Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 119

Search results for: photon

119 Two-Photon Fluorescence in N-Doped Graphene Quantum Dots

Authors: Chi Man Luk, Ming Kiu Tsang, Chi Fan Chan, Shu Ping Lau


Nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs) were fabricated by microwave-assisted hydrothermal technique. The optical properties of the N-GQDs were studied. The luminescence of the N-GQDs can be tuned by varying the excitation wavelength. Furthermore, two-photon luminescence of the N-GQDs excited by near-infrared laser can be obtained. It is shown that N-doping play a key role on two-photon luminescence. The N-GQDs are expected to find application in biological applications including bioimaging and sensing.

Keywords: graphene quantum dots, nitrogen doping, photoluminescence, two-photon fluorescence

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118 Comparison of Dose Rate and Energy Dependence of Soft Tissue Equivalence Dosimeter with Electron and Photon Beams Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Authors: Bakhtiar Azadbakht, Karim Adinehvand, Amin Sahebnasagh


The purpose of this study was to evaluate dependence of PAGAT polymer gel dosimeter 1/T2 on different electron and photon energies as well as on different mean dose rates for a standard clinically used Co-60 therapy unit and an ELECTA linear accelerator. A multi echo sequence with 32 equidistant echoes was used for the evaluation of irradiated polymer gel dosimeters. The optimal post-manufacture irradiation and post imaging times were both determined to be one day. The sensitivity of PAGAT polymer gel dosimeter with irradiation of photon and electron beams was represented by the slope of calibration curve in the linear region measured for each modality. The response of PAGAT gel with photon and electron beams is very similar in the lower dose region. The R2-dose response was linear up to 30Gy. In electron beams the R2-dose response for doses less than 3Gy is not exact, but in photon beams the R2-dose response for doses less than 2Gy is not exact. Dosimeter energy dependence was studied for electron energies of 4, 12 and 18MeV and photon energies of 1.25, 4, 6 and 18MV. Dose rate dependence was studied in 6MeV electron beam and 6MV photon beam with the use of dose rates 80, 160, 240, 320, 400, and 480cGy/min. Evaluation of dosimeters were performed on Siemens Symphony, Germany 1.5T Scanner in the head coil. In this study no trend in polymer-gel dosimeter 1/T2 dependence was found on mean dose rate and energy for electron and photon beams.

Keywords: polymer gels, PAGAT gel, electron and photon beams, MRI

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117 Neutron Contamination in 18 MV Medical Linear Accelerator

Authors: Onur Karaman, A. Gunes Tanir


Photon radiation therapy used to treat cancer is one of the most important methods. However, photon beam collimator materials in Linear Accelerator (LINAC) head generally contains heavy elements is used and the interaction of bremsstrahlung photon with such heavy nuclei, the neutron can be produced inside the treatment rooms. In radiation therapy, neutron contamination contributes to the risk of secondary malignancies in patients, also physicians working in this field. Since the neutron is more dangerous than photon, it is important to determine neutron dose during radiotherapy treatment. In this study, it is aimed to analyze the effect of field size, distance from axis and depth on the amount of in-field and out-field neutron contamination for ElektaVmat accelerator with 18 MV nominal energy. The photon spectra at the distance of 75, 150, 225, 300 cm from target and on the isocenter of beam were scored for 5x5, 10x10, 20x20, 30x30 and 40x40 cm2 fields. Results demonstrated that the neutron spectra and dose are dependent on field size and distances. Beyond 225 cm of isocenter, the dependence of the neutron dose on field size is minimal. As a result, it is concluded that as the open field increases, neutron dose determined decreases. It is important to remember that when treating with high energy photons, the dose from contamination neutrons must be considered as it is much greater than the photon dose.

Keywords: radiotherapy, neutron contamination, linear accelerators, photon

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116 Two-Photon Ionization of Silver Clusters

Authors: V. Paployan, K. Madoyan, A. Melikyan, H. Minassian


Resonant two-photon ionization (TPI) is a valuable technique for the study of clusters due to its ultrahigh sensitivity. The comparison of the observed TPI spectra with results of calculations allows to deduce important information on the shape, rotational and vibrational temperatures of the clusters with high accuracy. In this communication we calculate the TPI cross-section for pump-probe scheme in Ag neutral cluster. The pump photon energy is chosen to be close to the surface plasmon (SP) energy of cluster in dielectric media. Since the interband transition energy in Ag exceeds the SP resonance energy, the main contribution into the TPI comes from the latter. The calculations are performed by separating the coordinates of electrons corresponding to the collective oscillations and the individual motion that allows to take into account the resonance contribution of excited SP oscillations. It is shown that the ionization cross section increases by two orders of magnitude if the energy of the pump photon matches the surface plasmon energy in the cluster.

