Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5113

Search results for: rapid review

5113 Comparative Assessment of Bus Rapid Transit System in India

Authors: Namrata Ghosh, Sapan Tiwari

Abstract:

Public transport service plays an important role in people's transportation needs in urban areas. Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) is a transport service that provides passengers with a quick and efficient mode of transport. It is developed by changing the existing infrastructure, vehicles, route, or by developing a new dedicated corridor for the bus route. This dedicated lanes transport passengers to their destination quickly and efficiently and flexible in meeting demand. However, with rapid urbanization and increasing population density in Indian cities, traffic congestion has become a significant issue. In a few Indian cities, the BRTS concept is implemented to address the issue of traffic congestion that eventually resulted in less road congestion. The research aims to provide a literature review on the overall outlook of the BRTS system and its practical implementation in mass urban transit. First, it reflects a literature review on the concept of the BRTS system in both developed and developing countries. Afterward, comparative analysis of BRTS, hindrances associated with the permanent integrated system, and the need for establishing the Bus Rapid Transit System in Indian cities is demonstrated. The research concludes with some recommendations that could help in improving the loopholes in the existing system.

Keywords: bus rapid transit system(BRTS), dedicated corridor, public transport, traffic congestion

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
5112 Role of Social Media for Institutional Branding: Ethics of Communication Review

Authors: Iva Ariani, Mohammad Alvi Pratama

Abstract:

Currently, the world of communication experiences a rapid development. There are many ways of communication utilized in line with the development of science which creates many technologies that encourage a rapid development of communication system. However, despite giving convenience for the society, the development of communication system is not accompanied by the development of applicable values and regulations. Therefore, it raises many issues regarding false information or hoax which can influence the society’s mindset. This research aims to know the role of social media towards the reputation of an institution using a communication ethics study. It is a qualitative research using interview, observation, and literature study for collecting data. Then, the data will be analyzed using philosophical methods which are hermeneutic and deduction methods. This research is expected to show the role of social media in developing an institutional reputation in ethical review.

Keywords: social media, ethics, communication, reputation

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
5111 Suggestions to the Legislation about Medical Ethics and Ethics Review in the Age of Medical Artificial Intelligence

Authors: Xiaoyu Sun

Abstract:

In recent years, the rapid development of Artificial Intelligence (AI) has extensively promoted medicine, pharmaceutical, and other related fields. The medical research and development of artificial intelligence by scientific and commercial organizations are on the fast track. The ethics review is one of the critical procedures of registration to get the products approved and launched. However, the SOPs for ethics review is not enough to guide the healthy and rapid development of artificial intelligence in healthcare in China. Ethical Review Measures for Biomedical Research Involving Human Beings was enacted by the National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China (NHC) on December 1st, 2016. However, from a legislative design perspective, it was neither updated timely nor in line with the trends of AI international development. Therefore, it was great that NHC published a consultation paper on the updated version on March 16th, 2021. Based on the most updated laws and regulations in the States and EU, and in-depth-interviewed 11 subject matter experts in China, including lawmakers, regulators, and key members of ethics review committees, heads of Regulatory Affairs in SaMD industry, and data scientists, several suggestions were proposed on top of the updated version. Although the new version indicated that the Ethics Review Committees need to be created by National, Provincial and individual institute levels, the review authorities of different levels were not clarified. The suggestion is that the precise scope of review authorities for each level should be identified based on Risk Analysis and Management Model, such as the complicated leading technology, gene editing, should be reviewed by National Ethics Review Committees, it will be the job of individual institute Ethics Review Committees to review and approve the clinical study with less risk such as an innovative cream to treat acne. Furthermore, to standardize the research and development of artificial intelligence in healthcare in the age of AI, more clear guidance should be given to data security in the layers of data, algorithm, and application in the process of ethics review. In addition, transparency and responsibility, as two of six principles in the Rome Call for AI Ethics, could be further strengthened in the updated version. It is the shared goal among all countries to manage well and develop AI to benefit human beings. Learned from the other countries who have more learning and experience, China could be one of the most advanced countries in artificial intelligence in healthcare.

