Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4909

Search results for: traffic flow

4909 Field Saturation Flow Measurement Using Dynamic Passenger Car Unit under Mixed Traffic Condition

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Majhi


Saturation flow is a very important input variable for the design of signalized intersections. Saturation flow measurement is well established for homogeneous traffic. However, saturation flow measurement and modeling is a challenging task in heterogeneous characterized by multiple vehicle types and non-lane based movement. Present study focuses on proposing a field procedure for Saturation flow measurement and the effect of typical mixed traffic behavior at the signal as far as non-lane based traffic movement is concerned. Data collected during peak and off-peak hour from five intersections with varying approach width is used for validating the saturation flow model. The insights from the study can be used for modeling saturation flow and delay at signalized intersection in heterogeneous traffic conditions.

Keywords: optimization, passenger car unit, saturation flow, signalized intersection

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
4908 A Conv-Long Short-term Memory Deep Learning Model for Traffic Flow Prediction

Authors: Ali Reza Sattarzadeh, Ronny J. Kutadinata, Pubudu N. Pathirana, Van Thanh Huynh


Traffic congestion has become a severe worldwide problem, affecting everyday life, fuel consumption, time, and air pollution. The primary causes of these issues are inadequate transportation infrastructure, poor traffic signal management, and rising population. Traffic flow forecasting is one of the essential and effective methods in urban congestion and traffic management, which has attracted the attention of researchers. With the development of technology, undeniable progress has been achieved in existing methods. However, there is a possibility of improvement in the extraction of temporal and spatial features to determine the importance of traffic flow sequences and extraction features. In the proposed model, we implement the convolutional neural network (CNN) and long short-term memory (LSTM) deep learning models for mining nonlinear correlations and their effectiveness in increasing the accuracy of traffic flow prediction in the real dataset. According to the experiments, the results indicate that implementing Conv-LSTM networks increases the productivity and accuracy of deep learning models for traffic flow prediction.

Keywords: deep learning algorithms, intelligent transportation systems, spatiotemporal features, traffic flow prediction

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4907 The Kidney-Spine Traffic System: Future Cities, Ensuring World Class Civic Amenities in Urban India

Authors: Abhishek Srivastava, Jeevesh Nandan, Manish Kumar


The study was taken to analyse the alternative source of traffic system for effective and more convenient traffic flow by reducing points of conflicts as well as angle of conflict and keeping in view to minimize the problem of unnecessarily long waiting time, delays, congestion, traffic jam and geometric delays due to intersection between circular and straight lanes. It is a twin kidney-spine type structure system with special allowance for Highway users for quicker passes. Thus reduction in number and intensity of accidents, significance reduction in traffic jam, conservation of valuable time.

Keywords: traffic system, collision reduction of vehicles, smooth flow of vehicles, traffic jam

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
4906 Intelligent Ambulance with Advance Features of Traffic Management and Telecommunication

Authors: Mamatha M. N.


Traffic problems, congested traffic, and flow management were recognized as major problems mostly in all the areas, which have caused a problem for the ambulance which carries the emergency patient. The proposed paper aims in the development of ambulance which reaches the nearby hospital faster even in heavy traffic scenario. This process is activated by implementing hardware in an ambulance as well as in traffic post thus allowing a smooth flow to the ambulance to reach the hospital in time. 1) The design of the vehicle to have a communication between ambulance and traffic post. 2)Electronic Health Record with Data-acquisition system 3)Telemetry of acquired biological parameters to the nearest hospital. Thus interfacing all these three different modules and integrating them on the ambulance could reach the hospital earlier than the present ambulance. The system is accurate and efficient of 99.8%.

