Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 59

Search results for: A. Onur Kutlu

59 Conditions That Brought Bounce-Back in Southern Europe: An Inter-Temporal and Cross-National Analysis on Female Labour Force Participation with Fuzzy Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis

Authors: A. Onur Kutlu, H. Tolga Bolukbasi

Abstract:

Since the 1990s, governments, international organizations and scholars have drawn increasing attention to the significance of women in the labour force. While advanced industrial countries in North Western Europe and North America have managed to increase female labour force participation (FLFP) in the early post world war two period, emerging economies of the 1970s have only been able to increase FLFP only a decade later. Among these areas, Southern Europe features a wave of remarkable bounce backs in FLFP. However, despite striking similarities between the features in Southern Europe and those in Turkey, Turkey has not been able to pull women into the labour force. Despite a host of institutional similarities, Turkey has failed to reach to the level of her Southern European neighbours. This paper addresses the puzzle why Turkey lag behind in FLFP in comparison to her Southern European neighbours. There are signs showing that FLFP is currently reaching a critical threshold at a time when structural factors may allow a trend. It is not known, however, the constellation of conditions which may bring rising FLFP in Turkey. In order to gain analytical leverage from similar transitions in countries that share similar labour market and welfare state regime characteristics, this paper identifies the conditions in Southern Europe that brought rising FLFP to be able to explore the prospects for Turkey. Second, this paper takes these variables in the fuzzy set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA) as conditions which can potentially explain the outcome of rising FLFP in Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece and Turkey. The purpose here is to identify any causal pathway there may exist that lead to rising FLFP in Southern Europe. In order to do so, this study analyses two time periods in all cases, which represent different periods for different countries. The first period is identified on the basis of low FLFP and the second period on the basis of the transition to significantly higher FLFP. Third, the conditions are treated following the standard procedures in fsQCA, which provide equifinal: two distinct paths to higher levels of FLFP in Southern Europe, each of which may potentially increase FLFP in Turkey. Based on this analysis, this paper proposes that there exist two distinct paths leading to higher levels of FLFP in Southern Europe. Among these paths, salience of left parties emerges as a sufficient condition. In cases where this condition was not present, a second path combining enlarging service sector employment, increased tertiary education among women and increased childcare enrolment rates led to increasing FLFP.

Keywords: female labour force participation, fsQCA, Southern Europe, Turkey

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58 Synopsis of Izmir Regional Plan and Interpretations about Tourism in Izmir

Authors: Yakin Ekin, Onur Akbulut

Abstract:

This study aims not only to create a summarized background for the effective and efficient use of the potential of Izmir by providing the strategic planning works and institutional and sectoral strategy documents with different purposes realized by all relevant institutions and organizations in Izmir and Aegean Region to steer towards the same priorities and aims, but also focuses on a criticism and comparison viewpoint about tourism sector in Izmir.

Keywords: regional plan, Izmir, tourism, sectoral strategy

Procedia PDF Downloads 374
57 Understanding Tacit Knowledge and Its Role in Military Organizations: Methods of Managing Tacit Knowledge

Authors: M. Erhan Orhan, Onur Ozdemir

Abstract:

Expansion of area of operation and increasing diversity of threats forced the military organizations to change in many ways. However, tacit knowledge still is the most fundamental component of organizational knowledge. Since it is human oriented and in warfare human stands at the core of the organization. Therefore, military organizations should find effective ways of systematically utilizing tacit knowledge. In this context, this article suggest some methods for turning tacit knowledge into explicit in military organizations.

Keywords: tacit knowledge, military, knowledge management, warfare, technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 393
56 Forced Vibration of a Planar Curved Beam on Pasternak Foundation

Authors: Akif Kutlu, Merve Ermis, Nihal Eratlı, Mehmet H. Omurtag

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to investigate the forced vibration analysis of a planar curved beam lying on elastic foundation by using the mixed finite element method. The finite element formulation is based on the Timoshenko beam theory. In order to solve the problems in frequency domain, the element matrices of two nodded curvilinear elements are transformed into Laplace space. The results are transformed back to the time domain by the well-known numerical Modified Durbin’s transformation algorithm. First, the presented finite element formulation is verified through the forced vibration analysis of a planar curved Timoshenko beam resting on Winkler foundation and the finite element results are compared with the results available in the literature. Then, the forced vibration analysis of a planar curved beam resting on Winkler-Pasternak foundation is conducted.

