Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 34

Search results for: Tesfaye Dagne

34 Agro-Morphological Traits Based Genetic Diversity Analysis of ‘Ethiopian Dinich’ Plectranthus edulis (Vatke) Agnew Populations Collected from Diverse Agro-Ecologies in Ethiopia

Authors: Fekadu Gadissa, Kassahun Tesfaye, Kifle Dagne, Mulatu Geleta


‘Ethiopian dinich’ also called ‘Ethiopian potato’ is one of the economically important ‘orphan’ edible tuber crops indigenous to Ethiopia. We evaluated the morphological and agronomic traits performances of 174 samples from Ethiopia at multiple locations using 12 qualitative and 16 quantitative traits, recorded at the correct growth stages. We observed several morphotypes and phenotypic variations for qualitative traits along with a wide range of mean performance values for all quantitative traits. Analysis of variance for each quantitative trait showed a highly significant (p<0.001) variation among the collections with eventually non-significant variation for environment-traits interaction for all but flower length. A comparatively high phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation was observed for plant height, days to flower initiation, days to 50% flowering and tuber number per hill. Moreover, the variability and coefficients of variation due to genotype-environment interaction was nearly zero for all the traits except flower length. High genotypic coefficients of variation coupled with a high estimate of broad sense heritability and high genetic advance as a percent of collection mean were obtained for tuber weight per hill, number of primary branches per plant, tuber number per hill and number of plants per hill. Association of tuber yield per hectare of land showed a large magnitude of positive phenotypic and genotypic correlation with those traits. Principal components analysis revealed 76% of the total variation for the first six principal axes with high factor loadings again from tuber number per hill, number of primary branches per plant and tuber weight. The collections were grouped into four clusters with the weak region (zone) of origin based pattern. In general, there is high genetic-based variability for ‘Ethiopian dinich’ improvement and conservation. DNA based markers are recommended for further genetic diversity estimation for use in breeding and conservation.

Keywords: agro-morphological traits, Ethiopian dinich, genetic diversity, variance components

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33 Innovative In-Service Training Approach to Strengthen Health Care Human Resources and Scale-Up Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Authors: Tsegahun Manyazewal, Francesco Marinucci, Getachew Belay, Abraham Tesfaye, Gonfa Ayana, Amaha Kebede, Tsegahun Manyazewal, Francesco Marinucci, Getachew Belay, Abraham Tesfaye, Gonfa Ayana, Amaha Kebede, Yewondwossen Tadesse, Susan Lehman, Zelalem Temesgen


In-service health trainings in Sub-Saharan Africa are mostly content-centered with higher disconnection with the real practice in the facility. This study intended to evaluate in-service training approach aimed to strengthen health care human resources. A combined web-based and face-to-face training was designed and piloted in Ethiopia with the diagnosis of tuberculosis. During the first part, which lasted 43 days, trainees accessed web-based material and read without leaving their work; while the second part comprised a one-day hands-on evaluation. Trainee’s competency was measured using multiple-choice questions, written-assignments, exercises and hands-on evaluation. Of 108 participants invited, 81 (75%) attended the course and 71 (88%) of them successfully completed. Of those completed, 73 (90%) scored a grade from A to C. The approach was effective to transfer knowledge and turn it into practical skills. In-service health training should transform from a passive one-time-event to a continuous behavioral change of participants and improvements on their actual work.

Keywords: Ethiopia, health care, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, training

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32 Reducing Road Traffic Accident: Rapid Evidence Synthesis for Low and Middle Income Countries

Authors: Tesfaye Dagne, Dagmawit Solomon, Firmaye Bogale, Yosef Gebreyohannes, Samson Mideksa, Mamuye Hadis, Desalegn Ararso, Ermias Woldie, Tsegaye Getachew, Sabit Ababor, Zelalem Kebede


Globally, road traffic accident (RTA) is causing millions of deaths and injuries every year. It is one of the leading causes of death among people of all age groups and the problem is worse among young reproductive age group. Moreover the problem is increasing with an increasing number of vehicles. The majority of the problem happen in low and middle income countries (LMIC), even if the number of vehicles in these countries is low compared to their population. So, the objective of this paper is to summarize the best available evidence on interventions that can reduce road traffic accidents in low and middle income countries (LMIC). Method: A rapid evidence synthesis approach adapted from the SURE Rapid Response Service was applied to search, appraise and summarize the best available evidence on effective intervention in reducing road traffic injury. To answer the question under review, we searched for relevant studies from databases including PubMed, the Cochrane Library, TRANSPORT, Health system evidence, Epistemonikos, and SUPPORT summary. The following key terms were used for searching: Road traffic accident, RTA, Injury, Reduc*, Prevent*, Minimiz*, “Low and middle-income country”, LMIC. We found 18 articles through a search of different databases mentioned above. After screening for the titles and abstracts of the articles, four of them which satisfy the inclusion criteria were included in the final review. Then we appraised and graded the methodological quality of systematic reviews that are deemed to be highly relevant using AMSTAR. Finding: The identified interventions to reduce road traffic accidents were legislation and enforcement, public awareness/education, speed control/ rumble strips, road improvement, mandatory motorcycle helmet, graduated driver license, street lighting. Legislation and Enforcement: Legislation focusing on mandatory motorcycle helmet usage, banning cellular phone usage when driving, seat belt laws, decreasing the legal blood alcohol content (BAC) level from 0.06 g/L to 0.02 g/L bring the best result where enforcement is there. Public Awareness/Education: focusing on seat belt use, child restraint use, educational training in health centers and schools/universities, and public awareness with media through the distribution of videos, posters/souvenirs, and pamphlets are effective in the short run. Speed Control: through traffic calming bumps, or speed bumps, rumbled strips are effective in reducing accidents and fatality. Mandatory Motorcycle Helmet: is associated with reduction in mortality. Graduated driver’s license (GDL): reduce road traffic injury by 19%. Street lighting: is a low-cost intervention which may reduce road traffic accidents.