Keywords: bio-telemetry, data acquisition, patient database, automatic traffic control

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
4905 On Flow Consolidation Modelling in Urban Congested Areas

Authors: Serban Stere, Stefan Burciu


The challenging and continuously growing competition in the urban freight transport market emphasizes the need for optimal planning of transportation processes in terms of identifying the solution of consolidating traffic flows in congested urban areas. The aim of the present paper is to present the mathematical framework and propose a methodology of combining urban traffic flows between the distribution centers located at the boundary of a congested urban area. The three scenarios regarding traffic flow between consolidation centers that are taken into consideration in the paper are based on the same characteristics of traffic flows. The scenarios differ in terms of the accessibility of the four consolidation centers given by the infrastructure, the connections between them, and the possibility of consolidating traffic flows for one or multiple destinations. Also, synthetical indicators will allow us to compare the scenarios considered and chose the indicated for our distribution system.

Keywords: distribution system, single and multiple destinations, urban consolidation centers, traffic flow consolidation schemes

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
4904 The Design of a Vehicle Traffic Flow Prediction Model for a Gauteng Freeway Based on an Ensemble of Multi-Layer Perceptron

Authors: Tebogo Emma Makaba, Barnabas Ndlovu Gatsheni


The cities of Johannesburg and Pretoria both located in the Gauteng province are separated by a distance of 58 km. The traffic queues on the Ben Schoeman freeway which connects these two cities can stretch for almost 1.5 km. Vehicle traffic congestion impacts negatively on the business and the commuter’s quality of life. The goal of this paper is to identify variables that influence the flow of traffic and to design a vehicle traffic prediction model, which will predict the traffic flow pattern in advance. The model will unable motorist to be able to make appropriate travel decisions ahead of time. The data used was collected by Mikro’s Traffic Monitoring (MTM). Multi-Layer perceptron (MLP) was used individually to construct the model and the MLP was also combined with Bagging ensemble method to training the data. The cross—validation method was used for evaluating the models. The results obtained from the techniques were compared using predictive and prediction costs. The cost was computed using combination of the loss matrix and the confusion matrix. The predicted models designed shows that the status of the traffic flow on the freeway can be predicted using the following parameters travel time, average speed, traffic volume and day of month. The implications of this work is that commuters will be able to spend less time travelling on the route and spend time with their families. The logistics industry will save more than twice what they are currently spending.

Keywords: bagging ensemble methods, confusion matrix, multi-layer perceptron, vehicle traffic flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
4903 Empirical Investigations on Speed Differentiations of Traffic Flow: A Case Study on a Basic Freeway Segment of O-2 in Istanbul

Authors: Hamed Rashid Sarand, Kemal Selçuk Öğüt


Speed is one of the fundamental variables of road traffic flow that stands as an important evaluation criterion for traffic analyses in several aspects. In particular, varieties of speed variable, such as average speed, free flow speed, optimum speed (capacity speed), acceleration/deceleration speed and so on, have been explicitly considered in the analysis of not only road safety but also road capacity. In the purpose of realizing 'road speed – maximum speed difference across lanes' and 'road flow rate – maximum speed difference across lanes' relations on freeway traffic, this study presents a case study conducted on a basic freeway segment of O-2 in Istanbul. The traffic data employed in this study have been obtained from 5 remote traffic microwave sensors operated by Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality. The study stretch is located between two successive freeway interchanges: Ümraniye and Kavacık. Daily traffic data of 4 years (2011-2014) summer months, July and August are used. The speed data are analyzed into two main flow areas such as uncongested and congested flows. In this study, the regression analyses were carried out in order to examine the relationship between maximum speed difference across lanes and road speed. These investigations were implemented at uncongested and congested flows, separately. Moreover, the relationship between maximum speed difference across lanes and road flow rate were evaluated by applying regression analyses for both uncongested and congested flows separately. It is concluded that there is the moderate relationship between maximum speed difference across lanes and road speed in 50% cases. Additionally, it is indicated that there is the moderate relationship between maximum speed difference across lanes and road flow rate in 30% cases. The maximum speed difference across lanes decreases as the road flow rate increases.