Keywords: curved beam, dynamic analysis, elastic foundation, finite element method

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
55 Free Vibration Analysis of Conical Helicoidal Rods Having Elliptical Cross Sections Positioned in Different Orientation

Authors: Merve Ermis, Akif Kutlu, Nihal Eratlı, Mehmet H. Omurtag

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In this study, the free vibration analysis of conical helicoidal rods with two different elliptically oriented cross sections is investigated and the results are compared by the circular cross-section keeping the net area for all cases equal to each other. Problems are solved by using the mixed finite element formulation. Element matrices based on Timoshenko beam theory are employed. The finite element matrices are derived by directly inserting the analytical expressions (arc length, curvature, and torsion) defining helix geometry into the formulation. Helicoidal rod domain is discretized by a two-noded curvilinear element. Each node of the element has 12 DOFs, namely, three translations, three rotations, two shear forces, one axial force, two bending moments and one torque. A parametric study is performed to investigate the influence of elliptical cross sectional geometry and its orientation over the natural frequencies of the conical type helicoidal rod.

Keywords: conical helix, elliptical cross section, finite element, free vibration

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54 Overview of Smart Grid Applications in Turkey

Authors: Onur Elma, Giray E. Kıral, Ugur S. Selamoğuları, Mehmet Uzunoğlu, Bulent Vural

Abstract:

Electrical energy has become indispensable for people's lives and with rapidly developing technology and continuously changing living standards the need for the electrical energy has been on the rise. Therefore, both energy generation and efficient use of energy are very important topics. Smart grid concept has been introduced to provide monitoring, energy efficiency, reliability and energy quality. Under smart grid concept, smart homes, which can be considered as key component in smart grid operation, have appeared as another research area. In this study, first, smart grid research in the world will be reviewed. Then, overview of smart grid applications in Turkey will be given.

Keywords: energy efficiency, smart grids, smart home, applications

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53 Iterative White Balance Adjustment Process in Production Line

Authors: Onur Onder, Celal Tanuca, Mahir Ozil, Halil Sen, Alkım Ozkan, Engin Ceylan, Ali Istek, Ozgur Saglam

Abstract:

White balance adjustment of LCD TVs is an important procedure which has a direct influence on quality perception. Existing methods adjust RGB gain and offset values in different white levels during production. This paper suggests an iterative method in which the gamma is pre-adjusted during the design stage, and only 80% white is adjusted during production by modifying only RGB gain values (offset values are not modified). This method reduces the white balance adjustment time, contributing to the total efficiency of the production. Experiment shows that the adjustment results are well within requirements.

Keywords: color temperature, LCD panel deviation, LCD TV manufacturing, white balance

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52 Investigation of Bremsstrahlung, Braking Radiation from Beta-Emitting Radioactive Sources

Authors: Metin Kömsöken, Ayşe Güneş Tanır, Onur Karaman

Abstract:

Usage of high energy charged particles for diagnosis and treatment has been widespread in medicine. The main purpose is to investigate that Bremsstrahlung which occurs by tissue interactions with charged particles should not be neglected. Nuclear stopping power (Bremsstrahlung) was calculated for lung, brain, skin, muscle, bone (cortical) and water targets for the energies of electrons obtained from LINAC used in radiotherapy and of β+ sources used in positron emission tomography (PET). These calculations were done by using the four different analytical functions including classical Bethe-Bloch, Tsoulfanidis, modified Bethe-Bloch and modified Tsoulfanidis equations. It was concluded that obtained results were compatible with that of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST-ESTAR).

Keywords: β- emitting source, bremsstrahlung, therapeutic radionuclides, LINAC

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
51 An Intelligent Decision Support System Approach for New Product Development by Using QFD and Its Application in Metal Plating Industry

Authors: Ufuk Cebeci, Onur Doğan

Abstract:

New product becomes critical in competitive environment shortening a product's lifecycle due to the rapidly changing technology and increasing consumer requirements. Quality Function Deployment is one of the first steps of NPD process. The study presents an intelligent QFD application in metal plating industry. For application, an intelligent decision support system was developed. By intelligent system, house of quality was drawn and some calculations were shown. According to the results, some recommendations are given to end user. One of the purposes of this system is to give some advices to firms which do not know technical details of QFD and guide them about first steps of the new product development process.