Keywords: evidence synthesis, injury, rapid review, reducing, road traffic accident

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31 Model Predictive Controller for Pasteurization Process

Authors: Tesfaye Alamirew Dessie


Our study focuses on developing a Model Predictive Controller (MPC) and evaluating it against a traditional PID for a pasteurization process. Utilizing system identification from the experimental data, the dynamics of the pasteurization process were calculated. Using best fit with data validation, residual, and stability analysis, the quality of several model architectures was evaluated. The validation data fit the auto-regressive with exogenous input (ARX322) model of the pasteurization process by roughly 80.37 percent. The ARX322 model structure was used to create MPC and PID control techniques. After comparing controller performance based on settling time, overshoot percentage, and stability analysis, it was found that MPC controllers outperform PID for those parameters.

Keywords: MPC, PID, ARX, pasteurization

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30 Boryl Radical-Promoted Dehydroxylative Alkylation of 3-Hydroxyoxindole Derivatives

Authors: Tesfaye Tebeka Simur


A boryl radical-promoted dehydroxylative alkylation of 3-hydroxy-oxindole derivatives is achieved. The reaction starts from addition of 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP)-boryl radical to the amide carbonyl oxygen atom, which induces a spin-center shift process to promote the C–O bond cleavage. The elimination of a hydroxide anion from a free hydroxy group is also accomplished. The capture of the generated carbon radical with alkenes furnishes a variety of C-3 alkylated oxindoles. This method features a simple operation and broad substrate scope. Currently, this method is extended to the activation of C=N and C=C bonds without the need for installing a leaving group.

Keywords: boryl radical, C-O, C-F, C=C, C=N bond activation, spin center shift

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29 Dyeing Cotton with Dyes Extracted from Eucalyptus and Mango Trees

Authors: Tamrat Tesfaye, Bruce Sithole, K. Shabaridharan


The use of natural dyes to replace synthetic dyes has been advocated for to circumvent the environmental problems associated with synthetic dyes. This paper is a preliminary study on the use of natural dyes extracted from eucalyptus and mango trees. Dyes extracted from eucalyptus bark gave more colourized material than the dyes extracted from eucalyptus leaves and mango pills and leaves. Additionally, the extracts exhibited a deeper colour shade. Cotton fiber dyed using the same dye but with different mordants resulted in fabric that exhibited different colours. It appears that natural dyes from these plants could be effective dyes for use on cotton fabrics especially considering that the dyes exhibited excellent colour fastness.

Keywords: natural dyes, mango, eucalyptus, cotton, mordants, colour fastness

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28 Volarization of Sugarcane Bagasse: The Effect of Alkali Concentration, Soaking Time and Temperature on Fibre Yield

Authors: Tamrat Tesfaye, Tilahun Seyoum, K. Shabaridharan


The objective of this paper was to determine the effect of NaOH concentration, soaking time, soaking temperature and their interaction on percentage yield of fibre extract using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). A Box-Behnken design was employed to optimize the extraction process of cellulosic fibre from sugar cane by-product bagasse using low alkaline extraction technique. The quadratic model with the optimal technological conditions resulted in a maximum fibre yield of 56.80% at 0.55N NaOH concentration, 4 h steeping time and 60ᵒC soaking temperature. Among the independent variables concentration was found to be the most significant (P < 0.005) variable and the interaction effect of concentration and soaking time leads to securing the optimized processes.

Keywords: sugarcane bagasse, low alkaline, Box-Behnken, fibre

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27 Deployment of Electronic Healthcare Records and Development of Big Data Analytics Capabilities in the Healthcare Industry: A Systematic Literature Review

Authors: Tigabu Dagne Akal


Electronic health records (EHRs) can help to store, maintain, and make the appropriate handling of patient histories for proper treatment and decision. Merging the EHRs with big data analytics (BDA) capabilities enable healthcare stakeholders to provide effective and efficient treatments for chronic diseases. Though there are huge opportunities and efforts that exist in the deployment of EMRs and the development of BDA, there are challenges in addressing resources and organizational capabilities that are required to achieve the competitive advantage and sustainability of EHRs and BDA. The resource-based view (RBV), information system (IS), and non- IS theories should be extended to examine organizational capabilities and resources which are required for successful data analytics in the healthcare industries. The main purpose of this study is to develop a conceptual framework for the development of healthcare BDA capabilities based on past works so that researchers can extend. The research question was formulated for the search strategy as a research methodology. The study selection was made at the end. Based on the study selection, the conceptual framework for the development of BDA capabilities in the healthcare settings was formulated.

Keywords: EHR, EMR, Big data, Big data analytics, resource-based view

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26 Graphen-Based Nanocomposites for Glucose and Ethanol Enzymatic Biosensor Fabrication

Authors: Tesfaye Alamirew, Delele Worku, Solomon W. Fanta, Nigus Gabbiye


Recently graphen based nanocomposites are become an emerging research areas for fabrication of enzymatic biosensors due to their property of large surface area, conductivity and biocompatibility. This review summarizes recent research reports of graphen based nanocomposites for the fabrication of glucose and ethanol enzymatic biosensors. The newly fabricated enzyme free microwave treated nitrogen doped graphen (MN-d-GR) had provided highest sensitivity towards glucose and GCE/rGO/AuNPs/ADH composite had provided far highest sensitivity towards ethanol compared to other reported graphen based nanocomposites. The MWCNT/GO/GOx and GCE/ErGO/PTH/ADH nanocomposites had also enhanced wide linear range for glucose and ethanol detection respectively. Generally, graphen based nanocomposite enzymatic biosensors had fast direct electron transfer rate, highest sensitivity and wide linear detection ranges during glucose and ethanol sensing.

