Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2842

Search results for: channel error correction

2842 Unequal Error Protection of VQ Image Transmission System

Authors: Khelifi Mustapha, A. Moulay lakhdar, I. Elawady


We will study the unequal error protection for VQ image. We have used the Reed Solomon (RS) Codes as Channel coding because they offer better performance in terms of channel error correction over a binary output channel. One such channel (binary input and output) should be considered if it is the case of the application layer, because it includes all the features of the layers located below and on the what it is usually not feasible to make changes.

Keywords: vector quantization, channel error correction, Reed-Solomon channel coding, application

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2841 Influence of Error Correction Codes on the Quality of Optical Broadband Connections

Authors: Mouna Hemdi, Jamel bel Hadj Tahar


The increasing development of multimedia applications requiring the simultaneous transport of several different services contributes to the evolution of the need for very high-speed network. In this paper, we propose an effective solution to achieve the very high speed while retaining elements of the optical transmission channel. So our study focuses on error correcting codes that aim for quality improvement on duty. We present a comparison of the quality of service for single channels and integrating the code BCH, RS and LDPC in order to find the best code in the different conditions of the transmission.

Keywords: code error correction, high speed broadband, optical transmission, information systems security

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
2840 Error Correction Method for 2D Ultra-Wideband Indoor Wireless Positioning System Using Logarithmic Error Model

Authors: Phornpat Chewasoonthorn, Surat Kwanmuang


Indoor positioning technologies have been evolved rapidly. They augment the Global Positioning System (GPS) which requires line-of-sight to the sky to track the location of people or objects. This study developed an error correction method for an indoor real-time location system (RTLS) based on an ultra-wideband (UWB) sensor from Decawave. Multiple stationary nodes (anchor) were installed throughout the workspace. The distance between stationary and moving nodes (tag) can be measured using a two-way-ranging (TWR) scheme. The result has shown that the uncorrected ranging error from the sensor system can be as large as 1 m. To reduce ranging error and thus increase positioning accuracy, This study purposes an online correction algorithm using the Kalman filter. The results from experiments have shown that the system can reduce ranging error down to 5 cm.

Keywords: indoor positioning, ultra-wideband, error correction, Kalman filter

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2839 An Efficient Algorithm of Time Step Control for Error Correction Method

Authors: Youngji Lee, Yonghyeon Jeon, Sunyoung Bu, Philsu Kim


The aim of this paper is to construct an algorithm of time step control for the error correction method most recently developed by one of the authors for solving stiff initial value problems. It is achieved with the generalized Chebyshev polynomial and the corresponding error correction method. The main idea of the proposed scheme is in the usage of the duplicated node points in the generalized Chebyshev polynomials of two different degrees by adding necessary sample points instead of re-sampling all points. At each integration step, the proposed method is comprised of two equations for the solution and the error, respectively. The constructed algorithm controls both the error and the time step size simultaneously and possesses a good performance in the computational cost compared to the original method. Two stiff problems are numerically solved to assess the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

Keywords: stiff initial value problem, error correction method, generalized Chebyshev polynomial, node points

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2838 A Survey of 2nd Year Students' Frequent Writing Error and the Effects of Participatory Error Correction Process

Authors: Chaiwat Tantarangsee


The purposes of this study are 1) to study the effects of participatory error correction process and 2) to find out the students’ satisfaction of such error correction process. This study is a Quasi Experimental Research with single group, in which data is collected 5 times preceding and following 4 experimental studies of participatory error correction process including providing coded indirect corrective feedback in the students’ texts with error treatment activities. Samples include 28 2nd year English Major students, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Tool for experimental study includes the lesson plan of the course; Reading and Writing English for Academic Purposes II, and tools for data collection include 5 writing tests of short texts and a questionnaire. Based on formative evaluation of the students’ writing ability prior to and after each of the 4 experiments, the research findings disclose the students’ higher scores with statistical difference at 0.05. Moreover, in terms of the effect size of such process, it is found that for mean of the students’ scores prior to and after the 4 experiments; d equals 1.0046, 1.1374, 1.297, and 1.0065 respectively. It can be concluded that participatory error correction process enables all of the students to learn equally well and there is improvement in their ability to write short texts. Finally, the students’ overall satisfaction of the participatory error correction process is in high level (Mean=4.32, S.D.=0.92).