Keywords: biomedical research involving human beings, data security, ethics committees, ethical review, medical artificial intelligence

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
5110 Wireless Battery Charger with Adaptive Rapid-Charging Algorithm

Authors: Byoung-Hee Lee

Abstract:

Wireless battery charger with adaptive rapid charging algorithm is proposed. The proposed wireless charger adopts voltage regulation technique to reduce the number of power conversion steps. Moreover, based on battery models, an adaptive rapid charging algorithm for Li-ion batteries is obtained. Rapid-charging performance with the proposed wireless battery charger and the proposed rapid charging algorithm has been experimentally verified to show more than 70% charging time reduction compared to conventional constant-current constant-voltage (CC-CV) charging without the degradation of battery lifetime.

Keywords: wireless, battery charger, adaptive, rapid-charging

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
5109 Competency and Strategy Formulation in Automobile Industry

Authors: Chandan Deep Singh

Abstract:

In present days, companies are facing the rapid competition in terms of customer requirements to be satisfied, new technologies to be integrated into future products, new safety regulations to be followed, new computer-based tools to be introduced into design activities that becomes more scientific. In today’s highly competitive market, survival focuses on various factors such as quality, innovation, adherence to standards, and rapid response as the basis for competitive advantage. For competitive advantage, companies have to produce various competencies: for improving the capability of suppliers and for strengthening the process of integrating technology. For more competitiveness, organizations should operate in a strategy driven way and have a strategic architecture for developing core competencies. Traditional ways to take such experience and develop competencies tend to take a lot of time and they are expensive. A new learning environment, which is built around a gaming engine, supports the development of competences in specific subject areas. Technology competencies have a significant role in firm innovation and competitiveness; they interact with the competitive environment. Technological competencies vary according to the type of competitive environment, thus enhancing firm innovativeness. Technological competency is gained through extensive experimentation and learning in its research, development and employment in manufacturing. This is a review paper based on competency and strategic success of automobile industry. The aim here is to study strategy formulation and competency tools in the industry. This work is a review of literature related to competency and strategy in automobile industry. This study involves review of 34 papers related to competency and strategy.

Keywords: manufacturing competency, strategic success, competitiveness, strategy formulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
5108 Trends in Solving Assembly Job Shop Scheduling Problem: A Review

Authors: Midhun Paul, T. Radha Ramanan

Abstract:

The objective of this work is to present a state-of-the-art literature review highlighting the challenges in the research of the scheduling of assembly job shop problem and providing an insight on how the future directions of the research would be. The number of work has been substantial that it requires a review to enable one to understand the origin of the research and how it is getting evolved. This review paper presents a comprehensive review of the literature dealing with various studies carried on assembly job shop scheduling. The review details the evolution of the AJS from the perspective of other scheduling problems and also presents a classification scheme. The work also identifies the potential directions for future research, which we believe to be worthwhile considering.

Keywords: assembly job shop, future directions, manufacturing, scheduling

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
5107 The Impacts of Negative Moral Characters on Health: An Article Review

Authors: Mansoor Aslamzai, Delaqa Del, Sayed Azam Sajid

Abstract:

Introduction: Though moral disorders have a high burden, there is no separate topic regarding this problem in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). Along with the modification of WHO ICD-11, spirituality can prevent the rapid progress of such derangement as well. Objective: This study evaluated the effects of bad moral characters on health, as well as carried out the role of spirituality in the improvement of immorality. Method: This narrative article review was accomplished in 2020-2021 and the articles were searched through the Web of Science, PubMed, BMC, and Google scholar. Results: Based on the current review, most experimental and observational studies revealed significant negative effects of unwell moral characters on the overall aspects of health and well-being. Nowadays, a lot of studies established the positive role of spirituality in the improvement of health and moral disorder. The studies concluded, facilities must be available within schools, universities, and communities for everyone to learn the knowledge of spirituality and improve their unwell moral character world. Conclusion: Considering the negative relationship between unwell moral characters and well-being, the current study proposes the addition of moral disorder as a separate topic in the WHO International Classification of Diseases. Based on this literature review, spirituality will improve moral disorder and establish excellent moral traits.