Keywords: glucose, ethanol, enzymatic biosensor, graphen, nanocomposite

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25 Analysis of the Impact of Climate Change on Maize (Zea Mays) Yield in Central Ethiopia

Authors: Takele Nemomsa, Girma Mamo, Tesfaye Balemi


Climate change refers to a change in the state of the climate that can be identified (e.g. using statistical tests) by changes in the mean and/or variance of its properties and that persists for an extended period, typically decades or longer. In Ethiopia; Maize production in relation to climate change at regional and sub- regional scales have not been studied in detail. Thus, this study was aimed to analyse the impact of climate change on maize yield in Ambo Districts, Central Ethiopia. To this effect, weather data, soil data and maize experimental data for Arganne hybrid were used. APSIM software was used to investigate the response of maize (Zea mays) yield to different agronomic management practices using current and future (2020s–2080s) climate data. The climate change projections data which were downscaled using SDSM were used as input of climate data for the impact analysis. Compared to agronomic practices the impact of climate change on Arganne in Central Ethiopia is minute. However, within 2020s-2080s in Ambo area; the yield of Arganne hybrid is projected to reduce by 1.06% to 2.02%, and in 2050s it is projected to reduce by 1.56 While in 2080s; it is projected to increase by 1.03% to 2.07%. Thus, to adapt to the changing climate; farmers should consider increasing plant density and fertilizer rate per hectare.

Keywords: APSIM, downscaling, response, SDSM

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24 Effectiveness of Reinforcement Learning (RL) for Autonomous Energy Management Solutions

Authors: Tesfaye Mengistu


This thesis aims to investigate the effectiveness of Reinforcement Learning (RL) for Autonomous Energy Management solutions. The study explores the potential of Model Free RL approaches, such as Monte Carlo RL and Q-learning, to improve energy management by autonomously adjusting energy management strategies to maximize efficiency. The research investigates the implementation of RL algorithms for optimizing energy consumption in a single-agent environment. The focus is on developing a framework for the implementation of RL algorithms, highlighting the importance of RL for enabling autonomous systems to adapt quickly to changing conditions and make decisions based on previous experiences. Moreover, the paper proposes RL as a novel energy management solution to address nations' CO2 emission goals. Reinforcement learning algorithms are well-suited to solving problems with sequential decision-making patterns and can provide accurate and immediate outputs to ease the planning and decision-making process. This research provides insights into the challenges and opportunities of using RL for energy management solutions and recommends further studies to explore its full potential. In conclusion, this study provides valuable insights into how RL can be used to improve the efficiency of energy management systems and supports the use of RL as a promising approach for developing autonomous energy management solutions in residential buildings.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, reinforcement learning, monte carlo, energy management, CO2 emission

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23 The Role of Formal and Informal Institutions in Water Governance in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

Authors: Endalew Jibat, Feyera Senbeta, Tesfaye Zeleke, Fitsum Hagos


Institutions can play a key role in coordinating how natural resources are effectively used without over-exploitation. Institutions are the laws, policies, and organizational arrangements that permit, forbid or regulate human action. The aim of this study was to look into the roles of formal and informal institutions, as well as their interactions, in water resource governance in Ethiopia's Central Rift Valley (CRV), where water scarcity is a concern. Key informant interviews, group discussions, in depth-interview, and secondary data sources were used to generate relevant data. The study revealed that formal and informal institutions were involved in water resource governance in the study area. However, the influence of informal institutions on formal institutions or vice versa is trivial to change the action of water users. Lack of clear roles and responsibilities of actors, weak capacity and lack of meaningful decentralization and participation of key actors in policy development, lack of synergy and incongruence between formal and informal institutions, and absence of enforcement mechanisms including incentives are attributed to inefficient use of water resources in the CRV. Enhancing the interplay of formal and informal institutions in the water resource policy development and meaningful decentralization and key stakeholders' engagement is recommended for sustainable water use.

Keywords: institutions, governance, institutional interplay, water users

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22 Dynamics of Museum Visitors’ Experiences Studies: A Bibliometric Analysis

Authors: Tesfaye Fentaw Nigatu, Alexander Trupp, Teh Pek Yen


Research on museums and the experiences of visitors has flourished in recent years, especially after museums became centers of edutainment beyond preserving heritage resources. This paper aims to comprehensively understand the changes, continuities, and future research development directions of museum visitors’ experiences. To identify current research trends, the paper summarizes and analyses research article publications from 1986 to 2023 on museum visitors' experiences. Bibliometric analysis software VOSviewer and Harzing POP (Publish or Perish) were used to analyze 407 academic articles. The articles were generated from the Scopus database. The study attempted to map new insights for future scholars and academics to expand the scope of museum visitors’ experience studies by analyzing keywords, citation patterns, influential articles in the field, publication trends, collaborations between authors, institutions, and clusters of highly cited articles. Accessibility to museums, social media usage within museums, aesthetics in museum settings, mixed reality experiences, sustainability issues, and emotions have emerged as key research areas in the study of museum visitors' experiences. The results benefit stakeholders and researchers in advancing the collective progress of considering recent research trends to stay informed about the latest developments and breakthroughs in the global academic landscape and visitors’ experiences development in the museum.