Keywords: coded indirect corrective feedback, participatory error correction process, error treatment, humanities and social sciences

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2837 A Novel Way to Create Qudit Quantum Error Correction Codes

Authors: Arun Moorthy


Quantum computing promises to provide algorithmic speedups for a number of tasks; however, similar to classical computing, effective error-correcting codes are needed. Current quantum computers require costly equipment to control each particle, so having fewer particles to control is ideal. Although traditional quantum computers are built using qubits (2-level systems), qudits (more than 2-levels) are appealing since they can have an equivalent computational space using fewer particles, meaning fewer particles need to be controlled. Currently, qudit quantum error-correction codes are available for different level qudit systems; however, these codes have sometimes overly specific constraints. When building a qudit system, it is important for researchers to have access to many codes to satisfy their requirements. This project addresses two methods to increase the number of quantum error correcting codes available to researchers. The first method is generating new codes for a given set of parameters. The second method is generating new error-correction codes by using existing codes as a starting point to generate codes for another level (i.e., a 5-level system code on a 2-level system). So, this project builds a website that researchers can use to generate new error-correction codes or codes based on existing codes.

Keywords: qudit, error correction, quantum, qubit

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2836 The Effect Analysis of Monetary Instruments through Islamic Banking Financing Channel toward Economic Growth in Indonesia, Period January 2008-December 2015

Authors: Sobar M. Johari, Ida Putri Anjarsari


In the transmission of monetary instrument towards real sector of the economy, Bank Indonesia as monetary authority has developed Islamic Bank Indonesia Certificate (abbreviated as SBIS) as an instrument in Islamic open market operation. One of the monetary transmission channels could take place through financing channel from which the fund is used as the source of banking financing. This study aims to analyse the impact of Islamic monetary instrument towards output or economic growth. Data used in this research is taken from Bank Indonesia and Central Board of Statistics for the period of January 2008 until December 2015. The study employs Granger Causality Test, Vector Error Correction Model (VECM), Impulse Response Function (IRF) technique and Forecast Error Variance Decomposition (FEVD) as its analytical methods. The results show that, first, the transmission mechanism of banking financing channel are not linked to output. Second, estimation results of VECM show that SBIS, PUAS, and FIN have significant impact in the long term towards output. When there is monetary shock, output or economic growth could be recovered and stabilized in the short term. FEVD results show that Islamic banking financing contributes 1.33 percent to increase economic growth.

Keywords: Islamic monetary instrument, Islamic banking financing channel, economic growth, Vector Error Correction Model (VECM)

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2835 Channel Estimation for LTE Downlink

Authors: Rashi Jain


The LTE systems employ Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) as the multiple access technology for the Downlink channels. For enhanced performance, accurate channel estimation is required. Various algorithms such as Least Squares (LS), Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) and Recursive Least Squares (RLS) can be employed for the purpose. The paper proposes channel estimation algorithm based on Kalman Filter for LTE-Downlink system. Using the frequency domain pilots, the initial channel response is obtained using the LS criterion. Then Kalman Filter is employed to track the channel variations in time-domain. To suppress the noise within a symbol, threshold processing is employed. The paper draws comparison between the LS, MMSE, RLS and Kalman filter for channel estimation. The parameters for evaluation are Bit Error Rate (BER), Mean Square Error (MSE) and run-time.

Keywords: LTE, channel estimation, OFDM, RLS, Kalman filter, threshold

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2834 MCERTL: Mutation-Based Correction Engine for Register-Transfer Level Designs

Authors: Khaled Salah


In this paper, we present MCERTL (mutation-based correction engine for RTL designs) as an automatic error correction technique based on mutation analysis. A mutation-based correction methodology is proposed to automatically fix the erroneous RTL designs. The proposed strategy combines the processes of mutation and assertion-based localization. The erroneous statements are mutated to produce possible fixes for the failed RTL code. A concurrent mutation engine is proposed to mitigate the computational cost of running sequential mutants operators. The proposed methodology is evaluated against some benchmarks. The experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method enables us to automatically locate and correct multiple bugs at reasonable time.