Keywords: resonance enhancement, silver clusters, surface plasmon, two-photon ionization

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115 Cell-Cell Interactions in Diseased Conditions Revealed by Three Dimensional and Intravital Two Photon Microscope: From Visualization to Quantification

Authors: Satoshi Nishimura


Although much information has been garnered from the genomes of humans and mice, it remains difficult to extend that information to explain physiological and pathological phenomena. This is because the processes underlying life are by nature stochastic and fluctuate with time. Thus, we developed novel "in vivo molecular imaging" method based on single and two-photon microscopy. We visualized and analyzed many life phenomena, including common adult diseases. We integrated the knowledge obtained, and established new models that will serve as the basis for new minimally invasive therapeutic approaches.

Keywords: two photon microscope, intravital visualization, thrombus, artery

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114 Evaluated Nuclear Data Based Photon Induced Nuclear Reaction Model of GEANT4

Authors: Jae Won Shin


We develop an evaluated nuclear data based photonuclear reaction model of GEANT4 for a more accurate simulation of photon-induced neutron production. The evaluated photonuclear data libraries from the ENDF/B-VII.1 are taken as input. Incident photon energies up to 140 MeV which is the threshold energy for the pion production are considered. For checking the validity of the use of the data-based model, we calculate the photoneutron production cross-sections and yields and compared them with experimental data. The results obtained from the developed model are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data for (γ,xn) reactions.

Keywords: ENDF/B-VII.1, GEANT4, photoneutron, photonuclear reaction

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113 Linearly Polarized Single Photon Emission from Nonpolar, Semipolar and Polar Quantum Dots in GaN/InGaN Nanowires

Authors: Snezana Lazic, Zarko Gacevic, Mark Holmes, Ekaterina Chernysheva, Marcus Müller, Peter Veit, Frank Bertram, Juergen Christen, Yasuhiko Arakawa, Enrique Calleja


The study reports how the pencil-like morphology of a homoepitaxially grown GaN nanowire can be exploited for the fabrication of a thin conformal InGaN nanoshell, hosting nonpolar, semipolar and polar single photon sources (SPSs). All three SPS types exhibit narrow emission lines (FWHM~0.35 - 2 meV) and high degrees of linear optical polarization (P > 70%) in the low-temperature micro-photoluminescence (µ-PL) experiments and are characterized by a pronounced antibunching in the photon correlation measurements (gcorrected(2)(0) < 0.3). The quantum-dot-like exciton localization centers induced by compositional fluctuations within the InGaN nanoshell are identified as the driving mechanism for the single photon emission. As confirmed by the low-temperature transmission electron microscopy combined with cathodoluminescence (TEM-CL) study, the crystal region (i.e. non-polar m-, semi-polar r- and polar c-facets) hosting the single photon emitters strongly affects their emission wavelength, which ranges from ultra-violet for the non-polar to visible for the polar SPSs. The photon emission lifetime is also found to be facet-dependent and varies from sub-nanosecond time scales for the non- and semi-polar SPSs to a few nanoseconds for the polar ones. These differences are mainly attributed to facet-dependent indium content and electric field distribution across the hosting InGaN nanoshell. The hereby reported pencil-like InGaN nanoshell is the first single nanostructure able to host all three types of single photon emitters and is thus a promising building block for tunable quantum light devices integrated into future photonic and optoelectronic circuits.

Keywords: GaN nanowire, InGaN nanoshell, linear polarization, nonpolar, semipolar, polar quantum dots, single-photon sources

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112 A Model of the Universe without Expansion of Space

Authors: Jia-Chao Wang


A model of the universe without invoking space expansion is proposed to explain the observed redshift-distance relation and the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB). The main hypothesized feature of the model is that photons traveling in space interact with the CMB photon gas. This interaction causes the photons to gradually lose energy through dissipation and, therefore, experience redshift. The interaction also causes some of the photons to be scattered off their track toward an observer and, therefore, results in beam intensity attenuation. As observed, the CMB exists everywhere in space and its photon density is relatively high (about 410 per cm³). The small average energy of the CMB photons (about 6.3×10⁻⁴ eV) can reduce the energies of traveling photons gradually and will not alter their momenta drastically as in, for example, Compton scattering, to totally blur the images of distant objects. An object moving through a thermalized photon gas, such as the CMB, experiences a drag. The cause is that the object sees a blue shifted photon gas along the direction of motion and a redshifted one in the opposite direction. An example of this effect can be the observed CMB dipole: The earth travels at about 368 km/s (600 km/s) relative to the CMB. In the all-sky map from the COBE satellite, radiation in the Earth's direction of motion appears 0.35 mK hotter than the average temperature, 2.725 K, while radiation on the opposite side of the sky is 0.35 mK colder. The pressure of a thermalized photon gas is given by Pγ = Eγ/3 = αT⁴/3, where Eγ is the energy density of the photon gas and α is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant. The observed CMB dipole, therefore, implies a pressure difference between the two sides of the earth and results in a CMB drag on the earth. By plugging in suitable estimates of quantities involved, such as the cross section of the earth and the temperatures on the two sides, this drag can be estimated to be tiny. But for a photon traveling at the speed of light, 300,000 km/s, the drag can be significant. In the present model, for the dissipation part, it is assumed that a photon traveling from a distant object toward an observer has an effective interaction cross section pushing against the pressure of the CMB photon gas. For the attenuation part, the coefficient of the typical attenuation equation is used as a parameter. The values of these two parameters are determined by fitting the 748 µ vs. z data points compiled from 643 supernova and 105 γ-ray burst observations with z values up to 8.1. The fit is as good as that obtained from the lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model using online cosmological calculators and Planck 2015 results. The model can be used to interpret Hubble's constant, Olbers' paradox, the origin and blackbody nature of the CMB radiation, the broadening of supernova light curves, and the size of the observable universe.