Keywords: bibliometric analysis, museum, network analysis, visitors’ experiences, visual analysis

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21 Screening Some Accessions of Lentil (Lens culinaris M.) for Salt Tolerance at Germination and Early Seedling Stage in Eastern Ethiopia

Authors: Azene Tesfaye, Yohannes Petros, Habtamu Zeleke


To evaluate genetic variation among Ethiopian lentil, laboratory experiment were conducted to screen 12 accessions of lentil (Lens culinaris M.) for salt tolerance. Seeds of 12 Lentil accessions were grown at laboratory (Petri dish) condition with different levels of salinity (0, 2, 4, and 8 dSm-1 NaCl) for 4 weeks. The experimental design was completely randomized design (CRD) in factorial combination with three replications. Data analysis was carried out using SAS software. Average germination time, germination percentage, seedling shoot and root traits, seedling shoot and root weight were evaluated. The two way ANOVA for varieties revealed statistically significant variation among lentil accession, NaCl level and their interactions (p<0.001) with respect to the entire parameters. It was found that salt stress significantly delays germination rate and decreases germination percentage, shoot and root length, seedling shoot and root weight of lentil accessions. The degree of decrement varied with accessions and salinity levels. Accessions 36120, 9235 and 36004 were better salt tolerant than the other accessions. As the result, it is recommended to be used as a genetic resource for the development of lentil accession and other very salt sensitive crop with improved germination under salt stress condition.

Keywords: accession, germination, lentil, NaCl, screening, seedling stage

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20 Constructing a Semi-Supervised Model for Network Intrusion Detection

Authors: Tigabu Dagne Akal


While advances in computer and communications technology have made the network ubiquitous, they have also rendered networked systems vulnerable to malicious attacks devised from a distance. These attacks or intrusions start with attackers infiltrating a network through a vulnerable host and then launching further attacks on the local network or Intranet. Nowadays, system administrators and network professionals can attempt to prevent such attacks by developing intrusion detection tools and systems using data mining technology. In this study, the experiments were conducted following the Knowledge Discovery in Database Process Model. The Knowledge Discovery in Database Process Model starts from selection of the datasets. The dataset used in this study has been taken from Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory. After taking the data, it has been pre-processed. The major pre-processing activities include fill in missed values, remove outliers; resolve inconsistencies, integration of data that contains both labelled and unlabelled datasets, dimensionality reduction, size reduction and data transformation activity like discretization tasks were done for this study. A total of 21,533 intrusion records are used for training the models. For validating the performance of the selected model a separate 3,397 records are used as a testing set. For building a predictive model for intrusion detection J48 decision tree and the Naïve Bayes algorithms have been tested as a classification approach for both with and without feature selection approaches. The model that was created using 10-fold cross validation using the J48 decision tree algorithm with the default parameter values showed the best classification accuracy. The model has a prediction accuracy of 96.11% on the training datasets and 93.2% on the test dataset to classify the new instances as normal, DOS, U2R, R2L and probe classes. The findings of this study have shown that the data mining methods generates interesting rules that are crucial for intrusion detection and prevention in the networking industry. Future research directions are forwarded to come up an applicable system in the area of the study.

Keywords: intrusion detection, data mining, computer science, data mining

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19 Comparison of Sign Language Skill and Academic Achievement of Deaf Students in Special and Inclusive Primary Schools of South Nation Nationalities People Region, Ethiopia

Authors: Tesfaye Basha


The purpose of this study was to examine the sign language and academic achievement of deaf students in special and inclusive primary schools of Southern Ethiopia. The study used a mixed-method to collect varied data. The study contained Signed Amharic and English skill tasks, questionnaire, 8th-grade Primary School Leaving Certificate Examination results, classroom observation, and interviews. For quantitative (n=70) deaf students and for qualitative data collection, 16 participants were involved. The finding revealed that the limitation of sign language is a problem in signing and academic achievements. This displays that schools are not linguistically rich to enable sign language achievement for deaf students. Moreover, the finding revealed that the contribution of Total Communication in the growth of natural sign language for deaf students was unsatisfactory. The results also indicated that special schools of deaf students performed better sign language skills and academic achievement than inclusive schools. In addition, the findings revealed that high signed skill group showed higher academic achievement than the low skill group. This displayed that sign language skill is highly associated with academic achievement. In addition, to qualify deaf students in sign language and academics, teacher institutions must produce competent teachers on how to teach deaf students with sign language and literacy skills.

Keywords: academic achievement, inclusive school, sign language, signed Amharic, signed English, special school, total communication

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18 A Review on Valorisation of Chicken Feathers: Current Status and Future Prospects

Authors: Tamrat Tesfaye, Bruce Sithole, Deresh Ramjugernath


Worldwide, the poultry–processing industry generates large quantities of feather by-products that amount to 40 billion kilograms annually. The feathers are considered wastes although small amounts are often processed into valuable products such as feather meal and fertilizers. The remaining waste is disposed of by incineration or by burial in controlled landfills. Improper disposal of these biological wastes contributes to environmental damage and transmission of diseases. Economic pressures, environmental pressures, increasing interest in using renewable and sustainable raw materials, and the need to decrease reliance on non-renewable petroleum resources behove the industry to find better ways of dealing with waste feathers. A closer look at the structure and composition of feathers shows that the whole part of a chicken feather (rachis and barb) can be used as a source of a pure structural protein called keratin which can be exploited for conversion into a number of high-value bio products. Additionally, a number of technologies can be used to convert other biological components of feathers into high value added products. Thus, conversion of the waste into valuable products can make feathers an attractive raw material for the production of bio products. In this review, possible applications of chicken feathers in a variety of technologies and products are discussed. Thus, using waste feathers as a valuable resource can help the poultry industry to dispose of the waste feathers in an environmentally sustainable manner that also generates extra income for the industry. Their valorisation can result in their sustainable conversion into high-value materials and products on the proviso of existence or development of cost-effective technologies for converting this waste into the useful products.