Keywords: maximum speed difference, regression analysis, remote traffic microwave sensor, speed differentiation, traffic flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
4902 Evaluating Traffic Congestion Using the Bayesian Dirichlet Process Mixture of Generalized Linear Models

Authors: Ren Moses, Emmanuel Kidando, Eren Ozguven, Yassir Abdelrazig


This study applied traffic speed and occupancy to develop clustering models that identify different traffic conditions. Particularly, these models are based on the Dirichlet Process Mixture of Generalized Linear regression (DML) and change-point regression (CR). The model frameworks were implemented using 2015 historical traffic data aggregated at a 15-minute interval from an Interstate 295 freeway in Jacksonville, Florida. Using the deviance information criterion (DIC) to identify the appropriate number of mixture components, three traffic states were identified as free-flow, transitional, and congested condition. Results of the DML revealed that traffic occupancy is statistically significant in influencing the reduction of traffic speed in each of the identified states. Influence on the free-flow and the congested state was estimated to be higher than the transitional flow condition in both evening and morning peak periods. Estimation of the critical speed threshold using CR revealed that 47 mph and 48 mph are speed thresholds for congested and transitional traffic condition during the morning peak hours and evening peak hours, respectively. Free-flow speed thresholds for morning and evening peak hours were estimated at 64 mph and 66 mph, respectively. The proposed approaches will facilitate accurate detection and prediction of traffic congestion for developing effective countermeasures.

Keywords: traffic congestion, multistate speed distribution, traffic occupancy, Dirichlet process mixtures of generalized linear model, Bayesian change-point detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
4901 Passenger Flow Characteristics of Seoul Metropolitan Subway Network

Authors: Kang Won Lee, Jung Won Lee


Characterizing the network flow is of fundamental importance to understand the complex dynamics of networks. And passenger flow characteristics of the subway network are very relevant for an effective transportation management in urban cities. In this study, passenger flow of Seoul metropolitan subway network is investigated and characterized through statistical analysis. Traditional betweenness centrality measure considers only topological structure of the network and ignores the transportation factors. This paper proposes a weighted betweenness centrality measure that incorporates monthly passenger flow volume. We apply the proposed measure on the Seoul metropolitan subway network involving 493 stations and 16 lines. Several interesting insights about the network are derived from the new measures. Using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, we also find out that monthly passenger flow between any two stations follows a power-law distribution and other traffic characteristics such as congestion level and throughflow traffic follow exponential distribution.

Keywords: betweenness centrality, correlation coefficient, power-law distribution, Korea traffic DB

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
4900 A New Car-Following Model with Consideration of the Brake Light

Authors: Zhiyuan Tang, Ju Zhang, Wenyuan Wu


In this research, a car-following model with consideration of the status of the brake light is proposed. The numerical results show that the stability of the traffic flow is improved. The ability of the brake light to reduce car accident is also showed.

Keywords: brake light, car-following model, traffic flow, regional planning, transportation

Procedia PDF Downloads 427
4899 Variability in Saturation Flow and Traffic Performance at Urban Signalized Intersection

Authors: P. N. Salini, B. Anish Kini, R. Ashalatha


At signalized intersections with heterogeneous traffic, the percentage share of different vehicle categories have a bearing on the inter-vehicle space utilization, which eventually impacts the saturation flow. This paper analyzed the impact of the percentage share of various vehicle categories in the traffic stream on the saturation flow at signalized intersections by video graphing major intersections with varying geometry in Kerala, India. It was found that as the percentage share of two-wheelers increases, the saturation flow at signalized intersections increases and vice-versa for the percentage share of cars. The effect of bus blockage and parking maneuvers on the saturation flow were also studied. As the distance of bus blockage increases from the stop line, the effect on the saturation flow decreases, while with more buses stopping at the same bus stop, the saturation flow reduces further. The study revealed that with higher kerbside parking maneuvers on the upstream, the saturation flow reduces, and with an increase in the distance of the parking maneuver from the stop line, the effect on the saturation flow decreases. The adjustment factors for bus blockage due to bus stops within 75m downstream and parking maneuvers within 75m upstream of the intersection have been established for mixed traffic conditions. These adjustment factors could empower the urban planners, enforcement personnel and decision-makers to estimate the reduction in the capacity of signalized intersections for suggesting improvements in the form of parking restrictions/ bus stop relocation for existing intersections or make design changes for planned intersections.

