Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1515

Search results for: Reed-Solomon channel coding

1515 Analysis of Joint Source Channel LDPC Coding for Correlated Sources Transmission over Noisy Channels

Authors: Marwa Ben Abdessalem, Amin Zribi, Ammar Bouallègue

Abstract:

In this paper, a Joint Source Channel coding scheme based on LDPC codes is investigated. We consider two concatenated LDPC codes, one allows to compress a correlated source and the second to protect it against channel degradations. The original information can be reconstructed at the receiver by a joint decoder, where the source decoder and the channel decoder run in parallel by transferring extrinsic information. We investigate the performance of the JSC LDPC code in terms of Bit-Error Rate (BER) in the case of transmission over an Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel, and for different source and channel rate parameters. We emphasize how JSC LDPC presents a performance tradeoff depending on the channel state and on the source correlation. We show that, the JSC LDPC is an efficient solution for a relatively low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) channel, especially with highly correlated sources. Finally, a source-channel rate optimization has to be applied to guarantee the best JSC LDPC system performance for a given channel.

Keywords: AWGN channel, belief propagation, joint source channel coding, LDPC codes

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1514 Unequal Error Protection of VQ Image Transmission System

Authors: Khelifi Mustapha, A. Moulay lakhdar, I. Elawady

Abstract:

We will study the unequal error protection for VQ image. We have used the Reed Solomon (RS) Codes as Channel coding because they offer better performance in terms of channel error correction over a binary output channel. One such channel (binary input and output) should be considered if it is the case of the application layer, because it includes all the features of the layers located below and on the what it is usually not feasible to make changes.

Keywords: vector quantization, channel error correction, Reed-Solomon channel coding, application

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1513 Usage of Channel Coding Techniques for Peak-to-Average Power Ratio Reduction in Visible Light Communications Systems

Authors: P. L. D. N. M. de Silva, S. G. Edirisinghe, R. Weerasuriya

Abstract:

High peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) is a concern of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) based visible light communication (VLC) systems. Discrete Fourier Transform spread (DFT-s) OFDM is an alternative single carrier modulation scheme which would address this concern. Employing channel coding techniques is another mechanism to reduce the PAPR. Previous research has been conducted to study the impact of these techniques separately. However, to the best of the knowledge of the authors, no study has been done so far to identify the improvement which can be harnessed by hybridizing these two techniques for VLC systems. Therefore, this is a novel study area under this research. In addition, channel coding techniques such as Polar codes and Turbo codes have been tested in the VLC domain. However, other efficient techniques such as Hamming coding and Convolutional coding have not been studied too. Therefore, the authors present the impact of the hybrid of DFT-s OFDM and Channel coding (Hamming coding and Convolutional coding) on PAPR in VLC systems using Matlab simulations.

Keywords: convolutional coding, discrete Fourier transform spread orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, hamming coding, peak-to-average power ratio, visible light communications

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1512 Analysis of Cooperative Hybrid ARQ with Adaptive Modulation and Coding on a Correlated Fading Channel Environment

Authors: Ibrahim Ozkan

Abstract:

In this study, a cross-layer design which combines adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) and hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) techniques for a cooperative wireless network is investigated analytically. Previous analyses of such systems in the literature are confined to the case where the fading channel is independent at each retransmission, which can be unrealistic unless the channel is varying very fast. On the other hand, temporal channel correlation can have a significant impact on the performance of HARQ systems. In this study, utilizing a Markov channel model which accounts for the temporal correlation, the performance of non-cooperative and cooperative networks are investigated in terms of packet loss rate and throughput metrics for Chase combining HARQ strategy.

Keywords: cooperative network, adaptive modulation and coding, hybrid ARQ, correlated fading

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1511 Sum Capacity with Regularized Channel Inversion in Multi-Antenna Downlink Systems under Equal Power Constraint

Authors: Attaullah Khawaja, Amna Shabbir

Abstract:

Channel inversion is one of the simplest techniques for multiuser downlink systems with single-antenna users. In this paper regularized channel inversion under equal power constraint in the multiuser multiple input multiple output (MU-MIMO) broadcast channels has been considered. Sum capacity with plain channel inversion also known as Zero Forcing Beam Forming (ZFBF) and optimum sum capacity using Dirty Paper Coding (DPC) has also been investigated. Analysis and simulations show that regularization enhances the system performance and empower linear growth in Sum Capacity and specially work well at low signal to noise ratio (SNRs) regime.