Keywords: bug localization, error correction, mutation, mutants

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2833 Channel Estimation/Equalization with Adaptive Modulation and Coding over Multipath Faded Channels for WiMAX

Authors: B. Siva Kumar Reddy, B. Lakshmi


WiMAX has adopted an Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC) in OFDM to endure higher data rates and error free transmission. AMC schemes employ the Channel State Information (CSI) to efficiently utilize the channel and maximize the throughput and for better spectral efficiency. This CSI has given to the transmitter by the channel estimators. In this paper, LSE (Least Square Error) and MMSE (Minimum Mean square Error) estimators are suggested and BER (Bit Error Rate) performance has been analyzed. Channel equalization is also integrated with with AMC-OFDM system and presented with Constant Modulus Algorithm (CMA) and Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithms with convergence rates analysis. Simulation results proved that increment in modulation scheme size causes to improvement in throughput along with BER value. There is a trade-off among modulation size, throughput, BER value and spectral efficiency. Results also reported the requirement of channel estimation and equalization in high data rate systems.


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2832 Performance of High Efficiency Video Codec over Wireless Channels

Authors: Mohd Ayyub Khan, Nadeem Akhtar


Due to recent advances in wireless communication technologies and hand-held devices, there is a huge demand for video-based applications such as video surveillance, video conferencing, remote surgery, Digital Video Broadcast (DVB), IPTV, online learning courses, YouTube, WhatsApp, Instagram, Facebook, Interactive Video Games. However, the raw videos posses very high bandwidth which makes the compression a must before its transmission over the wireless channels. The High Efficiency Video Codec (HEVC) (also called H.265) is latest state-of-the-art video coding standard developed by the Joint effort of ITU-T and ISO/IEC teams. HEVC is targeted for high resolution videos such as 4K or 8K resolutions that can fulfil the recent demands for video services. The compression ratio achieved by the HEVC is twice as compared to its predecessor H.264/AVC for same quality level. The compression efficiency is generally increased by removing more correlation between the frames/pixels using complex techniques such as extensive intra and inter prediction techniques. As more correlation is removed, the chances of interdependency among coded bits increases. Thus, bit errors may have large effect on the reconstructed video. Sometimes even single bit error can lead to catastrophic failure of the reconstructed video. In this paper, we study the performance of HEVC bitstream over additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. Moreover, HEVC over Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) combined with forward error correction (FEC) schemes are also explored over the noisy channel. The video will be encoded using HEVC, and the coded bitstream is channel coded to provide some redundancies. The channel coded bitstream is then modulated using QAM and transmitted over AWGN channel. At the receiver, the symbols are demodulated and channel decoded to obtain the video bitstream. The bitstream is then used to reconstruct the video using HEVC decoder. It is observed that as the signal to noise ratio of channel is decreased the quality of the reconstructed video decreases drastically. Using proper FEC codes, the quality of the video can be restored up to certain extent. Thus, the performance analysis of HEVC presented in this paper may assist in designing the optimized code rate of FEC such that the quality of the reconstructed video is maximized over wireless channels.

Keywords: AWGN, forward error correction, HEVC, video coding, QAM

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2831 Correction of Frequent English Writing Errors by Using Coded Indirect Corrective Feedback and Error Treatment

Authors: Chaiwat Tantarangsee


The purposes of this study are: 1) to study the frequent English writing errors of students registering the course: Reading and Writing English for Academic Purposes II, and 2) to find out the results of writing error correction by using coded indirect corrective feedback and writing error treatments. Samples include 28 2nd year English Major students, Faculty of Education, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Tool for experimental study includes the lesson plan of the course; Reading and Writing English for Academic Purposes II, and tool for data collection includes 4 writing tests of short texts. The research findings disclose that frequent English writing errors found in this course comprise 7 types of grammatical errors, namely Fragment sentence, Subject-verb agreement, Wrong form of verb tense, Singular or plural noun endings, Run-ons sentence, Wrong form of verb pattern and Lack of parallel structure. Moreover, it is found that the results of writing error correction by using coded indirect corrective feedback and error treatment reveal the overall reduction of the frequent English writing errors and the increase of students’ achievement in the writing of short texts with the significance at .05.