Keywords: signalized intersection, saturation flow, adjustment factors, capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
4898 Mathematical Study for Traffic Flow and Traffic Density in Kigali Roads

Authors: Kayijuka Idrissa


This work investigates a mathematical study for traffic flow and traffic density in Kigali city roads and the data collected from the national police of Rwanda in 2012. While working on this topic, some mathematical models were used in order to analyze and compare traffic variables. This work has been carried out on Kigali roads specifically at roundabouts from Kigali Business Center (KBC) to Prince House as our study sites. In this project, we used some mathematical tools to analyze the data collected and to understand the relationship between traffic variables. We applied the Poisson distribution method to analyze and to know the number of accidents occurred in this section of the road which is from KBC to Prince House. The results show that the accidents that occurred in 2012 were at very high rates due to the fact that this section has a very narrow single lane on each side which leads to high congestion of vehicles, and consequently, accidents occur very frequently. Using the data of speeds and densities collected from this section of road, we found that the increment of the density results in a decrement of the speed of the vehicle. At the point where the density is equal to the jam density the speed becomes zero. The approach is promising in capturing sudden changes on flow patterns and is open to be utilized in a series of intelligent management strategies and especially in noncurrent congestion effect detection and control.

Keywords: statistical methods, traffic flow, Poisson distribution, car moving technics

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
4897 A POX Controller Module to Prepare a List of Flow Header Information Extracted from SDN Traffic

Authors: Wisam H. Muragaa, Kamaruzzaman Seman, Mohd Fadzli Marhusin


Software Defined Networking (SDN) is a paradigm designed to facilitate the way of controlling the network dynamically and with more agility. Network traffic is a set of flows, each of which contains a set of packets. In SDN, a matching process is performed on every packet coming to the network in the SDN switch. Only the headers of the new packets will be forwarded to the SDN controller. In terminology, the flow header fields are called tuples. Basically, these tuples are 5-tuple: the source and destination IP addresses, source and destination ports, and protocol number. This flow information is used to provide an overview of the network traffic. Our module is meant to extract this 5-tuple with the packets and flows numbers and show them as a list. Therefore, this list can be used as a first step in the way of detecting the DDoS attack. Thus, this module can be considered as the beginning stage of any flow-based DDoS detection method.

Keywords: matching, OpenFlow tables, POX controller, SDN, table-miss

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
4896 Dynamic Network Approach to Air Traffic Management

Authors: Catia S. A. Sima, K. Bousson


Congestion in the Terminal Maneuvering Areas (TMAs) of larger airports impacts all aspects of air traffic flow, not only at national level but may also induce arrival delays at international level. Hence, there is a need to monitor appropriately the air traffic flow in TMAs so that efficient decisions may be taken to manage their occupancy rates. It would be desirable to physically increase the existing airspace to accommodate all existing demands, but this question is entirely utopian and, given this possibility, several studies and analyses have been developed over the past decades to meet the challenges that have arisen due to the dizzying expansion of the aeronautical industry. The main objective of the present paper is to propose concepts to manage and reduce the degree of uncertainty in the air traffic operations, maximizing the interest of all involved, ensuring a balance between demand and supply, and developing and/or adapting resources that enable a rapid and effective adaptation of measures to the current context and the consequent changes perceived in the aeronautical industry. A central task is to emphasize the increase in air traffic flow management capacity to the present day, taking into account not only a wide range of methodologies but also equipment and/or tools already available in the aeronautical industry. The efficient use of these resources is crucial as the human capacity for work is limited and the actors involved in all processes related to air traffic flow management are increasingly overloaded and, as a result, operational safety could be compromised. The methodology used to answer and/or develop the issues listed above is based on the advantages promoted by the application of Markov Chain principles that enable the construction of a simplified model of a dynamic network that describes the air traffic flow behavior anticipating their changes and eventual measures that could better address the impact of increased demand. Through this model, the proposed concepts are shown to have potentials to optimize the air traffic flow management combined with the operation of the existing resources at each moment and the circumstances found in each TMA, using historical data from the air traffic operations and specificities found in the aeronautical industry, namely in the Portuguese context.