Keywords: CMB as the lowest energy state, model of the universe, origin of CMB in a static universe, photon-CMB photon gas interaction

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111 Spectral Broadening in an InGaAsP Optical Waveguide with χ(3) Nonlinearity Including Two Photon Absorption

Authors: Keigo Matsuura, Isao Tomita


We have studied a method to widen the spectrum of optical pulses that pass through an InGaAsP waveguide for application to broadband optical communication. In particular, we have investigated the competitive effect between spectral broadening arising from nonlinear refraction (optical Kerr effect) and shrinking due to two photon absorption in the InGaAsP waveguide with chi^(3) nonlinearity. The shrunk spectrum recovers broadening by the enhancement effect of the nonlinear refractive index near the bandgap of InGaAsP with a bandgap wavelength of 1490 nm. The broadened spectral width at around 1525 nm (196.7 THz) becomes 10.7 times wider than that at around 1560 nm (192.3 THz) without the enhancement effect, where amplified optical pulses with a pulse width of 2 ps and a peak power of 10 W propagate through a 1-cm-long InGaAsP waveguide with a cross-section of 4 um^2.

Keywords: InGaAsP waveguide, Chi^(3) nonlinearity, spectral broadening, photon absorption

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110 Application of Strong Optical Feedback to Enhance the Modulation Bandwidth of Semiconductor Lasers to the Millimeter-Wave Band

Authors: Moustafa Ahmed, Ahmed Bakry, Fumio Koyama


We report on the use of strong external optical feedback to enhance the modulation response of semiconductor lasers over a frequency passband around modulation frequencies higher than 60 GHz. We show that this modulation enhancement is a type of photon-photon resonance (PPR) of oscillating modes in the external cavity formed between the laser and the external reflector. The study is based on a time-delay rate equation model that takes into account both the strong feedback and multiple reflections in the external cavity. We examine the harmonic and intermodulation distortions associated with single and two-tone modulations in the mm-wave band of the resonant modulation. We show that compared with solitary lasers modulated around the carrier-photon resonance frequency, the present mm-wave modulated signal has lower distortions.

Keywords: semiconductor laser, optical feedback, modulation, harmonic distortion

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109 Water Equivalent from the Point of View of Fast Neutron Removal Cross-Section

Authors: Mohammed Alrajhi


Radiological properties of gel dosimeters and phantom materials are often evaluated in terms of effective atomic number, electron density, photon mass attenuation coefficient, photon mass energy absorption coefficient and total stopping power of electrons. To evaluate the water equivalence of such materials for fast neutron attenuation 19 different types of gel dosimeters and phantom materials were considered. Macroscopic removal cross-sections for fast neutrons (ΣR cm-1) have been calculated for a range of ferrous-sulphate and polymeric gel dosimeters using Nxcom Program. The study showed that the value of ΣR/ρ (cm2.g-1) for all polymer gels were in close agreement (1.5- 2.8%) with that of water. As such, the slight differences in ΣR/ρ between water and gels are small and may be considered negligible. Also, the removal cross-section of the studied phantom materials were very close (~ ±1.5%) to that of water except bone (cortical) which had about 38% variation. Finally, the variation of removal cross-section with hydrogen content was studied.

Keywords: cross-section, neutron, photon, coefficient, mathematics

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108 Monte Carlo Simulations of LSO/YSO for Dose Evaluation in Photon Beam Radiotherapy

Authors: H. Donya


Monte Carlo (MC) techniques play a fundamental role in radiotherapy. A two non-water-equivalent of different media were used to evaluate the dose in water. For such purpose, Lu2SiO5 (LSO) and Y2SiO5 (YSO) orthosilicates scintillators are chosen for MC simulation using Penelope code. To get higher efficiency in dose calculation, variance reduction techniques are discussed. Overall results of this investigation ensured that the LSO/YSO bi-media a good combination to tackle over-response issue in dynamic photon radiotherapy.