Keywords: bad moral characters, effect, health, spirituality and well-being

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
5106 Investigate the Effects of Geometrical Structure and Layer Orientation on Strength of 3D-FDM Rapid Prototyped Samples

Authors: Ahmed A.D. Sarhan, Chong Feng Duan, Mum Wai Yip, M. Sayuti

Abstract:

Rapid Prototyping (RP) technologies enable physical parts to be produced from various materials without depending on the conventional tooling. Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) is one of the famous RP processes used at present. Tensile strength and compressive strength resistance will be identified for different sample structures and different layer orientations of ABS rapid prototype solid models. The samples will be fabricated by a FDM rapid prototyping machine in different layer orientations with variations in internal geometrical structure. The 0° orientation where layers were deposited along the length of the samples displayed superior strength and impact resistance over all the other orientations. The anisotropic properties were probably caused by weak interlayer bonding and interlayer porosity.

Keywords: building orientation, compression strength, rapid prototyping, tensile strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 587
5105 The Relationship between Transcendence and Psychological Well-Being: A Systematic Scientific Literature Review

Authors: Monir Ahmed

Abstract:

The main purpose of this literature review was to investigate the existing quantitative clinical studies on the relationship between transcendence and psychological well-being. The primary objective of the literature review is to determine whether the existing studies adequately demonstrate the relationship between transcendence and psychological well-being, including spiritual well-being. A further objective of this literature review is to see if the ‘creatio ex nihilo’ doctrine is necessary to understand transcendence and its relationship with psychological well-being. Systematic literature review methods including studies identified from search engines, extracting data from the studies and assessing their quality for the planned review were used. The outcome of this literature review indicates that self-transcendence (STa), spiritual transcendence (STb) are positively related to psychological well-being. However, such positive relationships present limited scope for understanding transcendence and its relationship with well-being. The findings of this review support the need for further research in the area of transcendence and well-being. This literature review reveals the importance of developing a new transcendence tool for determining an individual’s ability to transcend and the relationship between his/her ability for transcendence and psychological well-being. The author of this paper proposes that the inclusion of the theological doctrine (‘creatio ex nihilo’) in understanding transcendence and psychological well-being is crucial, necessary and unavoidable.

Keywords: transcendence, psychological well-being, self-transcendence, spiritual transcendence, ‘creatio ex nihilo’

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
5104 Arabic Text Classification: Review Study

Authors: M. Hijazi, A. Zeki, A. Ismail

Abstract:

An enormous amount of valuable human knowledge is preserved in documents. The rapid growth in the number of machine-readable documents for public or private access requires the use of automatic text classification. Text classification can be defined as assigning or structuring documents into a defined set of classes known in advance. Arabic text classification methods have emerged as a natural result of the existence of a massive amount of varied textual information written in the Arabic language on the web. This paper presents a review on the published researches of Arabic Text Classification using classical data representation, Bag of words (BoW), and using conceptual data representation based on semantic resources such as Arabic WordNet and Wikipedia.

Keywords: Arabic text classification, Arabic WordNet, bag of words, conceptual representation, semantic relations

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
5103 Peer-Review as a Means to Improve Students' Translation Skills

Authors: Bahia Braktia, Ahlem Ghamri

Abstract:

Years ago, faculties and administrators realized that students entering college were not prepared for the academic sphere; however, as a type of collaborative learning, peer-review gave students a social context in which they could learn more efficiently. Peer-review has proven its effectiveness in higher education. Numerous studies have been conducted on peer review and its effects on the quality of students’ writing, and several publications recommended peer-review as part of the feedback process. Student writers showed a tendency towards making significant meaning-level revisions and surface-level revisions. Last but not least, studies reported that peer-review helps students develop their self-assessment skills as well as critical thinking. The use of peer-review has become well known and widely adopted to the L2 classroom environment. However, little is known about peer review on translation students. The purpose of this study was to investigate the students' perspective on peer-review, and whether this method affected the quality of their translation. A mixed method design was adopted. Students were requested to translate two texts from Arabic into English, and they gave and received structured feedback to their classmates' translations. A survey was administered, followed by semi-structured interviews, to examine the students' attitudes toward peer-review. The results of the study showed that peer-review was considered a good proofreading method for most students. The students also showed a positive attitude toward it, and they reported that they benefited from the interaction with their peers. The findings implied that the inclusion of peer-review can be an effective pedagogical practice for teaching translation and writing to foreign language learners.