Keywords: broadcast channel, channel inversion, multiple antenna multiple-user wireless, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), regularization, dirty paper coding (DPC), sum capacity

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1510 Channel Estimation/Equalization with Adaptive Modulation and Coding over Multipath Faded Channels for WiMAX

Authors: B. Siva Kumar Reddy, B. Lakshmi

Abstract:

WiMAX has adopted an Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC) in OFDM to endure higher data rates and error free transmission. AMC schemes employ the Channel State Information (CSI) to efficiently utilize the channel and maximize the throughput and for better spectral efficiency. This CSI has given to the transmitter by the channel estimators. In this paper, LSE (Least Square Error) and MMSE (Minimum Mean square Error) estimators are suggested and BER (Bit Error Rate) performance has been analyzed. Channel equalization is also integrated with with AMC-OFDM system and presented with Constant Modulus Algorithm (CMA) and Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithms with convergence rates analysis. Simulation results proved that increment in modulation scheme size causes to improvement in throughput along with BER value. There is a trade-off among modulation size, throughput, BER value and spectral efficiency. Results also reported the requirement of channel estimation and equalization in high data rate systems.

Keywords: AMC, CSI, CMA, OFDM, OFDMA, WiMAX

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
1509 A Quinary Coding and Matrix Structure Based Channel Hopping Algorithm for Blind Rendezvous in Cognitive Radio Networks

Authors: Qinglin Liu, Zhiyong Lin, Zongheng Wei, Jianfeng Wen, Congming Yi, Hai Liu

Abstract:

The multi-channel blind rendezvous problem in distributed cognitive radio networks (DCRNs) refers to how users in the network can hop to the same channel at the same time slot without any prior knowledge (i.e., each user is unaware of other users' information). The channel hopping (CH) technique is a typical solution to this blind rendezvous problem. In this paper, we propose a quinary coding and matrix structure-based CH algorithm called QCMS-CH. The QCMS-CH algorithm can guarantee the rendezvous of users using only one cognitive radio in the scenario of the asynchronous clock (i.e., arbitrary time drift between the users), heterogeneous channels (i.e., the available channel sets of users are distinct), and symmetric role (i.e., all users play a same role). The QCMS-CH algorithm first represents a randomly selected channel (denoted by R) as a fixed-length quaternary number. Then it encodes the quaternary number into a quinary bootstrapping sequence according to a carefully designed quaternary-quinary coding table with the prefix "R00". Finally, it builds a CH matrix column by column according to the bootstrapping sequence and six different types of elaborately generated subsequences. The user can access the CH matrix row by row and accordingly perform its channel, hoping to attempt rendezvous with other users. We prove the correctness of QCMS-CH and derive an upper bound on its Maximum Time-to-Rendezvous (MTTR). Simulation results show that the QCMS-CH algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art in terms of the MTTR and the Expected Time-to-Rendezvous (ETTR).

Keywords: channel hopping, blind rendezvous, cognitive radio networks, quaternary-quinary coding

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1508 Coding and Decoding versus Space Diversity for ‎Rayleigh Fading Radio Frequency Channels ‎

Authors: Ahmed Mahmoud Ahmed Abouelmagd

Abstract:

The diversity is the usual remedy of the transmitted signal level variations (Fading phenomena) in radio frequency channels. Diversity techniques utilize two or more copies of a signal and combine those signals to combat fading. The basic concept of diversity is to transmit the signal via several independent diversity branches to get independent signal replicas via time – frequency - space - and polarization diversity domains. Coding and decoding processes can be an alternative remedy for fading phenomena, it cannot increase the channel capacity, but it can improve the error performance. In this paper we propose the use of replication decoding with BCH code class, and Viterbi decoding algorithm with convolution coding; as examples of coding and decoding processes. The results are compared to those obtained from two optimized selection space diversity techniques. The performance of Rayleigh fading channel, as the model considered for radio frequency channels, is evaluated for each case. The evaluation results show that the coding and decoding approaches, especially the BCH coding approach with replication decoding scheme, give better performance compared to that of selection space diversity optimization approaches. Also, an approach for combining the coding and decoding diversity as well as the space diversity is considered, the main disadvantage of this approach is its complexity but it yields good performance results.