Keywords: intelligent decision support systems, metal plating, quality function deployment, QFD software, new product development

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
50 Modbus Gateway Design Using Arm Microprocessor

Authors: Semanur Savruk, Onur Akbatı

Abstract:

Integration of various communication protocols into an automation system causes a rise in setup and maintenance cost and make to control network devices in difficulty. The gateway becomes necessary for reducing complexity in network topology. In this study, Modbus RTU/Modbus TCP industrial ethernet gateway design and implementation are presented with ARM embedded system and FreeRTOS real-time operating system. The Modbus gateway can perform communication with Modbus RTU and Modbus TCP devices over itself. Moreover, the gateway can be adjustable with the user-interface application or messaging interface. Conducted experiments and the results are presented in the paper. Eventually, the proposed system is a complete, low-cost, real-time, and user-friendly design for monitoring and setting devices and useful for meeting remote control purposes.

Keywords: gateway, industrial communication, modbus, network

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
49 Solving Process Planning and Scheduling with Number of Operation Plus Processing Time Due-Date Assignment Concurrently Using a Genetic Search

Authors: Halil Ibrahim Demir, Alper Goksu, Onur Canpolat, Caner Erden, Melek Nur

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Traditionally process planning, scheduling and due date assignment are performed sequentially and separately. High interrelation between these functions makes integration very useful. Although there are numerous works on integrated process planning and scheduling and many works on scheduling with due date assignment, there are only a few works on the integration of these three functions. Here we tested the different integration levels of these three functions and found a fully integrated version as the best. We applied genetic search and random search and genetic search was found better compared to the random search. We penalized all earliness, tardiness and due date related costs. Since all these three terms are all undesired, it is better to penalize all of them.

Keywords: process planning, scheduling, due-date assignment, genetic algorithm, random search

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
48 Estimating Big Five Personality Expressions with a Tiered Information Framework

Authors: Laura Kahn, Paul Rodrigues, Onur Savas, Shannon Hahn

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An empirical understanding of an individual's personality expression can have a profound impact on organizations seeking to strengthen team performance and improve employee retention. A team's personality composition can impact overall performance. Creating a tiered information framework that leverages proxies for a user's social context and lexical and linguistic content provides insight into location-specific personality expression. We leverage the layered framework to examine domain-specific, psychological, and lexical cues within social media posts. We apply DistilBERT natural language transfer learning models with real world data to examine the relationship between Big Five personality expressions of people in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) fields.

Keywords: big five, personality expression, social media analysis, workforce development

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
47 Prevalence of Eimeria spp in Cattle in Anatolia Region, Turkey

Authors: Nermin Isik, Onur Ceylan

Abstract:

Bovine coccidiosis is a protozoan infection caused by coccidia parasites of the genus Eimeria which develops in the small and the large intestine. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Eimeria spp. in cattle. This study was conducted between March 2014 and April 2015, involved 624 fecal samples of cattle. Cattle were grouped according to their age as follows: 6-12, 12-24 and >24 months. In a retrospective study from these faecal samples of cattle submitted to the University of Selcuk, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Laboratory of Parasitology were evaluated regarding the prevalence of Eimeria spp. In the laboratory, faecal samples were examined by Fulleborn saturated salt flotation technique and examined under a microscope for the presence of protozoan oocysts. Eimeria oocysts were found in 4.8% of all the samples. Eimeria infection was detected in 11.8%, 5.3% and 0.4% of the cattle in the age groups, respectively. This study showed that Eimeria infection was commonly seen in 6-24-month-old cattle. Further epidemiological investigation on economic significance and species composition of bovine coccidiosis needs to be pursued.

Keywords: cattle, diarrhea, Eimeria spp, Turkey

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46 Phosphorus Uptake of Triticale (Triticosecale Wittmack) Genotypes at Different Growth Stages

Authors: Imren Kutlu, Nurdilek Gulmezoglu

Abstract:

Triticale (Triticosecale Wittmack) is a man-made crop developed by crossing wheat (Triticum L.) and rye (Secale cereale L.). Triticale has until now been used mostly for animal feed; however, it can be consumed by humans in the form of biscuits, cookies, and unleavened bread. Moreover, one of the reasons for the development of triticale is that it is more efficient in nutrient deficient soil than wheat cultivars. After nitrogen fertilizer, phosphorus (P) is the most used fertilizer for crop production because P fixation occurs highly when it is applied the soil. The aim of the present study was to evaluate P uptake of winter triticale genotypes under different P fertilizer rates in different growth stages. The experiment was conducted in Eskisehir, Central Anatolia, Turkey. Treatments consisted of five triticale lines and one triticale cultivars (Samursortu) with four rates of P fertilization (0, 30, 60 and 120 kg P2O5 ha⁻¹). Phosphorus uptake of triticale genotypes in tillering, heading, as well as grain and straw at harvest stage and yield of grain and straw were determined. The results showed that a P rate of 60 kg/ha and the TCL-25 genotype produced the highest yields of straw and grain at harvest. Phosphorus uptake was the highest in tillering stage, and it decreased towards to harvest time. Phosphorus uptake of all growth stage increased as P rates raised and the application of 120 kg/ha P₂O₅ had the highest P uptake. Phosphorus uptake of genotypes was found differently. The regression analyses indicated that P uptake at tillering stage was the most effective on grain yield. These results will provide useful information to triticale growers about suitable phosphorus fertilization for both forage and food usage.