Keywords: biodegradable product, keratin, poultry waste, feathers, valorisation

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17 Prediction of California Bearing Ratio of a Black Cotton Soil Stabilized with Waste Glass and Eggshell Powder using Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Biruhi Tesfaye, Avinash M. Potdar


The laboratory test process to determine the California bearing ratio (CBR) of black cotton soils is not only overpriced but also time-consuming as well. Hence advanced prediction of CBR plays a significant role as it is applicable In pavement design. The prediction of CBR of treated soil was executed by Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) which is a Computational tool based on the properties of the biological neural system. To observe CBR values, combined eggshell and waste glass was added to soil as 4, 8, 12, and 16 % of the weights of the soil samples. Accordingly, the laboratory related tests were conducted to get the required best model. The maximum CBR value found at 5.8 at 8 % of eggshell waste glass powder addition. The model was developed using CBR as an output layer variable. CBR was considered as a function of the joint effect of liquid limit, plastic limit, and plastic index, optimum moisture content and maximum dry density. The best model that has been found was ANN with 5, 6 and 1 neurons in the input, hidden and output layer correspondingly. The performance of selected ANN has been 0.99996, 4.44E-05, 0.00353 and 0.0067 which are correlation coefficient (R), mean square error (MSE), mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean square error (RMSE) respectively. The research presented or summarized above throws light on future scope on stabilization with waste glass combined with different percentages of eggshell that leads to the economical design of CBR acceptable to pavement sub-base or base, as desired.

Keywords: CBR, artificial neural network, liquid limit, plastic limit, maximum dry density, OMC

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16 Intellectual Property and SMEs in the Baltic Sea Region: A Comparative Study on the Use of the Utility Model Protection

Authors: Christina Wainikka, Besrat Tesfaye


Several of the countries in the Baltic Sea region are ranked high in international innovations rankings, such as the Global Innovation Index and European Innovation Scoreboard. There are however some concerns in the performance of different countries. For example, there is a widely spread notion about “The Swedish Paradox”. Sweden is ranked high due to investments in R&D and patent activity, but the outcome is not as high as could be expected. SMEs in Sweden are also below EU average when it comes to registering intellectual property rights such as patents and trademarks. This study is concentrating on the protection of utility model. This intellectual property right does not exist in Sweden, but in for example Finland and Germany. The utility model protection is sometimes referred to as a “patent light” since it is easier to obtain than the patent protection but at the same time does cover technical solutions. In examining statistics on patent activities and activities in registering utility models it is clear that utility model protection is scarcely used in the countries that have the protection. In Germany 10 577 applications were made in 2021. In Finland there were 259 applications made in 2021. This can be compared with patent applications that were 58 568 in Germany in 2021 and 1 662 in Finland in 2021. In Sweden there has never been a protection for utility models. The only protection for technical solutions is patents and business secrets. The threshold for obtaining a patent is high, due to the legal requirements and the costs. The patent protection is there for often not chosen by SMEs in Sweden. This study examines whether the protection of utility models in other countries in the Baltic region provide SMEs in these countries with better options to protect their innovations. The legal methodology is comparative law. In order to study the effects of the legal differences statistics are examined and interviews done with SMEs from different industries.

Keywords: baltic sea region, comparative law, SME, utility model

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15 Food and Nutritional Security in the Context of Climate Change in Ethiopia: Using Household Panel Data

Authors: Aemro Tazeze Terefe, Mengistu K. Aredo, Abule M. Workagegnehu, Wondimagegn M. Tesfaye


Climate-induced shocks have been shown to reduce agricultural production and cause fluctuation in output in developing countries. When livelihoods depend on rain-fed agriculture, climate-induced shocks translate into consumption shocks. Despite the substantial improvements in household consumption, climate-induced shocks, and other factors adversely affect consumption dynamics at the household level in Ethiopia. Therefore, household consumption dynamics in the context of climate-induced shocks help to guide resilience capacity and establish appropriate interventions and programs. The research employed three-round panel data based on the Ethiopian Socioeconomic Survey with spatial rainfall data to define unique measures of rainfall variability. The linear dynamic panel model results show that the lagged value of consumption, market shocks, and rainfall variability positively affected consumption dynamics. In contrast, production shocks, temperature, and amount of rainfall had a negative relationship. Coping strategies mitigate adverse climate-induced shocks on consumption aftershocks that smooth consumption over time. Support to increase the resilience capacity of households can involve efforts to make existing livelihoods and forms of production or reductions in the vulnerability of households. Therefore, government interventions are mandatory for asset accumulation agendas that support household coping strategies and respond to shocks. In addition, the dynamic linkage between consumption and significant socioeconomic and institutional factors should be taken into account to minimize the effect of climate-induced shocks on consumption dynamics.

Keywords: climate shock, Ethiopia, fixed-effect model, food security

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14 Unlocking the Future of Grocery Shopping: Graph Neural Network-Based Cold Start Item Recommendations with Reverse Next Item Period Recommendation (RNPR)

Authors: Tesfaye Fenta Boka, Niu Zhendong


Recommender systems play a crucial role in connecting individuals with the items they require, as is particularly evident in the rapid growth of online grocery shopping platforms. These systems predominantly rely on user-centered recommendations, where items are suggested based on individual preferences, garnering considerable attention and adoption. However, our focus lies on the item-centered recommendation task within the grocery shopping context. In the reverse next item period recommendation (RNPR) task, we are presented with a specific item and challenged to identify potential users who are likely to consume it in the upcoming period. Despite the ever-expanding inventory of products on online grocery platforms, the cold start item problem persists, posing a substantial hurdle in delivering personalized and accurate recommendations for new or niche grocery items. To address this challenge, we propose a Graph Neural Network (GNN)-based approach. By capitalizing on the inherent relationships among grocery items and leveraging users' historical interactions, our model aims to provide reliable and context-aware recommendations for cold-start items. This integration of GNN technology holds the promise of enhancing recommendation accuracy and catering to users' individual preferences. This research contributes to the advancement of personalized recommendations in the online grocery shopping domain. By harnessing the potential of GNNs and exploring item-centered recommendation strategies, we aim to improve the overall shopping experience and satisfaction of users on these platforms.