Keywords: language teaching, feedback, peer-review, translation

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
5102 Numerical Analysis of Rapid Drawdown in Dams Based on Brazilian Standards

Authors: Renato Santos Paulinelli Raposo, Vinicius Resende Domingues, Manoel Porfirio Cordao Neto

Abstract:

Rapid drawdown is one of the cases referred to ground stability study in dam projects. Due to the complexity generated by the combination of loads and the difficulty in determining the parameters, analyses of rapid drawdown are usually performed considering the immediate reduction of water level upstream. The proposal of a simulation, considering the gradual reduction in water level upstream, requires knowledge of parameters about consolidation and those related to unsaturated soil. In this context, the purpose of this study is to understand the methodology of collection and analysis of parameters to simulate a rapid drawdown in dams. Using a numerical tool, the study is complemented with a hypothetical case study that can assist the practical use of data compiled. The referenced dam presents homogeneous section composed of clay soil, a height of 70 meters, a width of 12 meters, and upstream slope with inclination 1V:3H.

Keywords: dam, GeoStudio, rapid drawdown, stability analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
5101 Cutting Tools in Finishing Operations for CNC Rapid Manufacturing Processes: Experimental Studies

Authors: M. N. Osman Zahid, K. Case, D. Watts

Abstract:

This paper reports an advanced approach in the application of CNC machining for rapid manufacturing processes (CNC-RM). The aim of this study is to improve the quality of machined parts by introducing different cutting tools during finishing operations. As the cutting is performed in different directions, the surfaces presented on part can be classified into several categories. Therefore, suitable cutting tools are assigned to machine particular surfaces and to improve the quality. Experimental studies have been carried out by fabricating several parts based on the suggested approach. The results provide further support for implementing this approach in rapid machining processes.

Keywords: CNC machining, end mill tool, finishing operation, rapid manufacturing

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
5100 Projectification: Using Project Management Methodology to Manage the Academic Program Review

Authors: Adam Marks, Munir Majdalawieh, Maytha Al Ali

Abstract:

While research is rich with what criteria could be included in the academic program review processes, there is rarely any mention of how this significant and complex process should be managed. This paper proposes using project management methodology in alignment with the program review criteria of the Dickeson’s Prioritizing Academic Programs model. Project management and academic program review share two distinct characteristics; one is their life cycle, and the second is the core knowledge areas they use. This aligned and structured approach offers academic administrators a step-by-step guide that can help them manage this process and effectively assess academic programs.

Keywords: project management, academic program, program review, education, higher education institution, strategic management

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
5099 The Use of Building Energy Simulation Software in Case Studies: A Literature Review

Authors: Arman Ameen, Mathias Cehlin

Abstract:

The use of Building Energy Simulation (BES) software has increased in the last two decades, parallel to the development of increased computing power and easy to use software applications. This type of software is primarily used to simulate the energy use and the indoor environment for a building. The rapid development of these types of software has raised their level of user-friendliness, better parameter input options and the increased possibility of analysis, both for a single building component or an entire building. This, in turn, has led to many researchers utilizing BES software in their research in various degrees. The aim of this paper is to carry out a literature review concerning the use of the BES software IDA Indoor Climate and Energy (IDA ICE) in the scientific community. The focus of this paper will be specifically the use of the software for whole building energy simulation, number and types of articles and publications dates, the area of application, types of parameters used, the location of the studied building, type of building, type of analysis and solution methodology. Another aspect that is examined, which is of great interest, is the method of validations regarding the simulation results. The results show that there is an upgoing trend in the use of IDA ICE and that researchers use the software in their research in various degrees depending on case and aim of their research. The satisfactory level of validation of the simulations carried out in these articles varies depending on the type of article and type of analysis.