Keywords: coded indirect corrective feedback, error correction, error treatment, frequent English writing errors

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2830 Correction of Frequent English Writing Errors by Using Coded Indirect Corrective Feedback and Error Treatment: The Case of Reading and Writing English for Academic Purposes II

Authors: Chaiwat Tantarangsee


The purposes of this study are 1) to study the frequent English writing errors of students registering the course: Reading and Writing English for Academic Purposes II, and 2) to find out the results of writing error correction by using coded indirect corrective feedback and writing error treatments. Samples include 28 2nd year English Major students, Faculty of Education, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Tool for experimental study includes the lesson plan of the course; Reading and Writing English for Academic Purposes II, and tool for data collection includes 4 writing tests of short texts. The research findings disclose that frequent English writing errors found in this course comprise 7 types of grammatical errors, namely Fragment sentence, Subject-verb agreement, Wrong form of verb tense, Singular or plural noun endings, Run-ons sentence, Wrong form of verb pattern and Lack of parallel structure. Moreover, it is found that the results of writing error correction by using coded indirect corrective feedback and error treatment reveal the overall reduction of the frequent English writing errors and the increase of students’ achievement in the writing of short texts with the significance at .05.

Keywords: coded indirect corrective feedback, error correction, error treatment, English writing

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2829 Co-Integration and Error Correction Mechanism of Supply Response of Sugarcane in Pakistan (1980-2012)

Authors: Himayatullah Khan


This study estimates supply response function of sugarcane in Pakistan from 1980-81 to 2012-13. The study uses co-integration approach and error correction mechanism. Sugarcane production, area and price series were tested for unit root using Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF). The study found that these series were stationary at their first differenced level. Using the Augmented Engle-Granger test and Cointegrating Regression Durbin-Watson (CRDW) test, the study found that “production and price” and “area and price” were co-integrated suggesting that the two sets of time series had long-run or equilibrium relationship. The results of the error correction models for the two sets of series showed that there was disequilibrium in the short run there may be disequilibrium. The Engle-Granger residual may be thought of as the equilibrium error which can be used to tie the short-run behavior of the dependent variable to its long-run value. The Granger-Causality test results showed that log of price granger caused both the long of production and log of area whereas, the log of production and log of area Granger caused each other.

Keywords: co-integration, error correction mechanism, Granger-causality, sugarcane, supply response

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2828 Is the Okun's Law Valid in Tunisia?

Authors: El Andari Chifaa, Bouaziz Rached


The central focus of this paper was to check whether the Okun’s law in Tunisia is valid or not. For this purpose, we have used quarterly time series data during the period 1990Q1-2014Q1. Firstly, we applied the error correction model instead of the difference version of Okun's Law, the Engle-Granger and Johansen test are employed to find out long run association between unemployment, production, and how error correction mechanism (ECM) is used for short run dynamic. Secondly, we used the gap version of Okun’s law where the estimation is done from three band pass filters which are mathematical tools used in macro-economic and especially in business cycles theory. The finding of the study indicates that the inverse relationship between unemployment and output is verified in the short and long term, and the Okun's law holds for the Tunisian economy, but with an Okun’s coefficient lower than required. Therefore, our empirical results have important implications for structural and cyclical policymakers in Tunisia to promote economic growth in a context of lower unemployment growth.