Keywords: recommender systems, cold start item recommendations, online grocery shopping platforms, graph neural networks

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13 Smallholder Farmers’ Adaptation Strategies and Socioeconomic Determinants of Climate Variability in Boset District, Oromia, Ethiopia

Authors: Hurgesa Hundera, Samuel Shibeshibikeko, Tarike Daba, Tesfaye Ganamo


The study aimed at examining the ongoing adaptation strategies used by smallholder farmers in response to climate variability in Boset district. It also assessed the socioeconomic factors that influence the choice of adaptation strategies of smallholder farmers to climate variability risk. For attaining the objectives of the study, both primary and secondary sources of data were employed. The primary data were obtained through a household questionnaire, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, and observations, while secondary data were acquired through desk review. Questionnaires were distributed and filled by 328 respondents, and they were identified through systematic random sampling technique. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression model were applied in this study as the main analytical methods. The findings of the study reveal that the sample households have utilized multiple adaptation strategies in response to climate variability, such as cropping early mature crops, planting drought resistant crops, growing mixed crops on the same farm lands, and others. The results of the binary logistic model revealed that education, sex, age, family size, off farm income, farm experience, access to climate information, access to farm input, and farm size were significant and key factors determining farmers’ choice of adaptation strategies to climate variability in the study area. To enable effective adaptation measures, Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resource, with its regional bureaus and offices and concerned non–governmental organizations, should consider climate variability in their planning and budgeting in all levels of decision making.

Keywords: adaptation strategies, boset district, climate variability, smallholder farmers

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12 Factors Influencing Fertility Preferences and Contraceptive Use among Reproductive Aged Married Women in Eastern Ethiopia

Authors: Heroda Gebru, Berhanu Seyoum, Melake Damena, Gezahegn Tesfaye


Background: In Ethiopia there is a population policy aimed at reducing fertility and increasing contraceptive prevalence. Objective: To assess the fertility preference and contraceptive use status of married women who were living in Dire Dawa administrative city. Methods: Cross sectional study which included a sample size of 421 married women of reproductive age were performed. Data was collected using structured questionnaire during house to house survey and semi-structured questionnaire during in-depth interview. Data was processed and analyzed using SPSS version 16 computer software. Univariate, bi variate and multi variate analysis was employed. Results: A total of 421 married women of reproductive age group were interviewed having a response rate of 100 percent. More than half (58.2%) of the respondent have desire of more children. While 41.8% want no more children. Regarding contraceptive use 52.5% of the respondents were using contraceptive at the time of survey. Fertility preference and contraceptive use were significantly associated with age of the respondent, history of child death, number of living children, religion and age at first birth. Conclusions: Those women with younger age group, who had no child death history and women with lesser number of surviving children were more likely desire additional children. Women with older age at first birth and protestant in religion were more likely practiced contraceptive use. Strong information and education regarding contraceptive for younger age group should be provided, advocacy at level of religious leader is important, comprehensive family planning counselling and education should be available for the community, husbands, and religious leaders and the aim for increasing contraceptive use should focus on the practical aspect.

Keywords: fertility preference, contraceptive use, univariate analysis, family planning

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11 Epidemiological Study on Prevalence of Bovine Trypanosomosis and Tsetse Fly Density in Some Selected of Pastoral Areas of South Omo Zone

Authors: Tekle Olbamo, Tegegn Tesfaye, Dikaso Unbushe, Belete Jorga


Bovine trypanosomosis is a haemoprotozoan parasitic disease, mostly transmitted by the tsetse fly (Glossina species) and poses significant losses to the livestock industry in pastoral and agro-pastoral areas. Therefore, the current study was aimed to determine the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis and its vectorial density in some selected tsetse suppression and non-tsetse suppression areas of South Omo Zonefrom December 2018- November 2019. Dark phase contrast buffy coat, hematocrit techniques, and thin blood smear method were used for determination of prevalence and packed cell volume of trypanosomosis infection, respectively. For entomological investigation, 96 NGU traps were deployed (64 traps in tsetse suppression areas, 32 traps in tsetse non-suppression areas) in vector breeding areas. The overall prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis was 11.05% (142/1284), and overall seasonal prevalence of disease was 14.33% (92/642) and 7.78% (50/642) for dry and wet seasons, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference (P <0.05) in disease prevalence between the two seasons. Trypanosomacongolensewas the dominant parasite species; 80% and 71.64%, followed by Trypanosomavivax. Overall mean packed cell volume indicated parasitaemic animals (23.57±3.13) had significantly lower PCV than aparasitaemic animals (27.80±4.95), and animals examined during dry season (26.22±4.37) had lower mean PCV than animals examined during wet season with the significant association. Entomological study result revealed a total of 2.64 F/T/D and 2.03 F/T/D respectively from tsetse suppression areas and tsetse non-suppression areas during dry season and 0.42 F/T/D and 0.56 F/T/D during the wet season. Glossinapallidipes was the only cyclical vectors collected and identified from current study areas along with numerous mechanical vectors of genus Tabanus, Stomoxys, and Haematopota. Therefore integrated and safe control and prevention effort should be engaged to uphold cattle production and productivity in the area.