Keywords: Lu2SiO5 (LSO) and Y2SiO5 (YSO) orthosilicates, Monte Carlo, correlated sampling, radiotherapy

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107 Two-Photon-Exchange Effects in the Electromagnetic Production of Pions

Authors: Hui-Yun Cao, Hai-Qing Zhou


The high precision measurements and experiments play more and more important roles in particle physics and atomic physics. To analyse the precise experimental data sets, the corresponding precise and reliable theoretical calculations are necessary. Until now, the form factors of elemental constituents such as pion and proton are still attractive issues in current Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). In this work, the two-photon-exchange (TPE) effects in ep→enπ⁺ at small -t are discussed within a hadronic model. Under the pion dominance approximation and the limit mₑ→0, the TPE contribution to the amplitude can be described by a scalar function. We calculate TPE contributions to the amplitude, and the unpolarized differential cross section with the only elastic intermediate state is considered. The results show that the TPE corrections to the unpolarized differential cross section are about from -4% to -20% at Q²=1-1.6 GeV². After considering the TPE corrections to the experimental data sets of unpolarized differential cross section, we analyze the TPE corrections to the separated cross sections σ(L,T,LT,TT). We find that the TPE corrections (at Q²=1-1.6 GeV²) to σL are about from -10% to -30%, to σT are about 20%, and to σ(LT,TT) are much larger. By these analyses, we conclude that the TPE contributions in ep→enπ⁺ at small -t are important to extract the separated cross sections σ(L,T,LT,TT) and the electromagnetic form factor of π⁺ in the experimental analysis.

Keywords: differential cross section, form factor, hadronic, two-photon

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106 Purity Monitor Studies in Medium Liquid Argon TPC

Authors: I. Badhrees


This paper is an attempt to describe some of the results that had been found through a journey of study in the field of particle physics. This study consists of two parts, one about the measurement of the cross section of the decay of the Z particle in two electrons, and the other deals with the measurement of the cross section of the multi-photon absorption process using a beam of laser in the Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber. The first part of the paper concerns the results based on the analysis of a data sample containing 8120 ee candidates to reconstruct the mass of the Z particle for each event where each event has an ee pair with PT(e) > 20GeV, and η(e) < 2.5. Monte Carlo templates of the reconstructed Z particle were produced as a function of the Z mass scale. The distribution of the reconstructed Z mass in the data was compared to the Monte Carlo templates, where the total cross section is calculated to be equal to 1432 pb. The second part concerns the Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber, LAr TPC, the results of the interaction of the UV Laser, Nd-YAG with λ= 266mm, with LAr and through the study of the multi-photon ionization process as a part of the R&D at Bern University. The main result of this study was the cross section of the process of the multi-photon ionization process of the LAr, σe = 1.24±0.10stat±0.30sys.10 -56cm4.

Keywords: ATLAS, CERN, KACST, LArTPC, particle physics

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105 Researches Concerning Photons as Corpuscles with Mass and Negative Electrostatic Charge

Authors: Ioan Rusu


Let us consider that the entire universe is composed of a single hydrogen atom within which the electron is moving around the proton. In this case, according to classical theories of physics, radiation and photons, respectively, should be absorbed by the electron. Depending on the number of photons absorbed, the electron radius of rotation around the proton is established. Until now, the principle of photon absorption by electrons and the electron transition to a new energy level, namely to a higher radius of rotation around the proton, is not clarified in physics. This paper aims to demonstrate that photons have mass and negative electrostatic charge similar to electrons but infinitely smaller. The experiments which demonstrate this theory are simple: thermal expansion, photoelectric effect and thermonuclear reaction.

Keywords: electrostatic, electron, photon, proton, radiation

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104 Analytical Solution for Stellar Distance Based on Photon Dominated Cosmic Expansion Model

Authors: Xiaoyun Li, Suoang Longzhou


This paper derives the analytical solution of stellar distance according to its redshift based on the photon-dominated universe expansion model. Firstly, it calculates stellar separation speed and the farthest distance of observable stars via simulation. Then the analytical solution of stellar distance according to its redshift is derived. It shows that when the redshift is large, the stellar distance (and its separation speed) is not proportional to its redshift due to the relativity effect. It also reveals the relationship between stellar age and its redshift. The correctness of the analytical solution is verified by the latest astronomic observations of Ia supernovas in 2020.

Keywords: redshift, cosmic expansion model, analytical solution, stellar distance

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103 Measurement of Rayleigh Scattering Cross-Section of ₆₀Nd K X-Rays Elements with 26 ≤ Z≤ 90

Authors: Govind Sharma, Harpreet S. Kainth


Rayleigh scattering differential cross sections have been measured for the 36.84 keV (60Nd Kα2), 37.36 keV (60Nd Kα1) and 42.27 keV (60Nd Kβ1,3) X-rays. These measurements have been done in 44 elements with 22 ≤ Z ≤ 90 at an angle of 1390. The measurements are performed by using a radiation source consisting of an annular 60Nd foil excited by the 59.54 KeV γ-ray photons from 241Am radioactive source. The Nd Kα2, Kβ1,3 X-ray photons from the 60Nd annular foil (secondary photon source) are made to scatter from the target and the scattered photons are detected using Canberra made low energy Germanium (LEGe) detector. The measured Rayleigh scattering cross sections are compared with the theoretical MF, MFASF and the SM values. The noticeable deviations are observed from the MF, MFASF and SM values for 36.84 keV (60Nd Kα2), 37.36 keV (60Nd Kα1) and 42.27 keV (60Nd Kβ1,3) X-rays.