Keywords: Okun’s law, validity, unit root, cointegration, error correction model, bandpass filters

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
2827 Analysis of Joint Source Channel LDPC Coding for Correlated Sources Transmission over Noisy Channels

Authors: Marwa Ben Abdessalem, Amin Zribi, Ammar Bouallègue


In this paper, a Joint Source Channel coding scheme based on LDPC codes is investigated. We consider two concatenated LDPC codes, one allows to compress a correlated source and the second to protect it against channel degradations. The original information can be reconstructed at the receiver by a joint decoder, where the source decoder and the channel decoder run in parallel by transferring extrinsic information. We investigate the performance of the JSC LDPC code in terms of Bit-Error Rate (BER) in the case of transmission over an Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel, and for different source and channel rate parameters. We emphasize how JSC LDPC presents a performance tradeoff depending on the channel state and on the source correlation. We show that, the JSC LDPC is an efficient solution for a relatively low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) channel, especially with highly correlated sources. Finally, a source-channel rate optimization has to be applied to guarantee the best JSC LDPC system performance for a given channel.

Keywords: AWGN channel, belief propagation, joint source channel coding, LDPC codes

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2826 Adaptive Transmission Scheme Based on Channel State in Dual-Hop System

Authors: Seung-Jun Yu, Yong-Jun Kim, Jung-In Baik, Hyoung-Kyu Song


In this paper, a dual-hop relay based on channel state is studied. In the conventional relay scheme, a relay uses the same modulation method without reference to channel state. But, a relay uses an adaptive modulation method with reference to channel state. If the channel state is poor, a relay eliminates latter 2 bits and uses Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) modulation. If channel state is good, a relay modulates the received symbols with 16-QAM symbols by using 4 bits. The performance of the proposed scheme for Symbol Error Rate (SER) and throughput is analyzed.

Keywords: adaptive transmission, channel state, dual-hop, hierarchical modulation, relay

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2825 Forecasting Stock Prices Based on the Residual Income Valuation Model: Evidence from a Time-Series Approach

Authors: Chen-Yin Kuo, Yung-Hsin Lee


Previous studies applying residual income valuation (RIV) model generally use panel data and single-equation model to forecast stock prices. Unlike these, this paper uses Taiwan longitudinal data to estimate multi-equation time-series models such as Vector Autoregressive (VAR), Vector Error Correction Model (VECM), and conduct out-of-sample forecasting. Further, this work assesses their forecasting performance by two instruments. In favor of extant research, the major finding shows that VECM outperforms other three models in forecasting for three stock sectors over entire horizons. It implies that an error correction term containing long-run information contributes to improve forecasting accuracy. Moreover, the pattern of composite shows that at longer horizon, VECM produces the greater reduction in errors, and performs substantially better than VAR.

Keywords: residual income valuation model, vector error correction model, out of sample forecasting, forecasting accuracy

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2824 Algorithm for Automatic Real-Time Electrooculographic Artifact Correction

Authors: Norman Sinnigen, Igor Izyurov, Marina Krylova, Hamidreza Jamalabadi, Sarah Alizadeh, Martin Walter


Background: EEG is a non-invasive brain activity recording technique with a high temporal resolution that allows the use of real-time applications, such as neurofeedback. However, EEG data are susceptible to electrooculographic (EOG) and electromyography (EMG) artifacts (i.e., jaw clenching, teeth squeezing and forehead movements). Due to their non-stationary nature, these artifacts greatly obscure the information and power spectrum of EEG signals. Many EEG artifact correction methods are too time-consuming when applied to low-density EEG and have been focusing on offline processing or handling one single type of EEG artifact. A software-only real-time method for correcting multiple types of EEG artifacts of high-density EEG remains a significant challenge. Methods: We demonstrate an improved approach for automatic real-time EEG artifact correction of EOG and EMG artifacts. The method was tested on three healthy subjects using 64 EEG channels (Brain Products GmbH) and a sampling rate of 1,000 Hz. Captured EEG signals were imported in MATLAB with the lab streaming layer interface allowing buffering of EEG data. EMG artifacts were detected by channel variance and adaptive thresholding and corrected by using channel interpolation. Real-time independent component analysis (ICA) was applied for correcting EOG artifacts. Results: Our results demonstrate that the algorithm effectively reduces EMG artifacts, such as jaw clenching, teeth squeezing and forehead movements, and EOG artifacts (horizontal and vertical eye movements) of high-density EEG while preserving brain neuronal activity information. The average computation time of EOG and EMG artifact correction for 80 s (80,000 data points) 64-channel data is 300 – 700 ms depending on the convergence of ICA and the type and intensity of the artifact. Conclusion: An automatic EEG artifact correction algorithm based on channel variance, adaptive thresholding, and ICA improves high-density EEG recordings contaminated with EOG and EMG artifacts in real-time.

