSC have more chances to access teacher evaluation and participate actively in classroom discourse than LLC. In consequence, large classes have adverse effects on learning ESL in Yobe State. This is inimical to English language education given that each learner of ESL has their individual peculiarity within each class. It is recommended that strategies that prioritize individualization, grouping, use of language teaching aides, and theorization of innovative models in respect of large classes be considered.

Keywords: large classes, achievement, classroom discourse

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36 Grain Size Characteristics and Sediments Distribution in the Eastern Part of Lekki Lagoon

Authors: Mayowa Philips Ibitola, Abe Oluwaseun Banji, Olorunfemi Akinade-Solomon

Abstract:

A total of 20 bottom sediment samples were collected from the Lekki Lagoon during the wet and dry season. The study was carried out to determine the textural characteristics, sediment distribution pattern and energy of transportation within the lagoon system. The sediment grain sizes and depth profiling was analyzed using dry sieving method and MATLAB algorithm for processing. The granulometric reveals fine grained sand both for the wet and dry season with an average mean value of 2.03 ϕ and -2.88 ϕ, respectively. Sediments were moderately sorted with an average inclusive standard deviation of 0.77 ϕ and -0.82 ϕ. Skewness varied from strongly coarse and near symmetrical 0.34- ϕ and 0.09 ϕ. The kurtosis average value was 0.87 ϕ and -1.4 ϕ (platykurtic and leptokurtic). Entirely, the bathymetry shows an average depth of 4.0 m. The deepest and shallowest area has a depth of 11.2 m and 0.5 m, respectively. High concentration of fine sand was observed at deep areas compared to the shallow areas during wet and dry season. Statistical parameter results show that the overall sediments are sorted, and deposited under low energy condition over a long distance. However, sediment distribution and sediment transport pattern of Lekki Lagoon is controlled by a low energy current and the down slope configuration of the bathymetry enhances the sorting and the deposition rate in the Lekki Lagoon.

Keywords: Lekki Lagoon, Marine sediment, bathymetry, grain size distribution

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