Keywords: building simulation, IDA ICE, literature review, validation

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
5098 Electronic-Word of Mouth(e-WoM): Preliminary Study of Malaysian Undergrad Students Smartphone Online Review

Authors: Norshakirah Ab.Aziz, Nurul Atiqah Jamaluddin

Abstract:

Consequently, electronic word-of-mouth (e-WoM) becomes one of the resources in the decision making process and considered a valuable marketing channel for consumers and organizations. Admittedly, there is increasing concern on the accuracy and genuine of e-WoM content because consumers prefer to look out product or service information available online. Thus, the focus of this study is to propose a model and guidelines how to select trusted online review content according to domain chosen –undergrad students smartphone online review. Undeniable, mobile devices like smartphone has now become a necessity in today are daily life to complete our daily chores. The model and guideline focused on product competency review and the message integrity. In other words, this study aims to enable consumers to identify trusted online review content, which helps them in buying decisions.

Keywords: electronic word of mouth, e-WoM, WoM, online review

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
5097 Rapid Method for the Determination of Acid Dyes by Capillary Electrophoresis

Authors: Can Hu, Huixia Shi, Hongcheng Mei, Jun Zhu, Hongling Guo

Abstract:

Textile fibers are important trace evidence and frequently encountered in criminal investigations. A significant aspect of fiber evidence examination is the determination of fiber dyes. Although several instrumental methods have been developed for dyes detection, the analysis speed is not fast enough yet. A rapid dye analysis method is still needed to further improve the efficiency of case handling. Capillary electrophoresis has the advantages of high separation speed and high separation efficiency and is an ideal method for the rapid analysis of fiber dyes. In this paper, acid dyes used for protein fiber dyeing were determined by a developed short-end injection capillary electrophoresis technique. Five acid red dyes with similar structures were successfully baseline separated within 5 min. The separation reproducibility is fairly good for the relative standard deviation of retention time is 0.51%. The established method is rapid and accurate which has great potential to be applied in forensic setting.

Keywords: acid dyes, capillary electrophoresis, fiber evidence, rapid determination

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
5096 The Use of SD Bioline TB AgMPT64® Detection Assay for Rapid Characterization of Mycobacteria in Nigeria

Authors: S. Ibrahim, U. B. Abubakar, S. Danbirni, A. Usman, F. M. Ballah, C. A. Kudi, L. Lawson, G. H. Abdulrazak, I. A. Abdulkadir

Abstract:

Performing culture and characterization of mycobacteria in low resource settings like Nigeria is a very difficult task to undertake because of the very few and limited laboratories carrying out such an experiment; this is a largely due to stringent and laborious nature of the tests. Hence, a rapid, simple and accurate test for characterization is needed. The “SD BIOLINE TB Ag MPT 64 Rapid ®” is a simple and rapid immunochromatographic test used in differentiating Mycobacteria into Mycobacterium tuberculosis (NTM). The 100 sputa were obtained from patients suspected to be infected with tuberculosis and presented themselves to hospitals for check-up and treatment were involved in the study. The samples were cultured in a class III Biosafety cabinet and level III biosafety practices were followed. Forty isolates were obtained from the cultured sputa, and there were identified as Acid-fast bacilli (AFB) using Zeihl-Neelsen acid-fast stain. All the isolates (AFB positive) were then subjected to the SD BIOLINE Analyses. A total of 31 (77.5%) were characterized as MTBC, while nine (22.5%) were NTM. The total turnaround time for the rapid assay was just 30 minutes as compared to a few days of phenotypic and genotypic method. It was simple, rapid and reliable test to differentiate MTBC from NTM.

Keywords: culture, mycobacteria, non tuberculous mycobacterium, SD Bioline

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
5095 Design On Demand (DoD): Spiral Model of The Lifecycle of Products in The Personal 3D-Printed Products' Market

Authors: Zuk Nechemia Turbovich

Abstract:

This paper introduces DoD, a contextual spiral model that describes the lifecycle of products intended for manufacturing using Personal 3D Printers (P3DP). The study is based on a review of the desktop P3DPs market that shows that the combination of digital connectivity, coupled with the potential ownership of P3DP by home users, is radically changing the form of the product lifecycle, comparatively to familiar lifecycle paradigms. The paper presents the change in the design process, considering the characterization of product types in the P3DP market and the possibility of having a direct dialogue between end-user and product designers. The model, as an updated paradigm, provides a strategic perspective on product design and tools for success, understanding that design is subject to rapid and continuous improvement and that products are subject to repair, update, and customization. The paper will include a review of real cases.