Keywords: EEG, muscle artifacts, ocular artifacts, real-time artifact correction, real-time ICA

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2823 Study of Adaptive Filtering Algorithms and the Equalization of Radio Mobile Channel

Authors: Said Elkassimi, Said Safi, B. Manaut


This paper presented a study of three algorithms, the equalization algorithm to equalize the transmission channel with ZF and MMSE criteria, application of channel Bran A, and adaptive filtering algorithms LMS and RLS to estimate the parameters of the equalizer filter, i.e. move to the channel estimation and therefore reflect the temporal variations of the channel, and reduce the error in the transmitted signal. So far the performance of the algorithm equalizer with ZF and MMSE criteria both in the case without noise, a comparison of performance of the LMS and RLS algorithm.

Keywords: adaptive filtering second equalizer, LMS, RLS Bran A, Proakis (B) MMSE, ZF

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2822 The Effectiveness of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing as Modulation Technique

Authors: Mohamed O. Babana


In wireless channel multipath is the propagation phenomena where the transmitted signal arrive at the receiver side with many of paths, the signal at these paths arrive with different time delay the results is random signal fading due to intersymbols interference(ISI). This paper deals with identification of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) technology, and how it is used to overcome intersymbol interference due to multipath. Also investigates the effect of Additive White Gaussian Noise Channel (AWGN) on OFDM using multi-level modulation of Phase Shift Keying (PSK), computer simulation to calculate the bit error rate (BER) under AWGN channel is applied. A comparison study is carried out to obtain the Bit Error Rate performance for OFDM to identify the best multi-level modulation of PSK.

Keywords: intersymbol interference(ISI), bit error rate(BER), modulation, multiplexing, simulation

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2821 Student Attendance System Applying Reed Solomon ECC

Authors: Mohd Noah A. Rahman, Armandurni Abd Rahman, Afzaal H. Seyal, Md Rizal Md Hendry


The article reports an automated student attendance system modeled and developed for use at a Vocational school. This project focuses on developing an application using a QR code utilizing the Reed-Solomon error correction code using a smartphone scanned through a webcam. This system enables us to speed up the process of taking attendance and would save us valuable teaching time. This is planned to help students avoid consequences that may result from poor attendances which will eventually penalize them from sitting their final examination as required.

Keywords: QR code, Reed-Solomon, error correction, system design.

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2820 Performance Analysis of MIMO-OFDM Using Convolution Codes with QAM Modulation

Authors: I Gede Puja Astawa, Yoedy Moegiharto, Ahmad Zainudin, Imam Dui Agus Salim, Nur Annisa Anggraeni


Performance of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) system can be improved by adding channel coding (error correction code) to detect and correct the errors that occur during data transmission. One can use the convolution code. This paper presents performance of OFDM using Space Time Block Codes (STBC) diversity technique use QAM modulation with code rate 1/2. The evaluation is done by analyzing the value of Bit Error Rate (BER) vs. Energy per Bit to Noise Power Spectral Density Ratio (Eb/No). This scheme is conducted 256 sub-carrier which transmits Rayleigh multipath channel in OFDM system. To achieve a BER of 10-3 is required 30 dB SNR in SISO-OFDM scheme. For 2x2 MIMO-OFDM scheme requires 10 dB to achieve a BER of 10-3. For 4x4 MIMO-OFDM scheme requires 5 dB while adding convolution in a 4x4 MIMO-OFDM can improve performance up to 0 dB to achieve the same BER. This proves the existence of saving power by 3 dB of 4x4 MIMO-OFDM system without coding, power saving 7 dB of 2x2 MIMO-OFDM system without coding and significant power savings from SISO-OFDM system.