Keywords: Rayleigh fading, diversity, BCH codes, Replication decoding, ‎convolution coding, viterbi decoding, space diversity

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
1507 Performance Analysis of MIMO-OFDM Using Convolution Codes with QAM Modulation

Authors: I Gede Puja Astawa, Yoedy Moegiharto, Ahmad Zainudin, Imam Dui Agus Salim, Nur Annisa Anggraeni

Abstract:

Performance of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) system can be improved by adding channel coding (error correction code) to detect and correct the errors that occur during data transmission. One can use the convolution code. This paper presents performance of OFDM using Space Time Block Codes (STBC) diversity technique use QAM modulation with code rate 1/2. The evaluation is done by analyzing the value of Bit Error Rate (BER) vs. Energy per Bit to Noise Power Spectral Density Ratio (Eb/No). This scheme is conducted 256 sub-carrier which transmits Rayleigh multipath channel in OFDM system. To achieve a BER of 10-3 is required 30 dB SNR in SISO-OFDM scheme. For 2x2 MIMO-OFDM scheme requires 10 dB to achieve a BER of 10-3. For 4x4 MIMO-OFDM scheme requires 5 dB while adding convolution in a 4x4 MIMO-OFDM can improve performance up to 0 dB to achieve the same BER. This proves the existence of saving power by 3 dB of 4x4 MIMO-OFDM system without coding, power saving 7 dB of 2x2 MIMO-OFDM system without coding and significant power savings from SISO-OFDM system.

Keywords: convolution code, OFDM, MIMO, QAM, BER

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
1506 Performance Evaluation of MIMO-OFDM Communication Systems

Authors: M. I. Youssef, A. E. Emam, M. Abd Elghany

Abstract:

This paper evaluates the bit error rate (BER) performance of MIMO-OFDM communication system. MIMO system uses multiple transmitting and receiving antennas with different coding techniques to either enhance the transmission diversity or spatial multiplexing gain. Utilizing alamouti algorithm were the same information transmitted over multiple antennas at different time intervals and then collected again at the receivers to minimize the probability of error, combat fading and thus improve the received signal to noise ratio. While utilizing V-BLAST algorithm, the transmitted signals are divided into different transmitting channels and transferred over the channel to be received by different receiving antennas to increase the transmitted data rate and achieve higher throughput. The paper provides a study of different diversity gain coding schemes and spatial multiplexing coding for MIMO systems. A comparison of various channels' estimation and equalization techniques are given. The simulation is implemented using MATLAB, and the results had shown the performance of transmission models under different channel environments.

Keywords: MIMO communication, BER, space codes, channels, alamouti, V-BLAST

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1505 Opportunities and Challenges of Omni Channel Retailing in the Emerging Market

Authors: Salma Ahmed, Anil Kumar

Abstract:

This paper develops and estimates a model for understanding the drivers and barriers for Omni-Channel retail. This study serves as one of the first attempt to empirically test the effect of various factors on Omni-channel retail. Omni-channel is relative new and evolving, we hypothesize three drivers: (1) Innovative sales and marketing opportunities, (2) channel migration, (3) Cross channel synergies; and three barriers: (1) Integrated sales and marketing operations, (2) Visibility and synchronization (3) Integration and Technology challenges. The findings from the study strongly support that Omni-channel effects exist between cross channel synergy and channel migration. However, it partially supports innovative sales and marketing operations. We also found the variables which we identified as barriers to Omni-channel retail have a strong impact on Omni-channel retail.