Keywords: lifecycle, mass-customization, personal 3d-printing, user involvement

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
5094 Technology and Educational Gaps: A Literature Review on the Proportionate Infusion of Technology into Education

Authors: Tamika Gordon

Abstract:

As technology continues to progress every second, educational institutions attempt to stay abreast of the latest developments through the acquisition of technological devices. Within schools, soft and hard technologies have assisted with reaching more students and expedient communication. As schools continue to grow, the need for simultaneous communication and efficient feedback has grown, and technology has allowed for these avenues to be explored and incorporated within a variety of daily operations. With the rapid inclusion of technology comes the potential for less face-to-face interactions among stakeholders. Although technology plays an integral role in education, the elements of both soft and hard technological devices must be proportionally utilized and coexist for the overall advancement and longevity of organizations. Over 20 articles were referenced to obtain a multitude of views on technology reflecting effects for students and teachers. Throughout this literature review, the effects of technology in the workplace will be discussed including views of current researchers, pros and cons surrounding technological inclusion, and implications for future research and further consideration. Upon the completion of the literature review, the benefits and necessity of technology remained high, however, low availability of resources, limited exposure to technological devices, and decreasing soft skills remained high as well. Recommendations are made for proportionate balances of technology and face-to-face interactions in order to minimize societal, educational, and organizational gaps.

Keywords: communication, devices, education, organizations, technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
5093 A Holistic Conceptual Measurement Framework for Assessing the Effectiveness and Viability of an Academic Program

Authors: Munir Majdalawieh, Adam Marks

Abstract:

In today’s very competitive higher education industry (HEI), HEIs are faced with the primary concern of developing, deploying, and sustaining high quality academic programs. Today, the HEI has well-established accreditation systems endorsed by a country’s legislation and institutions. The accreditation system is an educational pathway focused on the criteria and processes for evaluating educational programs. Although many aspects of the accreditation process highlight both the past and the present (prove), the “program review” assessment is "forward-looking assessment" (improve) and thus transforms the process into a continuing assessment activity rather than a periodic event. The purpose of this study is to propose a conceptual measurement framework for program review to be used by HEIs to undertake a robust and targeted approach to proactively and continuously review their academic programs to evaluate its practicality and effectiveness as well as to improve the education of the students. The proposed framework consists of two main components: program review principles and the program review measurement matrix.

Keywords: academic program, program review principles, curriculum development, accreditation, evaluation, assessment, review measurement matrix, program review process, information technologies supporting learning, learning/teaching methodologies and assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
5092 A Review of Existing Turnover Intention Theories

Authors: Pauline E. Ngo-Henha

Abstract:

Existing turnover intention theories are reviewed in this paper. This review was conducted with the help of the search keyword “turnover intention theories” in Google Scholar during the month of July 2017. These theories include: The Theory of Organizational Equilibrium (TOE), Social Exchange Theory, Job Embeddedness Theory, Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory, the Resource-Based View, Equity Theory, Human Capital Theory, and the Expectancy Theory. One of the limitations of this review paper is that data were only collected from Google Scholar where many papers were sometimes not freely accessible. However, this paper attempts to contribute to the research in clarifying the distinction between theories and models in the context of turnover intention.

Keywords: Literature Review, Theory, Turnover, Turnover intention

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
5091 A Systematic Review on Assistive Technology Robotics in Lower and Middle-Income Settings

Authors: Sumudu Sameera Perera Kimmantudawage, Chapal Khasnabis

Abstract:

Technology is changing at a rapid rate, with innovations in robotics being hailed and tested in countries such as Japan, the United States and Australia, however the conversation in a public health context is stagnant. While obvious barriers to robotics use in low and middle-income countries and regions exist, the avoidance of attempting to address these regions of the world may potentially lead to an ever-increasing divide between those of high income countries and those of less. A systematic review was undertaken to determine the number of projects involving research, development and testing of robotics considered low and middle-income regions. Major findings indicate that an overwhelmingly significant number of projects failed to consider low and middle-income countries or regions. These results are unsurprising however alarming, as bridging the divide is an important step forward in achieving the UN Sustainable Development Goals by 2030. It is hoped that this research would spawn future robotics research that focusses on lower and middle-income regions.