Keywords: grain yield, growth stage, phosphorus fertilization, phosphorus uptake, triticale

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45 Investigation on the Properties of Particulate Reinforced AA2014 Metal Matrix Composite Materials Produced by Vacuum Infiltration Method

Authors: Isil Kerti, Onur Okur, Sibel Daglilar, Recep Calin

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Particulate reinforced aluminium matrix composites have gained more importance in automotive, aeronautical and defense industries due to their specific properties like as low density, high strength and stiffness, good fatigue strength, dimensional stability at high temperature and acceptable tribological properties. In this study, 2014 Aluminium alloy used as a matrix material and B₄C and SiC were selected as reinforcements components. For production of composites materials, vacuum infiltration method was used. In the experimental studies, the reinforcement volume ratios were defined by mixing as totally 10% B₄C and SiC. Aging treatment (T6) was applied to the specimens. The effect of T6 treatment on hardness was determined by using Brinell hardness test method. The effects of the aging treatment on microstructure and chemical structure were analysed by making XRD, SEM and EDS analysis on the specimens.

Keywords: metal matrix composite, vacumm infiltration method, aluminum metal matrix, mechanical feature

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44 Determining a Suitable Time and Temperature Combination for Electricial Conductivity Test in Sorghum

Authors: Mehmet Demir Kaya, Onur İleri, Süleyman Avcı

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This study was conducted to determine a suitable time and temperature combination for the electrical conductivity test to be used in sorghum seeds. Fifty seeds known initial seed moisture content and weight of fresh and dead seeds (105°C for 6h) of seven sorghum cultivars were used as material. The electrical conductivities of soak water were measured using EC meter at 20, 25 and 30°C for 4, 8, 12 and 24 h using 50 mL deionized water. The experimental design was three factors factorial (7 × 3 × 4) arranged in a completely randomized design; with four replications and 50 seeds per replicate. The results showed that increased time and temperature caused a remarkable increase in EC values of all of the cultivars. Temperature significantly affected the electrical conductivity values and the best results were obtained at 25°C. The cultivars having the lowest germination percentage gave the highest electrical conductivity value. Dead seeds always gave higher electrical conductivity at 25°C for all periods. It was concluded that the temperature of 25°C and higher period than 12 h was the optimum combination for the electrical conductivity test in sorghum.

Keywords: Sorghum bicolor, seed vigor, cultivar, temperature

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43 Investigation of Maxi̇mali̇st Approaches on Furni̇ture Desi̇gn

Authors: Emi̇ne Yuksel, Murat Kiliç, Onur Ülker

Abstract:

Although minimalism has been coming into being in the field of interior design for a long time, it also brought a wide range of reaction. The more simple and feeling of emptiness usage of minimalism in space and furniture design has been found extremely boring so far, as a reaction to minimalism, a movement of maximalism was emerged. Thus more extravagant, splendid, magnificent and comfortable design approach was substituted by the greatest, largest and the extreme. Thus, the philosophy of “less is bore” of minimalism was replaced by “less is more” giving rise to a new interpretation in the field of interior design. While maximalism reminded us the Victorian, Rococo, Arts and Crafts and Neoclassic styles in interior design, it drew attention to the furniture designs that covered all areas of space all in one. In this study, we search the effect of maximalist approach which was born as a reaction to minimalism in furniture. Firstly, it is explained how did the maximalism emerge and its philosophy, a literature investigation was scanned and investigated. As a research method, it is concerned with the investigation of studies undertaken by the pioneers of interior space designers and architects. The findings of this study have been evaluated in the conclusion section.