Keywords: Photon-electron interaction, Rayleigh scattering, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray

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102 Effect of PMMA Shield on the Patient Dose Equivalent from Photoneutrons Produced by High Energy Medical Linacs

Authors: Seyed Mehdi Hashemi, Gholamreza Raisali, Mehran Taheri


One of the important problems of using high energy linacs at IMRT is the production of photoneutrons. Besides the clinically useful photon beams, high-energy photon beams from medical linacs produce secondary neutrons. These photoneutrons increase the patient dose and may cause secondary malignancies. The effect of the shield on the reduction of photoneutron dose equivalent produced by a high energy medical linac at the patient plane is investigated in this study. To determine the photoneutron dose equivalent received to the patient a Varian linac working at 18 MV photon mode investigated. Photoneutron dose equivalent measured with Polycarbonate films of 0.25 mm thick. PC films placed at distances of 0, 10, 20, and 50 cm from the center of X-ray field on the patient couch. The results show that by increasing the distance from the center of the X-ray beam towards the periphery, the photoneutron dose equivalent decreases rapidly for both open and shielded fields and that by inserting the shield in the path of the X-ray beam, the photoneutron dose equivalent was decreased obviously compared to open field. Results show the shield, significantly reduces photoneutron dose equivalent to the patient. Results can be readily generalized to other models of medical linacs. It may be concluded that using this kind of shield can help more safe, inexpensive and efficient employment of high energy linacs in radiotherapy and IMRT.

Keywords: photoneutron, Linac, PMMA shield, equivalent dose

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101 Precise Spatially Selective Photothermolysis Skin Treatment by Multiphoton Absorption

Authors: Yimei Huang, Harvey Lui, Jianhua Zhao, Zhenguo Wu, Haishan Zeng


Conventional laser treatment of skin diseases and cosmetic surgery is based on the principle of one-photon absorption selective photothermolysis which relies strongly on the difference in the light absorption between the therapeutic target and its surrounding tissue. However, when the difference in one-photon absorption is not sufficient, collateral damage would occur due to indiscriminate and nonspecific tissue heating. To overcome this problem, we developed a spatially selective photothermolysis method based on multiphoton absorption in which the heat generation is restricted to the focal point of a tightly focused near-infrared femtosecond laser beam aligned with the target of interest. A multimodal optical microscope with co-registered reflectance confocal imaging (RCM), two-photon fluorescence imaging (TPF), and second harmonic generation imaging (SHG) capabilities was used to perform and monitor the spatially selective photothermolysis. Skin samples excised from the shaved backs of euthanized NODSCID mice were used in this study. Treatments were performed by focusing and scaning the laser beam in the dermis with a 50µm×50µm target area. Treatment power levels of 200 mW to 400 mW and modulated pulse trains of different duration and period were experimented. Different treatment parameters achieved different degrees of spatial confinement of tissue alterations as visualized by 3-D RCM/TPF/SHG imaging. At 200 mW power level, 0.1 s pulse train duration, 4.1 s pulse train period, the tissue damage was found to be restricted precisely to the 50µm×50µm×10µm volume, where the laser focus spot had scanned through. The overlying epidermis/dermis tissue and the underneath dermis tissue were intact although there was light passing through these regions.

Keywords: multiphoton absorption photothermolysis, reflectance confocal microscopy, second harmonic generation microscopy, spatially selective photothermolysis, two-photon fluorescence microscopy

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100 Secure Optical Communication System Using Quantum Cryptography

Authors: Ehab AbdulRazzaq Hussein


Quantum cryptography (QC) is an emerging technology for secure key distribution with single-photon transmissions. In contrast to classical cryptographic schemes, the security of QC schemes is guaranteed by the fundamental laws of nature. Their security stems from the impossibility to distinguish non-orthogonal quantum states with certainty. A potential eavesdropper introduces errors in the transmissions, which can later be discovered by the legitimate participants of the communication. In this paper, the modeling approach is proposed for QC protocol BB84 using polarization coding. The single-photon system is assumed to be used in the designed models. Thus, Eve cannot use beam-splitting strategy to eavesdrop on the quantum channel transmission. The only eavesdropping strategy possible to Eve is the intercept/resend strategy. After quantum transmission of the QC protocol, the quantum bit error rate (QBER) is estimated and compared with a threshold value. If it is above this value the procedure must be stopped and performed later again.

Keywords: security, key distribution, cryptography, quantum protocols, Quantum Cryptography (QC), Quantum Key Distribution (QKD).

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99 The Photon-Drag Effect in Cylindrical Quantum Wire with a Parabolic Potential

Authors: Hoang Van Ngoc, Nguyen Thu Huong, Nguyen Quang Bau


Using the quantum kinetic equation for electrons interacting with acoustic phonon, the density of the constant current associated with the drag of charge carriers in cylindrical quantum wire by a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave, a DC electric field and a laser radiation field is calculated. The density of the constant current is studied as a function of the frequency of electromagnetic wave, as well as the frequency of laser field and the basic elements of quantum wire with a parabolic potential. The analytic expression of the constant current density is numerically evaluated and plotted for a specific quantum wires GaAs/AlGaAs to show the dependence of the constant current density on above parameters. All these results of quantum wire compared with bulk semiconductors and superlattices to show the difference.