Keywords: convolution code, OFDM, MIMO, QAM, BER

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2819 MMSE-Based Beamforming for Chip Interleaved CDMA in Aeronautical Mobile Radio Channel

Authors: Sherif K. El Dyasti, Esam A. Hagras, Adel E. El-Hennawy


This paper addresses the performance of antenna array beam-forming on Chip-Interleaved Code Division Multiple Access (CI_CDMA) system based on Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) detector in aeronautical mobile radio channel. Multipath fading, Doppler shifts caused by the speed of the aircraft, and Multiple Access Interference (MAI) are the most important reasons that affect and reduce the performance of aeronautical system. In this paper, we suggested the CI-CDMA with antenna array to combat this fading and improve the bit error rate (BER) performance. We further evaluate the performance of the proposed system in the four standard scenarios in aeronautical mobile radio channel.

Keywords: aeronautical channel, CI-CDMA, beamforming, communication, information

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2818 Feedback in the Language Class: An Action Research Process

Authors: Arash Golzari Koloor


Feedback seems to be an inseparable part of teaching a second/foreign language. One type of feedback is corrective feedback which is one type of error treatment in second language classrooms. This study is a report on the types of corrective feedback employed in an IELTS preparation course. The types of feedback, their frequencies, and their effectiveness are enlisted, enumerated, and interpreted. The results showed that explicit correction and recast were the most frequent types of feedback while repetition and elicitation were the least. The results also revealed that metalinguistic feedback, elicitation, and explicit correction were the most effective types of feedback and affected learners performance greatly.

Keywords: classroom interaction, corrective feedback, error treatment, oral performance

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2817 Exploring Bidirectional Encoder Representations from the Transformers’ Capabilities to Detect English Preposition Errors

Authors: Dylan Elliott, Katya Pertsova


Preposition errors are some of the most common errors created by L2 speakers. In addition, improving error correction and detection methods remains an open issue in the realm of Natural Language Processing (NLP). This research investigates whether the bidirectional encoder representations from transformers model (BERT) has the potential to correct preposition errors accurately enough to be useful in error correction software. This research finds that BERT performs strongly when the scope of its error correction is limited to preposition choice. The researchers used an open-source BERT model and over three hundred thousand edited sentences from Wikipedia, tagged for part of speech, where only a preposition edit had occurred. To test BERT’s ability to detect errors, a technique known as multi-level masking was used to generate suggestions based on sentence context for every prepositional environment in the test data. These suggestions were compared with the original errors in the data and their known corrections to evaluate BERT’s performance. The suggestions were further analyzed to determine if BERT more often agreed with the judgements of the Wikipedia editors. Both the untrained and fined-tuned models were compared. Finetuning led to a greater rate of error-detection which significantly improved recall, but lowered precision due to an increase in false positives or falsely flagged errors” However, in most cases these false positives were not errors in preposition usage, but merely cases where more than one preposition was possible. Furthermore, when BERT correctly identified an error, the model largely agreed with the Wikipedia editors, suggesting that BERT’s ability to detect misused prepositions, is better than previously believed. To evaluate to what extent BERT’s false positives were grammatical suggestions, we plan to do a further crowd-sourcing study to test the grammaticality of BERT’s suggested sentence corrections against native speakers’ judgements.

Keywords: BERT, grammatical error correction, preposition error detection, prepositions

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2816 Forecasting Container Throughput: Using Aggregate or Terminal-Specific Data?