Keywords: furniture design, maximalism, minimalism, texture

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42 Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process for Determination of Supply Chain Performance Evaluation Criteria

Authors: Ibrahim Cil, Onur Kurtcu, H. Ibrahim Demir, Furkan Yener, Yusuf. S. Turkan, Muharrem Unver, Ramazan Evren

Abstract:

Fuzzy AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) method is decision-making way at the end of integrating the current AHP method with fuzzy structure. In this study, the processes of production planning, inventory management and purchasing department of a system were analysed and were requested to decide the performance criteria of each area. At this point, the current work processes were analysed by various decision-makers and comparing each criteria by giving points according to 1-9 scale were completed. The criteria were listed in order to their weights by using Fuzzy AHP approach and top three performance criteria of each department were determined. After that, the performance criteria of supply chain consisting of three departments were asked to determine. The processes of each department were compared by decision-makers at the point of building the supply chain performance system and getting the performance criteria. According to the results, the criteria of performance system of supply chain by using Fuzzy AHP were determined for which will be used in the supply chain performance system in the future.

Keywords: AHP, fuzzy, performance evaluation, supply chain

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41 The Effects of Sous Vide Technology Combined with Different Herbals on Sensorial and Physical Quality of Fish Species Caught in the Northern Aegean Sea and Marmara Sea

Authors: Zafer Ceylan, Gülgün F.Unal Şengör, Onur Gönülal

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In this study, sous vide technology were treated with different herbs into different fish species which were caught from northern Aegean and Marmara Sea. Before samples were packaged under vacuum, herbs had been cut and added at the same ratio into the package. Samples were sliced, the weight of each sample was about 150 g, and packaged under vacuum. During the storage period at 4ºC, taste, odor, texture properties of fish samples treated with sous vide were evaluated by trained panelists. Meanwhile, the effect of different herbs on pH values of the samples was investigated. These results were correlated with sensorial results. Furthermore, the effects of different herbs on L, a, b values of fish samples treated with sous vide were evaluated by color measurement. All sensorial results indicated that the values of samples treated with herbs were higher than that of the control group. Color measurement results and pH values were found parallel with sensorial results.

Keywords: Sous vide, fish, herbs, consumer preferences, pH, color measurement

Procedia PDF Downloads 423
40 Comparison of College Students and Full-Time Employees on Emerging Adulthood Dimensions and Identity Statuses in Turkey

Authors: Ebru Ergi̇n, Funda Kutlu

Abstract:

Emerging adulthood is a developmental period and the formation of identity is crucial task of emerging adults in this period. In this frame, the main aim of the study was to compare college students and full-time workers on emerging adulthood dimensions and identity statuses in relation to some demographic variables in Turkey. The participants of the study were university students studying in Ankara and the employees working full-time in Ankara and Bursa. The mean age of the sample was 20.84 (sd=1.84), ranging from 18 to 25. The measurement instruments of the study were Inventory of Dimensions of Emerging Adulthood and Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status (EOMEIS-II). The participants’ data (N=313) were analyzed to test the research questions and hypotheses of the study. A series of MANOVA were performed to test the group differences for some demographic characteristics (such as: employee/student, male/female, living with family/living apart from family) on scores of emerging adulthood dimensions and identity status. The results of the MANOVAs indicated that students, females and participants who live apart from their families had higher scores on emerging adulthood dimensions. The results of the identity status scores differences depending on the demographic characteristic pointed out that there were a significant group differences for identity foreclosure identity scores between employees and students. Employees’ foreclosure identity scores were higher than students. Furthermore, the identity scores were differed significantly according to gender of the participants. Male participants had higher scores in moratorium and foreclosure identity and female participants have higher achievement identity scores than males. Also, the participants who live with their family scored higher in foreclosure identity and the participants who live apart from their family scored higher in identity achievement status.

Keywords: college students, emerging adulthood, full-time employees, identity statuses

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39 A Nuclear Negotiation Qualitative Case Study with Force Field Analysis

Authors: Onur Yuksel

Abstract:

In today’s complex foreign relations between countries, the nuclear enrichment and nuclear weapon have become a threat for all states in the world. There are couple isolated states which have capacity to produce nuclear weapons such as Iran and North Korea. In this article, Iran nuclear negotiation was analyzed in terms of its relations especially with The United States in order to find the important factors that affect the course of the ongoing nuclear negotiation. In this sense, the Force Field Analysis was used by determining and setting forth Driving and Restraining Forces of the nuclear negotiations in order to see the big picture and to develop strategies that may improve the long-term ongoing Iran nuclear negotiations. It is found that Iran nuclear negotiation heavily depends on breaking down the idea of Iran’s supporting terrorist organizations and being more transparent about nuclear and uranium enrichment. Also, it was found that Iran has to rebuild its relations with Western countries, especially with the United States. In addition, the counties— who contribute to Iran nuclear negotiations— will need to work on the dynamics and drivers of the Israel and Iran relations in order to peacefully transform the conflict between the two states.