Keywords: assistive technology, health equality, robotics, socioeconomic

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
5090 Reducing Road Traffic Accident: Rapid Evidence Synthesis for Low and Middle Income Countries

Authors: Tesfaye Dagne, Dagmawit Solomon, Firmaye Bogale, Yosef Gebreyohannes, Samson Mideksa, Mamuye Hadis, Desalegn Ararso, Ermias Woldie, Tsegaye Getachew, Sabit Ababor, Zelalem Kebede

Abstract:

Globally, road traffic accident (RTA) is causing millions of deaths and injuries every year. It is one of the leading causes of death among people of all age groups and the problem is worse among young reproductive age group. Moreover the problem is increasing with an increasing number of vehicles. The majority of the problem happen in low and middle income countries (LMIC), even if the number of vehicles in these countries is low compared to their population. So, the objective of this paper is to summarize the best available evidence on interventions that can reduce road traffic accidents in low and middle income countries (LMIC). Method: A rapid evidence synthesis approach adapted from the SURE Rapid Response Service was applied to search, appraise and summarize the best available evidence on effective intervention in reducing road traffic injury. To answer the question under review, we searched for relevant studies from databases including PubMed, the Cochrane Library, TRANSPORT, Health system evidence, Epistemonikos, and SUPPORT summary. The following key terms were used for searching: Road traffic accident, RTA, Injury, Reduc*, Prevent*, Minimiz*, “Low and middle-income country”, LMIC. We found 18 articles through a search of different databases mentioned above. After screening for the titles and abstracts of the articles, four of them which satisfy the inclusion criteria were included in the final review. Then we appraised and graded the methodological quality of systematic reviews that are deemed to be highly relevant using AMSTAR. Finding: The identified interventions to reduce road traffic accidents were legislation and enforcement, public awareness/education, speed control/ rumble strips, road improvement, mandatory motorcycle helmet, graduated driver license, street lighting. Legislation and Enforcement: Legislation focusing on mandatory motorcycle helmet usage, banning cellular phone usage when driving, seat belt laws, decreasing the legal blood alcohol content (BAC) level from 0.06 g/L to 0.02 g/L bring the best result where enforcement is there. Public Awareness/Education: focusing on seat belt use, child restraint use, educational training in health centers and schools/universities, and public awareness with media through the distribution of videos, posters/souvenirs, and pamphlets are effective in the short run. Speed Control: through traffic calming bumps, or speed bumps, rumbled strips are effective in reducing accidents and fatality. Mandatory Motorcycle Helmet: is associated with reduction in mortality. Graduated driver’s license (GDL): reduce road traffic injury by 19%. Street lighting: is a low-cost intervention which may reduce road traffic accidents.

Keywords: evidence synthesis, injury, rapid review, reducing, road traffic accident

Procedia PDF Downloads 21
5089 Juvenile Justice in China: A Historical Approach

Authors: Xianlu Zeng

Abstract:

China has undergone rapid economic growth over the last three decades. During this time, China-focused study has become one of the most popular areas of research. However, even though China has one of the oldest legal traditions in the world, there is limited research available regarding the development and operation of China’s juvenile justice system. This article will provide general information about China’s juvenile justice tradition along with a review of its reformation in 2013. A discussion is presented that provides some thoughts about how successful these reforms have been and where China may need to head.

Keywords: China, history, juvenile justice, legal traditions

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
5088 Enterprise Information Portal Features: Results of Content Analysis Literature Review

Authors: Michal Krčál

Abstract:

Since their introduction in 1990’s, Enterprise Information Portals (EIPs) were investigated from different perspectives (e.g. project management, technology acceptance, IS success). However, no systematic literature review was produced to systematize both the research efforts and the technology itself. This paper reports first results of an extent systematic literature review study focused on research of EIPs and its categorization, specifically it reports a conceptual model of EIP features. The previous attempt to categorize EIP features was published in 2002. For the purpose of the literature review, content of 89 articles was analyzed in order to identify and categorize features of EIPs. The methodology of the literature review was as follows. Firstly, search queries in major indexing databases (Web of Science and SCOPUS) were used. The results of queries were analyzed according to their usability for the goal of the study. Then, full-texts were coded in Atlas.ti according to previously established coding scheme. The codes were categorized and the conceptual model of EIP features was created.