Keywords: The photon-drag effect, the constant current density, quantum wire, parabolic potential

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98 Simulation of Gamma Rays Attenuation Coefficient for Some common Shielding Materials Using Monte Carlo Program

Authors: Cherief Houria, Fouka Mourad


In this work, the simulation of the radiation attenuation is carried out in a photon detector consisting of different common shielding material using a Monte Carlo program called PTM. The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of atomic weight and the thickness of shielding materials on the gamma radiation attenuation ability. The linear attenuation coefficients of Aluminum (Al), Iron (Fe), and lead (Pb) elements were evaluated at photons energy of 661:7KeV that are considered to be emitted from a standard radioactive point source Cs 137. The experimental measurements have been performed for three materials to obtain these linear attenuation coefficients, using a Gamma NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. Our results have been compared with the simulation results of the linear attenuation coefficient using the XCOM database and Geant4 codes and reveal that they are well agreed with both simulation data.

Keywords: gamma photon, Monte Carlo program, radiation attenuation, shielding material, the linear attenuation coefficient

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97 Effect of the Tidal Charge Parameter on CMBR Temperature Anisotropies

Authors: Evariste Boj, Jan Schee


We present the temperature anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation due to the inhomogeneity region constructed on a 3-brane in the framework of a Randall-Sundrum one brane immersed into a 5D bulk $AdS_5$ spacetime. We employ the Brane-World Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmological model to describe the cosmic expansion on the brane. The inhomogeneity is modeled by the static, spherically symmetric spacetime that replaces the spherically symmetric part of a dust-filled universe and is connected to the FLRW spacetime through the junction conditions. As the vacuum region expands it induces an additional frequency shift to a CMBR photon passing through this inhomogeneity in comparison to the case of a photon propagating through a pure FLRW spacetime. This frequency shift is associated with the effective temperature change of the CMBR in the corresponding direction. We give an estimate of the CMBR effective temperature changes with the change of the value of the tidal charge parameter.

Keywords: CMBR, Randall-Sundrum model, Rees-Sciama effect, Braneworld

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96 Evaluating the Dosimetric Performance for 3D Treatment Planning System for Wedged and Off-Axis Fields

Authors: Nashaat A. Deiab, Aida Radwan, Mohamed S. Yahiya, Mohamed Elnagdy, Rasha Moustafa


This study is to evaluate the dosimetric performance of our institution's 3D treatment planning system for wedged and off-axis 6MV photon beams, guided by the recommended QA tests documented in the AAPM TG53; NCS report 15 test packages, IAEA TRS 430 and ESTRO booklet no.7. The study was performed for Elekta Precise linear accelerator designed for clinical range of 4, 6 and 15 MV photon beams with asymmetric jaws and fully integrated multileaf collimator that enables high conformance to target with sharp field edges. Ten tests were applied on solid water equivalent phantom along with 2D array dose detection system. The calculated doses using 3D treatment planning system PrecisePLAN were compared with measured doses to make sure that the dose calculations are accurate for simple situations such as square and elongated fields, different SSD, beam modifiers e.g. wedges, blocks, MLC-shaped fields and asymmetric collimator settings. The QA results showed dosimetric accuracy of the TPS within the specified tolerance limits. Except for large elongated wedged field, the central axis and outside central axis have errors of 0.2% and 0.5%, respectively, and off- planned and off-axis elongated fields the region outside the central axis of the beam errors are 0.2% and 1.1%, respectively. The dosimetric investigated results yielded differences within the accepted tolerance level as recommended. Differences between dose values predicted by the TPS and measured values at the same point are the result from limitations of the dose calculation, uncertainties in the measurement procedure, or fluctuations in the output of the accelerator.

Keywords: quality assurance, dose calculation, wedged fields, off-axis fields, 3D treatment planning system, photon beam

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95 Combined Optical Coherence Microscopy and Spectrally Resolved Multiphoton Microscopy

Authors: Bjorn-Ole Meyer, Dominik Marti, Peter E. Andersen


A multimodal imaging system, combining spectrally resolved multiphoton microscopy (MPM) and optical coherence microscopy (OCM) is demonstrated. MPM and OCM are commonly integrated into multimodal imaging platforms to combine functional and morphological information. The MPM signals, such as two-photon fluorescence emission (TPFE) and signals created by second harmonic generation (SHG) are biomarkers which exhibit information on functional biological features such as the ratio of pyridine nucleotide (NAD(P)H) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) in the classification of cancerous tissue. While the spectrally resolved imaging allows for the study of biomarkers, using a spectrometer as a detector limits the imaging speed of the system significantly. To overcome those limitations, an OCM setup was added to the system, which allows for fast acquisition of structural information. Thus, after rapid imaging of larger specimens, navigation within the sample is possible. Subsequently, distinct features can be selected for further investigation using MPM. Additionally, by probing a different contrast, complementary information is obtained, and different biomarkers can be investigated. OCM images of tissue and cell samples are obtained, and distinctive features are evaluated using MPM to illustrate the benefits of the system.