Keywords: driving force, Iran nuclear negotiation, restraining force, the force field analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
38 Reading Knowledge Development and Its Phases with Generation Z

Authors: Onur Özdemir, M.Erhan ORHAN

Abstract:

Knowledge Development (KD) is just one of the important phases of Knowledge Management (KM). KD is the phase in which intelligence is used to see the big picture. In order to understand whether information is important or not, we have to use the intelligence cycle that includes four main steps: aiming, collecting data, processing and utilizing. KD also needs these steps. To make a precise decision, the decision maker has to be aware of his subordinates’ ideas. If the decision maker ignores the ideas of his subordinates or participants of the organization, it is not possible for him to get the target. KD is a way of using wisdom to accumulate the puzzle. If the decision maker does not bring together the puzzle pieces, he cannot get the big picture, and this shows its effects on the battlefield. In order to understand the battlefield, the decision maker has to use the intelligence cycle. To convert information to knowledge, KD is the main means for the intelligence cycle. On the other hand, the “Z Generation” born after the millennium are really the game changers. They have different attitudes from their elders. Their understanding of life is different - the definition of freedom and independence have different meanings to them than others. Decision makers have to consider these factors and rethink their decisions accordingly. This article tries to explain the relation between KD and Generation Z. KD is the main method of target managing. But if leaders neglect their people, the world will be seeing much more movements like the Arab Spring and other insurgencies.

Keywords: knowledge development, knowledge management, generation Z, intelligence cycle

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37 Unmanned Systems in Urban Areas

Authors: Abdullah Beyazkurk, Onur Ozdemir

Abstract:

The evolution of warfare has been affected from technological developments to a large extent. Another important factor that affected the evolution of warfare is the space. Technological developments became cornerstones for the organization of the forces on the field, while space of the battlefield gained importance with the introduction of urban areas as 'battlefields'. The use of urban areas as battlefields increased the casualty, while technological developments began to play a remedial role. Thus, the unmanned systems drew attention as the remedy. Today's widely used unmanned aerial vehicles have great effects on the operations. On the other hand, with the increasing urbanization, and the wide use of urban areas as battlefields make it a necessity to benefit from unmanned systems on the ground as well. This study focuses on the use of unmanned aerial systems as well as unmanned ground systems in urban warfare, with regards to their performance and cost affectivity. The study defends that the use of unmanned vehicles will be remedial for increasing casualty rates, while their precision and superhuman capacity will manifest the performance advantage. The findings of this study will help modern armies focus on unmanned systems, especially for the urban, anti-terror, or counter insurgency operations.

Keywords: technology, warfare, urban warfare, unmanned systems, unmanned ground vehicles, unmanned aerial vehicles

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36 Neutron Contamination in 18 MV Medical Linear Accelerator

Authors: Onur Karaman, A. Gunes Tanir

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Photon radiation therapy used to treat cancer is one of the most important methods. However, photon beam collimator materials in Linear Accelerator (LINAC) head generally contains heavy elements is used and the interaction of bremsstrahlung photon with such heavy nuclei, the neutron can be produced inside the treatment rooms. In radiation therapy, neutron contamination contributes to the risk of secondary malignancies in patients, also physicians working in this field. Since the neutron is more dangerous than photon, it is important to determine neutron dose during radiotherapy treatment. In this study, it is aimed to analyze the effect of field size, distance from axis and depth on the amount of in-field and out-field neutron contamination for ElektaVmat accelerator with 18 MV nominal energy. The photon spectra at the distance of 75, 150, 225, 300 cm from target and on the isocenter of beam were scored for 5x5, 10x10, 20x20, 30x30 and 40x40 cm2 fields. Results demonstrated that the neutron spectra and dose are dependent on field size and distances. Beyond 225 cm of isocenter, the dependence of the neutron dose on field size is minimal. As a result, it is concluded that as the open field increases, neutron dose determined decreases. It is important to remember that when treating with high energy photons, the dose from contamination neutrons must be considered as it is much greater than the photon dose.