Keywords: air traffic flow, terminal maneuvering area, TMA, air traffic management, ATM, Markov chains

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4895 Optical Flow Based System for Cross Traffic Alert

Authors: Giuseppe Spampinato, Salvatore Curti, Ivana Guarneri, Arcangelo Bruna


This document describes an advanced system and methodology for Cross Traffic Alert (CTA), able to detect vehicles that move into the vehicle driving path from the left or right side. The camera is supposed to be not only on a vehicle still, e.g. at a traffic light or at an intersection, but also moving slowly, e.g. in a car park. In all of the aforementioned conditions, a driver’s short loss of concentration or distraction can easily lead to a serious accident. A valid support to avoid these kinds of car crashes is represented by the proposed system. It is an extension of our previous work, related to a clustering system, which only works on fixed cameras. Just a vanish point calculation and simple optical flow filtering, to eliminate motion vectors due to the car relative movement, is performed to let the system achieve high performances with different scenarios, cameras and resolutions. The proposed system just uses as input the optical flow, which is hardware implemented in the proposed platform and since the elaboration of the whole system is really speed and power consumption, it is inserted directly in the camera framework, allowing to execute all the processing in real-time.

Keywords: clustering, cross traffic alert, optical flow, real time, vanishing point

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
4894 Closed Loop Traffic Control System Using PLC

Authors: Chinmay Shah


The project is all about development of a close loop traffic light control system using PLC (Programmable Logic Controller). This project is divided into two parts which are hardware and software. The hardware part for this project is a model of four way junction of a traffic light. Three indicator lamps (Red, Yellow and Green) are installed at each lane for represents as traffic light signal. This traffic control model is a replica of actuated traffic control. Actuated traffic control system is a close loop traffic control system which controls the timing of the indicator lamps depending on the fluidity of traffic for a particular lane. To make it autonomous, in each lane three IR sensors are placed which helps to sense the percentage of traffic present on any particular lane. The IR Sensors and Indicator lamps are connected to LG PLC XGB series. The PLC controls every signal which is coming from the inputs (IR Sensors) to software and display to the outputs (Indicator lamps). Default timing for the indicator lamps is 30 seconds for each lane. But depending on the percentage of traffic present, if the traffic is nearly 30-35%, green lamp will be on for 10 seconds, for 65-70% traffic it will be 20 seconds, for full 100% traffic it will be on for full 30 seconds. The software part that operates with LG PLC is “XG 5000” Programmer. Using this software, the ladder logic diagram is programmed to control the traffic light base on the flow chart. At the end of this project, the traffic light system is actuated successfully by PLC.

Keywords: close loop, IR sensor, PLC, light control system

Procedia PDF Downloads 447
4893 A Survey on Intelligent Traffic Management with Cooperative Driving in Urban Roads