Keywords: optical coherence microscopy, multiphoton microscopy, multimodal imaging, two-photon fluorescence emission

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94 Particle and Photon Trajectories near the Black Hole Immersed in the Nonstatic Cosmological Background

Authors: Elena M. Kopteva, Pavlina Jaluvkova, Zdenek Stuchlik


The question of constructing a consistent model of the cosmological black hole remains to be unsolved and still attracts the interest of cosmologists as far as it is important in a wide set of research problems including the problem of the black hole horizon dynamics, the problem of interplay between cosmological expansion and local gravity, the problem of structure formation in the early universe etc. In this work, the model of the cosmological black hole is built on the basis of the exact solution of the Einstein equations for the spherically symmetric inhomogeneous dust distribution in the approach of the mass function use. Possible trajectories for massive particles and photons near the black hole immersed in the nonstatic dust cosmological background are investigated in frame of the obtained model. The reference system of distant galaxy comoving to cosmological expansion combined with curvature coordinates is used, so that the resulting metric becomes nondiagonal and involves both proper ‘cosmological’ time and curvature spatial coordinates. For this metric the geodesic equations are analyzed for the test particles and photons, and the respective trajectories are built.

Keywords: exact solutions for Einstein equations, Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi solution, cosmological black holes, particle and photon trajectories

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93 Quasi-Photon Monte Carlo on Radiative Heat Transfer: An Importance Sampling and Learning Approach

Authors: Utkarsh A. Mishra, Ankit Bansal


At high temperature, radiative heat transfer is the dominant mode of heat transfer. It is governed by various phenomena such as photon emission, absorption, and scattering. The solution of the governing integrodifferential equation of radiative transfer is a complex process, more when the effect of participating medium and wavelength properties are taken into consideration. Although a generic formulation of such radiative transport problem can be modeled for a wide variety of problems with non-gray, non-diffusive surfaces, there is always a trade-off between simplicity and accuracy of the problem. Recently, solutions of complicated mathematical problems with statistical methods based on randomization of naturally occurring phenomena have gained significant importance. Photon bundles with discrete energy can be replicated with random numbers describing the emission, absorption, and scattering processes. Photon Monte Carlo (PMC) is a simple, yet powerful technique, to solve radiative transfer problems in complicated geometries with arbitrary participating medium. The method, on the one hand, increases the accuracy of estimation, and on the other hand, increases the computational cost. The participating media -generally a gas, such as CO₂, CO, and H₂O- present complex emission and absorption spectra. To model the emission/absorption accurately with random numbers requires a weighted sampling as different sections of the spectrum carries different importance. Importance sampling (IS) was implemented to sample random photon of arbitrary wavelength, and the sampled data provided unbiased training of MC estimators for better results. A better replacement to uniform random numbers is using deterministic, quasi-random sequences. Halton, Sobol, and Faure Low-Discrepancy Sequences are used in this study. They possess better space-filling performance than the uniform random number generator and gives rise to a low variance, stable Quasi-Monte Carlo (QMC) estimators with faster convergence. An optimal supervised learning scheme was further considered to reduce the computation costs of the PMC simulation. A one-dimensional plane-parallel slab problem with participating media was formulated. The history of some randomly sampled photon bundles is recorded to train an Artificial Neural Network (ANN), back-propagation model. The flux was calculated using the standard quasi PMC and was considered to be the training target. Results obtained with the proposed model for the one-dimensional problem are compared with the exact analytical and PMC model with the Line by Line (LBL) spectral model. The approximate variance obtained was around 3.14%. Results were analyzed with respect to time and the total flux in both cases. A significant reduction in variance as well a faster rate of convergence was observed in the case of the QMC method over the standard PMC method. However, the results obtained with the ANN method resulted in greater variance (around 25-28%) as compared to the other cases. There is a great scope of machine learning models to help in further reduction of computation cost once trained successfully. Multiple ways of selecting the input data as well as various architectures will be tried such that the concerned environment can be fully addressed to the ANN model. Better results can be achieved in this unexplored domain.

Keywords: radiative heat transfer, Monte Carlo Method, pseudo-random numbers, low discrepancy sequences, artificial neural networks

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92 Nonlinear Absorption and Scattering in Wide Band Gap Silver Sulfide Nanoparticles Colloid and Their Effects on the Optical Limiting

Authors: Hoda Aleali, Nastran Mansour, Maryam Mirzaie


In this paper, we study the optical nonlinearities of Silver sulfide (Ag2S) nanostructures dispersed in the Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) under exposure to 532 nm, 15 nanosecond (ns) pulsed laser irradiation. Ultraviolet–visible absorption spectrometry (UV-Vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are used to characterize the obtained nanocrystal samples. The band gap energy of colloid is determined by analyzing the UV–Vis absorption spectra of the Ag2S NPs using the band theory of semiconductors. Z-scan technique is used to characterize the optical nonlinear properties of the Ag2S nanoparticles (NPs). Large enhancement of two photon absorption effect is observed with increase in concentration of the Ag2S nanoparticles using open Z-scan measurements in the ns laser regime. The values of the nonlinear absorption coefficients are determined based on the local nonlinear responses including two photon absorption. The observed aperture dependence of the Ag2S NP limiting performance indicates that the nonlinear scattering plays an important role in the limiting action of the sample.The concentration dependence of the optical liming is also investigated. Our results demonstrate that the optical limiting threshold decreases with increasing the silver sulfide NPs in DMSO.