Keywords: retailing, multichannel, Omni-channel, emerging market

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1504 The Secrecy Capacity of the Semi-Deterministic Wiretap Channel with Three State Information

Authors: Mustafa El-Halabi

Abstract:

A general model of wiretap channel with states is considered, where the legitimate receiver and the wiretapper’s observations depend on three states S1, S2 and S3. State S1 is non-causally known to the encoder, S2 is known to the receiver, and S3 remains unknown. A secure coding scheme, based using structured-binning, is proposed, and it is shown to achieve the secrecy capacity when the signal at legitimate receiver is a deterministic function of the input.

Keywords: physical layer security, interference, side information, secrecy capacity

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1503 A Study on Puzzle-Based Game to Teach Elementary Students to Code

Authors: Jaisoon Baek, Gyuhwan Oh

Abstract:

In this study, we developed a puzzle game based on coding and a web-based management system to observe the user's learning status in real time and maximize the understanding of the coding of elementary students. We have improved upon and existing coding game which cannot be connected to textual language coding or comprehends learning state. We analyzed the syntax of various coding languages for the curriculum and provided a menu to convert icon into textual coding languages. In addition, the management system includes multiple types of tutoring, real-time analysis of user play data and feedback. Following its application in regular elementary school software classes, students reported positive effects on understanding and interest in coding were shown by students. It is expected that this will contribute to quality improvement in software education by providing contents with proven educational value by breaking away from simple learning-oriented coding games.

Keywords: coding education, serious game, coding, education management system

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
1502 Computational Thinking Based Coding Environment for Coding and Free Semester Mathematics Education in Korea

Authors: Han Hyuk Cho, Hanik Jo

Abstract:

In recent years, coding education has been globally emphasized, and the Free Semester System and coding education were introduced to the public schools from the beginning of 2016 and 2018 respectively in Korea. With the introduction of the Free Semester System and the rising demand of Computational Thinking (CT) capacity, this paper aims to design ‘Coding Environment’ and Minecraft-like Turtlecraft in which learners can design and construct mathematical objects through mathematical symbolic expressions. Students can transfer the constructed mathematical objects to the Turtlecraft environment (open-source codingmath website), and also can print them out through 3D printers. Furthermore, we design learnable mathematics and coding curriculum by representing the figurate numbers and patterns in terms of executable expression in the coding context and connecting them to algebraic symbols, which will allow students to experience mathematical patterns and symbolic coding expressions.

Keywords: coding education, computational thinking, mathematics education, TurtleMAL and Turtlecraft

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1501 Numerical Simulation of Effect of Various Rib Configurations on Enhancing Heat Transfer of Matrix Cooling Channel

Authors: Seok Min Choi, Minho Bang, Seuong Yun Kim, Hyungmin Lee, Won-Gu Joo, Hyung Hee Cho

Abstract:

The matrix cooling channel was used for gas turbine blade cooling passage. The matrix cooling structure is useful for the structure stability however the cooling performance of internal cooling channel was not enough for cooling. Therefore, we designed the rib configurations in the matrix cooling channel to enhance the cooling performance. The numerical simulation was conducted to analyze cooling performance of rib configured matrix cooling channel. Three different rib configurations were used which are vertical rib, angled rib and c-type rib. Three configurations were adopted in two positions of matrix cooling channel which is one fourth and three fourth of channel. The result shows that downstream rib has much higher cooling performance than upstream rib. Furthermore, the angled rib in the channel has much higher cooling performance than vertical rib. This is because; the angled rib improves the swirl effect of matrix cooling channel more effectively. The friction factor was increased with the installation of rib. However, the thermal performance was increased with the installation of rib in the matrix cooling channel.