Authors: Gu Pang, Bartosz Gebka


We forecast the demand of total container throughput at the Indonesia’s largest seaport, Tanjung Priok Port. We propose four univariate forecasting models, including SARIMA, the additive Seasonal Holt-Winters, the multiplicative Seasonal Holt-Winters and the Vector Error Correction Model. Our aim is to provide insights into whether forecasting the total container throughput obtained by historical aggregated port throughput time series is superior to the forecasts of the total throughput obtained by summing up the best individual terminal forecasts. We test the monthly port/individual terminal container throughput time series between 2003 and 2013. The performance of forecasting models is evaluated based on Mean Absolute Error and Root Mean Squared Error. Our results show that the multiplicative Seasonal Holt-Winters model produces the most accurate forecasts of total container throughput, whereas SARIMA generates the worst in-sample model fit. The Vector Error Correction Model provides the best model fits and forecasts for individual terminals. Our results report that the total container throughput forecasts based on modelling the total throughput time series are consistently better than those obtained by combining those forecasts generated by terminal-specific models. The forecasts of total throughput until the end of 2018 provide an essential insight into the strategic decision-making on the expansion of port's capacity and construction of new container terminals at Tanjung Priok Port.

Keywords: SARIMA, Seasonal Holt-Winters, Vector Error Correction Model, container throughput

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2815 Aggregate Supply Response of Some Livestock Commodities in Algeria: Cointegration- Vector Error Correction Model Approach

Authors: Amine M. Benmehaia, Amine Oulmane


The supply response of agricultural commodities to changes in price incentives is an important issue for the success of any policy reform in the agricultural sector. This study aims to quantify the responsiveness of producers of some livestock commodities to price incentives in Algerian context. Time series analysis is used on annual data for a period of 52 years (1966-2018). Both co-integration and vector error correction model (VECM) are used through the Nerlove model of partial adjustment. The study attempts to determine the long-run and short-run relationships along with the magnitudes of disequilibria in the selected commodities. Results show that the short-run price elasticities are low in cow and sheep meat sectors (8.7 and 8% respectively), while their respective long-run elasticities are 16.5 and 10.5, whereas eggs and milk have very high short-run price elasticities (82 and 90% respectively) with long-run elasticities of 40 and 46 respectively. The error correction coefficient, reflecting the speed of adjustment towards the long-run equilibrium, is statistically significant and have the expected negative sign. Its estimates are 12.7 for cow meat, 33.5 for sheep meat, 46.7 for eggs and 8.4 for milk. It seems that cow meat and milk producers have a weak feedback of about 12.7% and 8.4% respectively of the previous year's disequilibrium from the long-run price elasticity, whereas sheep meat and eggs producers adjust to correct long run disequilibrium with a high speed of adjustment (33.5% and 46.7 % respectively). The implication of this is that much more in-depth research is needed to identify those factors that affect agricultural supply and to describe the effect of factors that shift supply in response to price incentives. This could provide valuable information for government in the use of appropriate policy measures.

Keywords: Algeria, cointegration, livestock, supply response, vector error correction model

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2814 An Adaptive Cooperative Scheme for Reliability of Transmission Using STBC and CDD in Wireless Communications

Authors: Hyun-Jun Shin, Jae-Jeong Kim, Hyoung-Kyu Song


In broadcasting and cellular system, a cooperative scheme is proposed for the improvement of performance of bit error rate. Up to date, the coverage of broadcasting system coexists with the coverage of cellular system. Therefore each user in a cellular coverage is frequently involved in a broadcasting coverage. The proposed cooperative scheme is derived from the shared areas. The users receive signals from both broadcasting base station and cellular base station. The proposed scheme selects a cellular base station of a worse channel to achieve better performance of bit error rate in cooperation. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated in fading channel.

Keywords: cooperative communication, diversity, STBC, CDD, channel condition, broadcasting system, cellular system

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2813 Banking Sector Development and Economic Growth: Evidence from the State of Qatar

Authors: Fekri Shawtari


The banking sector plays a very crucial role in the economic development of the country. As a financial intermediary, it has assigned a great role in the economic growth and stability. This paper aims to examine the empirically the relationship between banking industry and economic growth in state of Qatar. We adopt the VAR vector error correction model (VECM) along with Granger causality to address the issue over the long-run and short-run between the banking sector and economic growth. It is expected that the results will give policy directions to the policymakers to make strategies that are conducive toward boosting development to achieve the targeted economic growth in current situation.

Keywords: economic growth, banking sector, Qatar, vector error correction model, VECM

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