Keywords: nanoscale materials, silver sulfide nanoparticles, nonlinear absorption, nonlinear scattering, optical limiting

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91 Recombination Rate Coefficients for NIII and OIV Ions

Authors: Shahin A. Abdel-Naby, Asad T. Hassan


Electron-ion recombination data are needed for plasma modeling. The recombination processes include radiative recombination (RR), dielectronic recombination (DR), and trielectronic recombination (TR). When a free electron is captured by an ion with simultaneous excitation of its core, a doubly-exited intermediate state may be formed. The doubly excited state relaxes either by electron emission (autoionization) or by radiative decay (photon emission). DR process takes place when the relaxation occurs to a bound state by photon emission. Reliable laboratory astrophysics data (theory and experiment) for DR rate coefficients are needed to determine the charge state distribution in photoionized sources such as X-ray binaries and active galactic nuclei. DR rate coefficients for NIII and OIV ions are calculated using state-of-the-art multi-configuration Breit-Pauli atomic structure AUTOSTRUCTURE collisional package within the generalized collisional-radiative framework. Level-resolved calculations for RR and DR rate coefficients from the ground and metastable initial states are produced in an intermediate coupling scheme associated with Δn = 0 (2→2) and Δn = 1 (2 →3) core-excitations. DR cross sections for these ions are convoluted with the experimental electron-cooler temperatures to produce DR rate coefficients. Good agreements are found between these rate coefficients and the experimental measurements performed at the CRYRING heavy-ion storage ring for both ions.

Keywords: atomic data, atomic process, electron-ion collision, plasmas

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90 Investigation of Chemical Effects on the Lγ2,3 and Lγ4 X-ray Production Cross Sections for Some Compounds of 66dy at Photon Energies Close to L1 Absorption-edge Energy

Authors: Anil Kumar, Rajnish Kaur, Mateusz Czyzycki, Alessandro Migilori, Andreas Germanos Karydas, Sanjiv Puri


The radiative decay of Li(i=1-3) sub-shell vacancies produced through photoionization results in production of the characteristic emission spectrum comprising several X-ray lines, whereas non-radiative vacancy decay results in Auger electron spectrum. Accurate reliable data on the Li(i=1-3) sub-shell X-ray production (XRP) cross sections is of considerable importance for investigation of atomic inner-shell ionization processes as well as for quantitative elemental analysis of different types of samples employing the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis technique. At incident photon energies in vicinity of the absorption edge energies of an element, the many body effects including the electron correlation, core relaxation, inter-channel coupling and post-collision interactions become significant in the photoionization of atomic inner-shells. Further, in case of compounds, the characteristic emission spectrum of the specific element is expected to get influenced by the chemical environment (coordination number, oxidation state, nature of ligand/functional groups attached to central atom, etc.). These chemical effects on L X-ray fluorescence parameters have been investigated by performing the measurements at incident photon energies much higher than the Li(i=1-3) sub-shell absorption edge energies using EDXRF spectrometers. In the present work, the cross sections for production of the Lk(k= γ2,3, γ4) X-rays have been measured for some compounds of 66Dy, namely, Dy2O3, Dy2(CO3)3, Dy2(SO4)3.8H2O, DyI2 and Dy metal by tuning the incident photon energies few eV above the L1 absorption-edge energy in order to investigate the influence of chemical effects on these cross sections in presence of the many body effects which become significant at photon energies close to the absorption-edge energies. The present measurements have been performed under vacuum at the IAEA end-station of the X-ray fluorescence beam line (10.1L) of ELETTRA synchrotron radiation facility (Trieste, Italy) using self-supporting pressed pellet targets (1.3 cm diameter, nominal thicknesses ~ 176 mg/cm2) of 66Dy compounds (procured from Sigma Aldrich) and a metallic foil of 66Dy (nominal thickness ~ 3.9 mg/cm2, procured from Good Fellow, UK). The present measured cross sections have been compared with theoretical values calculated using the Dirac-Hartree-Slater(DHS) model based fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields, Dirac-Fock(DF) model based X-ray emission rates and two sets of L1 sub-shell photoionization cross sections based on the non-relativistic Hartree-Fock-Slater(HFS) model and those deduced from the self-consistent Dirac-Hartree-Fock(DHF) model based total photoionization cross sections. The present measured XRP cross sections for 66Dy as well as for its compounds for the L2,3 and L4 X-rays, are found to be higher by ~14-36% than the two calculated set values. It is worth to be mentioned that L2,3 and L4 X-ray lines are originated by filling up of the L1 sub-shell vacancies by the outer sub-shell (N2,3 and O2,3) electrons which are much more sensitive to the chemical environment around the central atom. The present observed differences between measured and theoretical values are expected due to combined influence of the many-body effects and the chemical effects.

Keywords: chemical effects, L X-ray production cross sections, Many body effects, Synchrotron radiation

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