Keywords: matrix cooling, rib, heat transfer, gas turbine

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1500 A High Compression Ratio for a Losseless Image Compression Based on the Arithmetic Coding with the Sorted Run Length Coding: Meteosat Second Generation Image Compression

Authors: Cherifi Mehdi, Lahdir Mourad, Ameur Soltane

Abstract:

Image compression is the heart of several multimedia techniques. It is used to reduce the number of bits required to represent an image. Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite allows the acquisition of 12 image files every 15 minutes and that results in a large databases sizes. In this paper, a novel image compression method based on the arithmetic coding with the sorted Run Length Coding (SRLC) for MSG images is proposed. The SRLC allows us to find the occurrence of the consecutive pixels of the original image to create a sorted run. The arithmetic coding allows the encoding of the sorted data of the previous stage to retrieve a unique code word that represents a binary code stream in the sorted order to boost the compression ratio. Through this article, we show that our method can perform the best results concerning compression ratio and bit rate unlike the method based on the Run Length Coding (RLC) and the arithmetic coding. Evaluation criteria like the compression ratio and the bit rate allow the confirmation of the efficiency of our method of image compression.

Keywords: image compression, arithmetic coding, Run Length Coding, RLC, Sorted Run Length Coding, SRLC, Meteosat Second Generation, MSG

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1499 Performance of High Efficiency Video Codec over Wireless Channels

Authors: Mohd Ayyub Khan, Nadeem Akhtar

Abstract:

Due to recent advances in wireless communication technologies and hand-held devices, there is a huge demand for video-based applications such as video surveillance, video conferencing, remote surgery, Digital Video Broadcast (DVB), IPTV, online learning courses, YouTube, WhatsApp, Instagram, Facebook, Interactive Video Games. However, the raw videos posses very high bandwidth which makes the compression a must before its transmission over the wireless channels. The High Efficiency Video Codec (HEVC) (also called H.265) is latest state-of-the-art video coding standard developed by the Joint effort of ITU-T and ISO/IEC teams. HEVC is targeted for high resolution videos such as 4K or 8K resolutions that can fulfil the recent demands for video services. The compression ratio achieved by the HEVC is twice as compared to its predecessor H.264/AVC for same quality level. The compression efficiency is generally increased by removing more correlation between the frames/pixels using complex techniques such as extensive intra and inter prediction techniques. As more correlation is removed, the chances of interdependency among coded bits increases. Thus, bit errors may have large effect on the reconstructed video. Sometimes even single bit error can lead to catastrophic failure of the reconstructed video. In this paper, we study the performance of HEVC bitstream over additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. Moreover, HEVC over Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) combined with forward error correction (FEC) schemes are also explored over the noisy channel. The video will be encoded using HEVC, and the coded bitstream is channel coded to provide some redundancies. The channel coded bitstream is then modulated using QAM and transmitted over AWGN channel. At the receiver, the symbols are demodulated and channel decoded to obtain the video bitstream. The bitstream is then used to reconstruct the video using HEVC decoder. It is observed that as the signal to noise ratio of channel is decreased the quality of the reconstructed video decreases drastically. Using proper FEC codes, the quality of the video can be restored up to certain extent. Thus, the performance analysis of HEVC presented in this paper may assist in designing the optimized code rate of FEC such that the quality of the reconstructed video is maximized over wireless channels.

Keywords: AWGN, forward error correction, HEVC, video coding, QAM

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
1498 Adaptive Transmission Scheme Based on Channel State in Dual-Hop System

Authors: Seung-Jun Yu, Yong-Jun Kim, Jung-In Baik, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

In this paper, a dual-hop relay based on channel state is studied. In the conventional relay scheme, a relay uses the same modulation method without reference to channel state. But, a relay uses an adaptive modulation method with reference to channel state. If the channel state is poor, a relay eliminates latter 2 bits and uses Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) modulation. If channel state is good, a relay modulates the received symbols with 16-QAM symbols by using 4 bits. The performance of the proposed scheme for Symbol Error Rate (SER) and throughput is analyzed.