Keywords: bovine trypanosomiasis, South Omo, tsetse fly density, epidemiological study

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10 Valorisation of Mango Seed: Response Surface Methodology Based Optimization of Starch Extraction from Mango Seeds

Authors: Tamrat Tesfaye, Bruce Sithole


Box-Behnken Response surface methodology was used to determine the optimum processing conditions that give maximum extraction yield and whiteness index from mango seed. The steeping time ranges from 2 to 12 hours and slurring of the steeped seed in sodium metabisulphite solution (0.1 to 0.5 w/v) was carried out. Experiments were designed according to Box-Behnken Design with these three factors and a total of 15 runs experimental variables of were analyzed. At linear level, the concentration of sodium metabisulphite had significant positive influence on percentage yield and whiteness index at p<0.05. At quadratic level, sodium metabisulphite concentration and sodium metabisulphite concentration2 had a significant negative influence on starch yield; sodium metabisulphite concentration and steeping time*temperature had significant (p<0.05) positive influence on whiteness index. The adjusted R2 above 0.8 for starch yield (0.906465) and whiteness index (0.909268) showed a good fit of the model with the experimental data. The optimum sodium metabisulphite concentration, steeping hours, and temperature for starch isolation with maximum starch yield (66.428%) and whiteness index (85%) as set goals for optimization with the desirability of 0.91939 was 0.255w/v concentration, 2hrs and 50 °C respectively. The determined experimental value of each response based on optimal condition was statistically in accordance with predicted levels at p<0.05. The Mango seeds are the by-products obtained during mango processing and possess disposal problem if not handled properly. The substitution of food based sizing agents with mango seed starch can contribute as pertinent resource deployment for value-added product manufacturing and waste utilization which might play significance role of food security in Ethiopia.

Keywords: mango, synthetic sizing agent, starch, extraction, textile, sizing

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9 Gender-Specific Vulnerability on Climate Change and Food Security Status - A Catchment Approach on Agroforestry Systems - A Multi-Country Case Study

Authors: Zerihun Yohannes Amare Id, Bernhard Freyer, Ky Serge Stephane, Ouéda Adama, Blessing Mudombi, Jean Nzuma, Mekonen Getachew Abebe, Adane Tesfaye, Birtukan Atinkut Asmare, Tesfahun Asmamaw Kassie


The study was conducted in Ethiopia (Zege Catchment) (ZC), Zimbabwe (Upper Save Catchment) (USC), and Burkina Faso (Nakambe Catchment) (NC). The study utilized a quantitative approach with 180 participants and complemented it with qualitative methods, including 33 key informant interviews and 6 focus group discussions. Households in ZC (58%), NC (55%), and US (40%) do not cover their household food consumption from crop production. The households rely heavily on perennial cash crops rather than annual crop production. Exposure indicators in ZC (0.758), USC (0.774), and NC (0.944), and sensitivity indicators in ZC (0.849) and NC (0.937) show statistically significant and high correlation with vulnerability. In the USC, adaptive capacity (0.746) and exposure (0.774) are also statistically significant and highly correlated with vulnerability. Vulnerability levels of the NC are very high (0.75) (0.85 female and 0.65 male participants) compared to the USC (0.66) (0.69 female and 0.61 male participants) and ZC (0.47) (0.34 female and 0.58 male participants). Female-headed households had statistically significantly lower vulnerability index compared to males in ZC, while male-headed households had statistically significantly lower vulnerability index compared to females in USC and NC. The reason is land certification in ZC (80%) is higher than in the US (10%) and NC (8%). Agroforestry practices variables across the study catchments had statistically significant contributions to households' adaptive capacity. We conclude that agroforestry practices do have substantial benefits in increasing women's adaptive capacity and reducing their vulnerability to climate change and food insecurity.

Keywords: climate change vulnerability, agroforestry, gender, food security, Sub-Saharan Africa

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8 Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Related to Potential Application of Artificial Intelligence in Health Supply Chain

Authors: Biniam Bahiru Tufa, Hana Delil Tesfaye, Seife Demisse Legesse, Manaye Tamire


The healthcare industry is witnessing a digital transformation, with artificial intelligence (AI) offering potential solutions for challenges in health supply chain management (HSCM). However, the adoption of AI in this field remains limited. This research aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of AI among students and employees in the health supply chain sector in Ethiopia. Using an explanatory case study research design with a concurrent mixed approach, quantitative and qualitative data were collected simultaneously. The study included 153 participants comprising students and employed health supply chain professionals working in various sectors. The majority had a pharmacy background, and one-third of the participants were male. Most respondents were under 35 years old, and around 68.6% had less than 10 years of experience. The findings revealed that 94.1% of participants had prior knowledge of AI, but only 35.3% were aware of its application in the supply chain. Moreover, the majority indicated that their training curriculum did not cover AI in health supply chain management. Participants generally held positive attitudes toward the necessity of AI for improving efficiency, effectiveness, and cost savings in the supply chain. However, many expressed concerns about its impact on job security and satisfaction, considering it as a burden Graduate students demonstrated higher knowledge of AI compared to employed staff, while graduate students also exhibited a more positive attitude toward AI. The study indicated low previous utilization and potential future utilization of AI in the health supply chain, suggesting untapped opportunities for improvement. Overall, while supply chain experts and graduate students lacked sufficient understanding of AI and its significance, they expressed favorable views regarding its implementation in the sector. The study recommends that the Ethiopian government and international organizations consider introducing AI in the undergraduate pharmacy curriculum and promote its integration into the health supply chain field.