Keywords: radiotherapy, neutron contamination, linear accelerators, photon

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35 Lifetime Attachment: Adult Daughters Attachment to Their Old Mothers

Authors: Meltem Anafarta Şendağ, Funda Kutlu

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Attachment theory has some major postulates that direct attention of psychologists from many different domains. First, the theory suggests that attachment is a lifetime process. This means that every human being from cradle to grave needs someone stronger to depend on in times of stress. Second, the attachment is a dynamic process and as one goes through developmental stages it is being transferred from one figure to another (friends, romantic partners). Third, the quality of attachment relationships later in time directly affected by the earliest attachment relationship established between the mother and the infant. Depending on these postulates, attachment literature focuses mostly on mother – child attachment during childhood and romantic relationship during adulthood. However, although romantic partners are important attachment figures in adults’ life, parents are not dropped out from the attachment hierarchy but they keep being important attachment figures. Despite the fact that parents could still be an important figure in adults’ life, adult – parent attachment is overlooked in the literature. Accordingly, this study focuses on adult daughters’ current attachment to their old mothers in relation with early parental bonding and current attachment to husbands. Participants of the study were 383 adult women (Average age = 40, ranging between 23 and 70) whose mothers were still alive and who were married at the time of the study. Participants were completed Adult Attachment Scale, Parental Bonding Instrument, and Experiences in Close Relationship – II together with demographic questionnaire. Results revealed that daughters’ attachment to their mothers weakens as they get older, have more children, and have longer marriages. Stronger attachment to mothers was found positively correlated with current satisfaction with the relationship, perception of maternal care before the age of 12 and negatively correlated with perception of controlling behavior before the age 12. Considering the relationship between current parental attachment and romantic attachment, it was found that as the current attachment to mother strengthens attachment avoidance towards husband decreases. Results revealed that although attachment between the adult daughters and old mothers weakens, the relationship is still critical in daughters’ lives. The strength of current attachment with the mother is related both with the early relationship with the mother and current attachment with the husband. The current study is thought to contribute to attachment theory emphasizing the attachment as a lifetime construct.

Keywords: adult daughter, attachment, old mothers, parental bonding

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34 Offset Dependent Uniform Delay Mathematical Optimization Model for Signalized Traffic Network Using Differential Evolution Algorithm

Authors: Tahseen Saad, Halim Ceylan, Jonathan Weaver, Osman Nuri Çelik, Onur Gungor Sahin

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A new concept of uniform delay offset dependent mathematical optimization problem is derived as the main objective for this study using a differential evolution algorithm. To control the coordination problem, which depends on offset selection and to estimate uniform delay based on the offset choice in a traffic signal network. The assumption is the periodic sinusoidal function for arrival and departure patterns. The cycle time is optimized at the entry links and the optimized value is used in the non-entry links as a common cycle time. The offset optimization algorithm is used to calculate the uniform delay at each link. The results are illustrated by using a case study and are compared with the canonical uniform delay model derived by Webster and the highway capacity manual’s model. The findings show new model minimizes the total uniform delay to almost half compared to conventional models. The mathematical objective function is robust. The algorithm convergence time is fast.

Keywords: area traffic control, traffic flow, differential evolution, sinusoidal periodic function, uniform delay, offset variable

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33 Determination of the Seed Vigor of Soybean Cultivated as Main and Second Crop in Turkey

Authors: Mehmet Demir Kaya, Engin Gökhan Kulan, Onur İleri, Süleyman Avcı

Abstract:

This research was conducted to determine the difference in seed vigor between the seed lots cultivated in main and second crop of soybean in Turkey. Seeds from soybean cv. Cinsoy and Umut-2002 were evaluated in the laboratory for germination, emergence, cool test at 18°C for 10 days, and cold test at 10°C for 4 days and 25°C for 6 days. Result showed that the initial oil contents of Cinsoy and Umut-2002 and seeds were determined to be 19.8 and 20.1% in main crop, and 18.7 and 22.1% in second crop, respectively. It was determined that a clear difference between main and second crop soybean seed lots for seed vigor was found. Germination and emergence percentage were higher in the seed from second crop cultivation of the cultivars. There was no significant difference in germination percentage in cool and cold test while seedling growth was better in the seeds of second crop soybean. The highest seed vigor index (477.6) was found in the seeds of the cultivars grown at second crop. Standard germination percentage did not give a sensitive separation for determining seed vigor of soybean lots. It was concluded that second crop soybean seeds were found the most suitable for seed production while main crop soybean gave higher protein lower oil content.