Keywords: adaptive transmission, channel state, dual-hop, hierarchical modulation, relay

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
1497 Formation of Round Channel for Microfluidic Applications

Authors: A. Zahra, G. de Cesare, D. Caputo, A. Nascetti

Abstract:

PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) polymer is a suitable material for biological and MEMS (Microelectromechanical systems) designers, because of its biocompatibility, transparency and high resistance under plasma treatment. PDMS round channel is always been of great interest due to its ability to confine the liquid with membrane type micro valves. In this paper we are presenting a very simple way to form round shape microfluidic channel, which is based on reflow of positive photoresist AZ® 40 XT. With this method, it is possible to obtain channel of different height simply by varying the spin coating parameters of photoresist.

Keywords: lab-on-chip, PDMS, reflow, round microfluidic channel

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1496 Simulation of Channel Models for Device-to-Device Application of 5G Urban Microcell Scenario

Authors: H. Zormati, J. Chebil, J. Bel Hadj Tahar

Abstract:

Next generation wireless transmission technology (5G) is expected to support the development of channel models for higher frequency bands, so clarification of high frequency bands is the most important issue in radio propagation research for 5G, multiple urban microcellular measurements have been carried out at 60 GHz. In this paper, the collected data is uniformly analyzed with focus on the path loss (PL), the objective is to compare simulation results of some studied channel models with the purpose of testing the performance of each one.

Keywords: 5G, channel model, 60GHz channel, millimeter-wave, urban microcell

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1495 A Soil Stabilization Technique on Apa-Hotamiş Conveyance Channel

Authors: Ali Sinan Soğancı

Abstract:

Apa-Hotamış conveyance channel is located within in the boundaries of Konya Regional Directorate of Water Works. This channel transfers the water to the fount of Apa Dam with 17 km length of Blue Channel. Then the water is transmitted with Apa- Hotamış conveyance channel to Hotamış Water Storage. In some places along the Apa-Hotamış conveyance canal which will be constructed by Directorate of Water Works of Konya, some swelling soils have been seen. The samples taken from these places have 35-95 kPa swelling pressure. To prevent the swelling pressure arising from the penetration of water to the concrete channel, it was proposed to make 10 cm concrete coating by spreading the geomembrane and geotextile between the soil and concrete. In this way, the pressure (35-95 kPa) caused by the swelling and cracking of concrete failure will be blocked.

Keywords: conveyance channel, swelling pressure, geomembrane, geotextile, concrete

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1494 Numerical Study for Improving Performance of Air Cooled Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell on the Cathode Channel

Authors: Mohamed Hassan Gundu, Jaeseung Lee, Muhammad Faizan Chinannai, Hyunchul Ju

Abstract:

In this study, we present the effects of bipolar plate design to control the temperature of the cell and ensure effective water management under an excessive amount of air flow and low humidification conditions in the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The PEMFC model developed and applied to consider a three type of bipolar plate that is defined by ratio of inlet channel width to outlet channel width. Simulation results show that the design which has narrow gas inlet channel and wide gas outlet channel width (wide coolant inlet channel and narrow coolant outlet channel width) make the relative humidity and water concentration increase in the channel and the catalyst layer. Therefore, this study clearly demonstrates that the dehydration phenomenon can be decreased by using design of bipolar plate with narrow gas inlet channel and wide gas outlet channel width (wide coolant inlet channel and narrow coolant outlet channel width).

Keywords: PEMFC, air-cooling, relative humidity, water management, water concentration, oxygen concentration

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1493 Spread Spectrum with Notch Frequency Using Pulse Coding Method for Switching Converter of Communication Equipment

Authors: Yasunori Kobori, Futoshi Fukaya, Takuya Arafune, Nobukazu Tsukiji, Nobukazu Takai, Haruo Kobayashi

Abstract:

This paper proposes an EMI spread spectrum technique to enable to set notch frequencies using pulse coding method for DC-DC switching converters of communication equipment. The notches in the spectrum of the switching pulses appear at the frequencies obtained from empirically derived equations with the proposed spread spectrum technique using the pulse coding methods, the PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) coding or the PCM (Pulse Cycle Modulation) coding. This technique would be useful for the switching converters in the communication equipment which receives standard radio waves, without being affected by noise from the switching converters. In our proposed technique, the notch frequencies in the spectrum depend on the pulse coding method. We have investigated this technique to apply to the switching converters and found that there is good relationship agreement between the notch frequencies and the empirical equations. The notch frequencies with the PWM coding is equal to the equation F=k/(WL-WS). With the PCM coding, that is equal to the equation F=k/(TL-TS).