Keywords: knowledge, attitude, practice, supply chain, articifial intellegence

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7 Understanding Water Governance in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia: Zooming into Transparency, Accountability, and Participation

Authors: Endalew Jibat, Feyera Senbeta, Tesfaye Zeleke, Fitsum Hagos


Water governance considers multi-sector participation beyond the state; and for sustainable use of water resources, appropriate laws, policies, regulations, and institutions needs to be developed and put in place. Water policy, a critical and integral instrument of water governance, guided water use schemes and ensures equitable water distribution among users. The Ethiopian Central Rift Valley (CRV) is wealthy of water resources, but these water resources are currently under severe strain owing to an imbalance in human-water interactions. The main aim of the study was to examine the state of water resources governance in the CRV of Ethiopia, and the impact of the Ethiopian Water Resources Management Policy on water governance. Key informant interviews (KII), focused group discussions, and document reviews were used to gather data for the study. The NVivo 11 program was used to organize, code, and analyze the data. The results revealed that water resources governance practices such as water allocation and apportionment, comprehensive and integrated water management plans, water resources protection, and conservation activities were rarely implemented. Water resources management policy mechanisms were not fully put in place. Lack of coherence in water policy implementation, absence of clear roles and responsibilities of stakeholders, absence of transparency and accountability in irrigation water service delivery, and lack of meaningful participation of key actors in water governance decision-making were the primary shortcomings observed. Factors such as over-abstraction, deterioration of buffer zone, and chemical erosion from surrounding farming have contributed to the reduction in water volume and quality in the CRV. These challenges have influenced aquatic ecosystem services and threaten the livelihoods of the surrounding communities. Hence, reforms relating to policy coherence and enforcement, stakeholder involvement, water distribution strategies, and the application of water governance principles must be given more emphasis.

Keywords: water resources, irrigation, governance, water allocation, governance principles, stakeholders engagement, central rift valley

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6 Climate-Smart Agriculture Technologies and Determinants of Farmers’ Adoption Decisions in the Great Rift Valley of Ethiopia

Authors: Theodrose Sisay, Kindie Tesfaye, Mengistu Ketema, Nigussie Dechassa, Mezegebu Getnet


Agriculture is a sector that is very vulnerable to the effects of climate change and contributes to anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the atmosphere. By lowering emissions and adjusting to the change, it can also help to reduce climate change. Utilizing Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA) technology that can sustainably boost productivity, improve resilience, and lower GHG emissions is crucial. This study sought to identify the CSA technologies used by farmers and assess adoption levels and factors that influence them. In order to gather information from 384 smallholder farmers in the Great Rift Valley (GRV) of Ethiopia, a cross-sectional survey was carried out. Data were analysed using percentage, chi-square test, t-test, and multivariate probit model. Results showed that crop diversification, agroforestry, and integrated soil fertility management were the most widely practiced technologies. The results of the Chi-square and t-tests showed that there are differences and significant and positive connections between adopters and non-adopters based on various attributes. The chi-square and t-test results confirmed that households who were older had higher incomes, greater credit access, knowledge of the climate, better training, better education, larger farms, higher incomes, and more frequent interactions with extension specialists had a positive and significant association with CSA technology adopters. The model result showed that age, sex, and education of the head, farmland size, livestock ownership, income, access to credit, climate information, training, and extension contact influenced the selection of CSA technologies. Therefore, effective action must be taken to remove barriers to the adoption of CSA technologies, and taking these adoption factors into account in policy and practice is anticipated to support smallholder farmers in adapting to climate change while lowering emissions.

Keywords: climate change, climate-smart agriculture, smallholder farmers, multivariate probit model

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5 Risk Factors Associated with Dengue Fever Outbreak in Diredawa Administration City, Ethiopia, October 2015: A Case Control Study

Authors: Luna Degife, Desalegn Belay, Yoseph Worku, Tigist Tesfaye, Assefa Tufa, Abyot Bekele, Zegeye Hailemariam, Abay Hagos


Half of the world’s population is at risk of Dengue Fever (DF), a highly under-recognized and underreported mosquito-borne viral disease with high prevalence in the tropical and subtropical regions. Globally, an estimated 50 to 200 million cases and 20, 000 DF deaths occur annually as per the world health organization report. In Ethiopia, the first outbreak occurred in 2013 in Diredawa administration city. Afterward, three outbreaks have been reported from the eastern part of the country. We received a report of the fifth DF outbreak for Ethiopia and the second for Diredawa city on October 4, 2015. We conducted the investigation to confirm the outbreak, identify the risk factors for the repeatedly occurrence of the disease and implement control measures. We conducted un- matched case-control study and defined a suspected DF case as any person with fever of 2-7 days and 2 or more of the following: a headache, arthralgia, myalgia, rash, or bleeding from any part of the body. Controls were residents of Diredawa city without DF symptoms. We interviewed 70 Cases and 140 controls from all health facilities in Diredawa city from October 7 to 15; 2015. Epi Info version was used to analyze the data and multivariable logistic regression was conducted to assess risk factors for DF. Sixty-nine blood samples were collected for Laboratory confirmation.The mean age for cases was 23.7±9.5 standard deviation (SD) and for controls 31.2±13 SD. Close contact with DF patient (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=5.36, 95% confidence interval(CI): 2.75-10.44), nonuse of long-lasting insecticidal nets (AOR=2.74, 95% CI: 1.06-7.08) and availability of stagnant water in the village (AOR=3.61, 95% CI:1.31-9.93) were independent risk factors associated with higher rates of the disease. Forty-two samples were tested positive. Endemicity of DF is becoming a concern for Diredawa city after the first outbreak. Therefore, effective vector control activities need to be part of long-term preventive measures.

Keywords: dengue fever, Diredawa, outbreak, risk factors, second

Procedia PDF Downloads 214