Keywords: enterprise information portal, content analysis, features, systematic literature review

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
5087 Service-Oriented Enterprise Architecture (SoEA) Adoption and Maturity Measurement Model: A Systematic Review

Authors: Nur Azaliah Abu Bakar, Harihodin Selamat, Mohd Nazri Kama

Abstract:

This article provides a systematic review of existing research related to the Service-oriented Enterprise Architecture (SoEA) adoption and maturity measurement model. The review’s main goals are to support research, to facilitate other researcher’s search for relevant studies and to propose areas for future studies within this area. In addition, this article provides useful information on SoEA adoption issues and its related maturity model, based on research-based knowledge. The review results suggest that motives, critical success factors (CSFs), implementation status and benefits are the most frequently studied areas and that each of these areas would benefit from further exposure.

Keywords: systematic literature review, service-oriented architecture, adoption, maturity model

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
5086 Meta-Review of Scholarly Publications on Biosensors: A Bibliometric Study

Authors: Nasrine Olson

Abstract:

With over 70,000 scholarly publications on the topic of biosensors, an overview of the field has become a challenge. To facilitate, there are currently over 700 expert-reviews of publications on biosensors and related topics. This study focuses on these review papers in order to provide a Meta-Review of the area. This paper provides a statistical analysis and overview of biosensor-related review papers. Comprehensive searches are conducted in the Web of Science, and PubMed databases and the resulting empirical material are analyzed using bibliometric methods and tools. The study finds that the biosensor-related review papers can be categorized in five related subgroups, broadly denoted by (i) properties of materials and particles, (ii) analysis and indicators, (iii) diagnostics, (iv) pollutant and analytical devices, and (v) treatment/ application. For an easy and clear access to the findings visualization of clusters and networks of connections are presented. The study includes a temporal dimension and identifies the trends over the years with an emphasis on the most recent developments. This paper provides useful insights for those who wish to form a better understanding of the research trends in the area of biosensors.

Keywords: bibliometrics, biosensors, meta-review, statistical analysis, trends visualization

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
5085 Preparation Non-Woven Nanofiber Structures for Uniform and Rapid Drug Releasing Applications Using an Electrospinning Process

Authors: Cho-Liang Chung

Abstract:

Uniform and rapid drug release are important for trauma dressing application. Low glass transition polymer system and non-woven nanofiber structures as the designs conduct rapid-release characteristics. In this study, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polysulfone, and polystyrene were dissolved in dimethylformamide to form precursor solution. These solutions were blended with vitamin C to form the electrospinning solutions. The non-woven nanofibers structures were successfully prepared using an electrospinning process. The following instruments were used to analyze the characteristics of non-woven nanofibers structures: Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The AFM was used to scan the nanofibers. 3D Graphics were applied to explore the surface morphology of nanofibers. FE-SEM was used to explore the morphology of non-woven structures. XRD was used to identify crystal structures in the non-woven structures. The evolution of morphology of non-woven structures was changed dramatically in different durations, because of the moisture absorption and decreasing glass transition temperature; the non-woven nanofiber structures can be applied to uniform and rapid drug release for trauma dressing application.

Keywords: nanofibers, non-woven, electrospinning process, rapid drug releasing

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
5084 The Use of Artificial Intelligence in the Prevention of Micro and Macrovascular Complications in Type Diabetic Patients in Low and Middle-Income Countries

Authors: Ebere Ellison Obisike, Justina N. Adalikwu-Obisike

Abstract:

Artificial intelligence (AI) is progressively transforming health and social care. With the rapid invention of various electronic devices, machine learning, and computing systems, the use of AI istraversing many health and social care practices. In this systematic review of journal and grey literature, this study explores how the applications of AI might promote the prevention of micro and macrovascular complications in type 1 diabetic patients. This review focuses on the use of a digitized blood glucose meter and the application of insulin pumps for the effective management of type 1 diabetes in low and middle-income countries. It is projected that the applications of AI may assist individuals with type 1 diabetes to monitor and control their blood glucose level and prevent the early onset of micro and macrovascular complications.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, blood glucose meter, insulin pump, low and middle-income countries, micro and macrovascular complications, type 1 diabetes

Procedia PDF Downloads 74