Keywords: notch frequency, pulse coding, spread spectrum, switching converter

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1492 Medical Image Compression by Region of Interest Based on DT-CWT Using Run-length Coding and Huffman Coding

Authors: Ali Seddiki, Mohamed Djebbouri, Driss Guerchi

Abstract:

Medical imaging produces human body pictures in digital form. Since these imaging techniques produce prohibitive amounts of data, compression is necessary for storage and communication purposes. In some areas in medicine, it may be sufficient to maintain high image quality only in region of interest (ROI). This paper discusses a contribution to quality purpose compression in the region of interest of scintigraphic images based on dual tree complex wavelet transform (DT-CWT) using Run-Length coding (RLE) and Huffman coding (HC).

Keywords: DT-CWT, region of interest, run length coding, Scintigraphic images

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1491 High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for Cervical Cancer: The Effect of Total Reference Air Kerma on the Results of Single-Channel and Tri-Channel Applicators

Authors: Hossain A., Miah S., Ray P. K.

Abstract:

Introduction: Single channel and tri-channel applicators are used in the traditional treatment of cervical cancer. Total reference air kerma (TRAK) and treatment outcomes in high-dose-rate brachytherapy for cervical cancer using single-channel and tri-channel applicators were the main objectives of this retrospective study. Material and Methods: Patients in the radiotherapy division who received brachytherapy, chemotherapy, and external radiotherapy (EBRT) using single and tri-channel applicators were the subjects of a retrospective cohort study from 2016 to 2020. All brachytherapy parameters, including TRAK, were calculated in accordance with the international protocol. The Kaplan Meier method was used to analyze survival rates using a log-rank test. Results and Discussions: Based on treatment times of 15.34 (10-20) days and 21.35 (6.5-28) days, the TRAK for the tri-channel applicator was 0.52 cGy.m² and for the single-channel applicator was 0.34 cGy.m². Based on TRAK, the rectum, bladder, and tumor had respective Pearson correlations of 0.082, 0.009, and 0.032. The 1-specificity and sensitivity were 0.70 and 0.30, respectively. At that time, AUC was 0.71. The log-rank test showed that tri-channel applicators had a survival rate of 95% and single-channel applicators had a survival rate of 85% (p=0.565). Conclusions: The relationship between TRAK and treatment duration and Pearson correlation for the tumor, rectum, and bladder suggests that TRAK should be taken into account for the proper operation of single channel and tri-channel applicators.

Keywords: single-channel, tri-channel, high dose rate brachytherapy, cervical cancer

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1490 BER Analysis of Energy Detection Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Using GNU Radio

Authors: B. Siva Kumar Reddy, B. Lakshmi

Abstract:

Cognitive Radio is a turning out technology that empowers viable usage of the spectrum. Energy Detector-based Sensing is the most broadly utilized spectrum sensing strategy. Besides, it is a lot of generic as receivers does not like any information on the primary user's signals, channel data, of even the sort of modulation. This paper puts forth the execution of energy detection sensing for AM (Amplitude Modulated) signal at 710 KHz, FM (Frequency Modulated) signal at 103.45 MHz (local station frequency), Wi-Fi signal at 2.4 GHz and WiMAX signals at 6 GHz. The OFDM/OFDMA based WiMAX physical layer with convolutional channel coding is actualized utilizing USRP N210 (Universal Software Radio Peripheral) and GNU Radio based Software Defined Radio (SDR). Test outcomes demonstrated the BER (Bit Error Rate) augmentation with channel noise and BER execution is dissected for different Eb/N0 (the energy per bit to noise power spectral density ratio) values.