Keywords: Glycine max L., germination, emergence, protein content, vigor test

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32 On the End-of-Life Inventory Problem

Authors: Hans Frenk, Sonya Javadi, Semih Onur Sezer

Abstract:

We consider the so-called end of life inventory problem for the supplier of a product in its final phase of the service life cycle. This phase starts when the production of the items stops and continues until the warranty of the last sold item expires. At the beginning of this phase, the supplier places a final order for spare parts to serve customers coming with defective items. At any time during the final phase, the supplier may also decide to switch to an alternative and more cost-effective policy. This alternative policy may be in the form of replacing a defective item with a substitutable product or offering discounts / rebates on new generation products. In this setup, the objective is to find a final order quantity and also a switching time which will minimize the total expected discounted cost. We study this problem under a general cost structure in a continuous-time framework where arrivals of defective items are given by a non-homogeneous Poisson process. We consider four formulations which differ by the nature of the switching time. These formulations are studied in detail and properties of the objective function are derived in each case. Using these properties, we provide exact algorithms for efficient numerical implementations. Numerical examples are provided illustrating the application of these algorithms. In these examples, we also compare the costs associated with these different formulations.

Keywords: End-of-life inventory control, martingales, optimization, service parts

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31 Orange Peel Derived Activated Carbon /Chitosan Composite as Highly Effective and Low-Cost Adsorbent for Adsorption of Methylene Blue

Authors: Onur Karaman, Ceren Karaman

Abstract:

In this study, the adsorption of Methylene Blue (MB), a cationic dye, onto Orange Peel Derived Activated Carbon (OPAC) and chitosan(OPAC/Chitosan composite) composite (a low-cost absorbent) was carried out using a batch system. The composite was characterised using IR spectra, XRD, FESEM and Pore size studies. The effects of initial pH, adsorbent dose rate and initial dye concentration on the initial adsorption rate, capacity and dye removal efficiency were investigated. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were used to define the adsorption equilibrium of dye-adsorbent system mathematically and it was decided that the Langmuir model was more suitable to describe the adsorption equilibrium for the system. In addition, first order, second order and saturation type kinetic models were applied to kinetic data of adsorption and kinetic constants were calculated. It was concluded that the second order and the saturation type kinetic models defined the adsorption data more accurately. Finally, the evaluated thermodynamic parameters of adsorption show a spontaneous and exothermic behavior. Overall, this study indicates OPAC/Chitosan composite as an effective and low-cost adsorbent for the removal of MB dye from aqueous solutions.

Keywords: activated carbon, adsorption, chitosan, methylene blue, orange peel

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30 Investigation of Nutritional Values, Sensorial, Flesh Productivity of Parapenaus longirostris between Populations in the Sea of Marmara and in the Northern Aegean Sea

Authors: Onur Gönülal, Zafer Ceylan, Gülgün F. Unal Sengor

Abstract:

The differences of Parapenaus longirostris caught from The North Aegean Sea and the Marmara Sea on proximate composition, sensorial analysis (for raw and cooked samples), flesh productivity of the samples were investigated. The moisture, protein, lipid, ash, carbohydrate, energy contents of shrimp caught from The North Aegean Sea were 74.92 ± 0.1, 20.32 ± 0.16, 2.55 ± 0.1, 2.13 ± 0.08, 0.08, 110.1 kcal/100g, respectively. The moisture, protein, lipid, ash, carbohydrate, energy contents of shrimp caught from Marmara Sea were 76.9 ± 0.02, 19.06 ± 0.03, 2.22 ± 0.08, 1.51 ± 0.04, 0.33, 102.77 kcal/100g, respectively. The protein, lipid, ash and energy values of the Northern Aegean Sea shrimp were higher than The Marmara Sea shrimp. On the other hand, The moisture, carbohydrate values of the Northern Aegean Sea shrimp were lower than the other one. Sensorial analysis was done for raw and cooked samples. Among all properties for raw samples, flesh color, shrimp connective tissue, shrimp body parameters were found different each other according to the result of the panel. According to the result of the cooked shrimp samples among all properties, cooked odour, flavours, texture were found to be different from each other, as well. Especially, flavours and textural properties of cooked shrimps of the Northern Aegean Sea were higher than the Marmara Sea shrimp. Flesh productivity of Northern Aegean Sea shrimp was found as 46.42 %, while that of the Marmara Sea shrimp was found as 47.74 %.

Keywords: shrimp, biological differences, proximate value, sensory, Parapenaus longirostris, flesh productivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 211