Keywords: BER, Cognitive Radio, GNU Radio, OFDM, SDR, WiMAX

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1489 Design of Two-Channel Quadrature Mirror Filter Banks Using a Transformation Approach

Authors: Ju-Hong Lee, Yi-Lin Shieh

Abstract:

Two-dimensional (2-D) quadrature mirror filter (QMF) banks have been widely considered for high-quality coding of image and video data at low bit rates. Without implementing subband coding, a 2-D QMF bank is required to have an exactly linear-phase response without magnitude distortion, i.e., the perfect reconstruction (PR) characteristics. The design problem of 2-D QMF banks with the PR characteristics has been considered in the literature for many years. This paper presents a transformation approach for designing 2-D two-channel QMF banks. Under a suitable one-dimensional (1-D) to two-dimensional (2-D) transformation with a specified decimation/interpolation matrix, the analysis and synthesis filters of the QMF bank are composed of 1-D causal and stable digital allpass filters (DAFs) and possess the 2-D doubly complementary half-band (DC-HB) property. This facilitates the design problem of the two-channel QMF banks by finding the real coefficients of the 1-D recursive DAFs. The design problem is formulated based on the minimax phase approximation for the 1-D DAFs. A novel objective function is then derived to obtain an optimization for 1-D minimax phase approximation. As a result, the problem of minimizing the objective function can be simply solved by using the well-known weighted least-squares (WLS) algorithm in the minimax (L∞) optimal sense. The novelty of the proposed design method is that the design procedure is very simple and the designed 2-D QMF bank achieves perfect magnitude response and possesses satisfactory phase response. Simulation results show that the proposed design method provides much better design performance and much less design complexity as compared with the existing techniques.

Keywords: Quincunx QMF bank, doubly complementary filter, digital allpass filter, WLS algorithm

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1488 Channel Estimation for LTE Downlink

Authors: Rashi Jain

Abstract:

The LTE systems employ Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) as the multiple access technology for the Downlink channels. For enhanced performance, accurate channel estimation is required. Various algorithms such as Least Squares (LS), Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) and Recursive Least Squares (RLS) can be employed for the purpose. The paper proposes channel estimation algorithm based on Kalman Filter for LTE-Downlink system. Using the frequency domain pilots, the initial channel response is obtained using the LS criterion. Then Kalman Filter is employed to track the channel variations in time-domain. To suppress the noise within a symbol, threshold processing is employed. The paper draws comparison between the LS, MMSE, RLS and Kalman filter for channel estimation. The parameters for evaluation are Bit Error Rate (BER), Mean Square Error (MSE) and run-time.

Keywords: LTE, channel estimation, OFDM, RLS, Kalman filter, threshold

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1487 Improved Performance Scheme for Joint Transmission in Downlink Coordinated Multi-Point Transmission

Authors: Young-Su Ryu, Su-Hyun Jung, Myoung-Jin Kim, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

In this paper, improved performance scheme for joint transmission is proposed in downlink (DL) coordinated multi-point(CoMP) in case of constraint transmission power. This scheme is that serving transmission point (TP) request a joint transmission to inter-TP and selects one pre-coding technique according to channel state information(CSI) from user equipment(UE). The simulation results show that the bit error rate(BER) and throughput performances of the proposed scheme provide high spectral efficiency and reliable data at the cell edge.

Keywords: CoMP, joint transmission, minimum mean square error, zero-forcing, zero-forcing dirty paper coding

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1486 Study of Adaptive Filtering Algorithms and the Equalization of Radio Mobile Channel

Authors: Said Elkassimi, Said Safi, B. Manaut

Abstract:

This paper presented a study of three algorithms, the equalization algorithm to equalize the transmission channel with ZF and MMSE criteria, application of channel Bran A, and adaptive filtering algorithms LMS and RLS to estimate the parameters of the equalizer filter, i.e. move to the channel estimation and therefore reflect the temporal variations of the channel, and reduce the error in the transmitted signal. So far the performance of the algorithm equalizer with ZF and MMSE criteria both in the case without noise, a comparison of performance of the LMS and RLS algorithm.

Keywords: adaptive filtering second equalizer, LMS, RLS Bran A, Proakis (B) MMSE, ZF

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