Authors: B. Karabuluter, O. Karaduman


Traffic management and traffic planning are important issues, especially in big cities. Due to the increase of personal vehicles and the physical constraints of urban roads, the problem of transportation especially in crowded cities over time is revealed. This situation reduces the living standards, and it can put human life at risk because the vehicles such as ambulance, fire department are prevented from reaching their targets. Even if the city planners take these problems into account, emergency planning and traffic management are needed to avoid cases such as traffic congestion, intersections, traffic jams caused by traffic accidents or roadworks. In this study, in smart traffic management issues, proposed solutions using intelligent vehicles acting in cooperation with urban roads are examined. Traffic management is becoming more difficult due to factors such as fatigue, carelessness, sleeplessness, social behavior patterns, and lack of education. However, autonomous vehicles, which remove the problems caused by human weaknesses by providing driving control, are increasing the success of practicing the algorithms developed in city traffic management. Such intelligent vehicles have become an important solution in urban life by using 'swarm intelligence' algorithms and cooperative driving methods to provide traffic flow, prevent traffic accidents, and increase living standards. In this study, studies conducted in this area have been dealt with in terms of traffic jam, intersections, regulation of traffic flow, signaling, prevention of traffic accidents, cooperation and communication techniques of vehicles, fleet management, transportation of emergency vehicles. From these concepts, some taxonomies were made out of the way. This work helps to develop new solutions and algorithms for cities where intelligent vehicles that can perform cooperative driving can take place, and at the same time emphasize the trend in this area.

Keywords: intelligent traffic management, cooperative driving, smart driving, urban road, swarm intelligence, connected vehicles

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
4892 Quantifying Freeway Capacity Reductions by Rainfall Intensities Based on Stochastic Nature of Flow Breakdown

Authors: Hoyoung Lee, Dong-Kyu Kim, Seung-Young Kho, R. Eddie Wilson


This study quantifies a decrement in freeway capacity during rainfall. Traffic and rainfall data were gathered from Highway Agencies and Wunderground weather service. Three inter-urban freeway sections and its nearest weather stations were selected as experimental sites. Capacity analysis found reductions of maximum and mean pre-breakdown flow rates due to rainfall. The Kruskal-Wallis test also provided some evidence to suggest that the variance in the pre-breakdown flow rate is statistically insignificant. Potential application of this study lies in the operation of real time traffic management schemes such as Variable Speed Limits (VSL), Hard Shoulder Running (HSR), and Ramp Metering System (RMS), where speed or flow limits could be set based on a number of factors, including rainfall events and their intensities.

Keywords: capacity randomness, flow breakdown, freeway capacity, rainfall

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
4891 Traffic Noise Study at Intersection in Bangalore: A Case Study

Authors: Shiva Kumar G.


The present study is to know the level of noises emanated from vehicles in intersections located in urban areas using Sound Level Meter and the possibility of reducing noise levels through traffic flow optimization. The main objective is to study traffic noise level of the Intersections located at on-going metro construction activities and which are away from metro construction activities. To compare traffic noise level between stop phase, go phase and drive phase at the Intersections. To study the effect of traffic noise level of directional movement of traffic and variation in noise level during day and night times. The range of Noise level observed at intersections is between 60 to 105 decibel. The noise level of stop and drive phases were minimum and almost same where go phase had maximum noise level. By comparing noise level of directional movement of traffic, it has been noticed that Vijayanagar intersection has no significant difference in their noise level and all other intersection has a significant difference in their noise level. By comparing noise level of stop, go and drive phase it has been noticed that there was a significant difference in noise level during peak hours compared to off-peak hour. By comparing noise level between Metro and Non-Metro construction activity intersections it has been noticed that there was a significant difference in noise level. By comparing noise level during day and night times, significant differences in noise level were observed at all intersections.

Keywords: noise, metro and non-metro intersections, traffic flow optimization, stop-go and drive phase

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4890 Evaluating Emission Reduction Due to a Proposed Light Rail Service: A Micro-Level Analysis

Authors: Saeid Eshghi, Neeraj Saxena, Abdulmajeed Alsultan


Carbon dioxide (CO2) alongside other gas emissions in the atmosphere cause a greenhouse effect, resulting in an increase of the average temperature of the planet. Transportation vehicles are among the main contributors of CO2 emission. Stationary vehicles with initiated motors produce more emissions than mobile ones. Intersections with traffic lights that force the vehicles to become stationary for a period of time produce more CO2 pollution than other parts of the road. This paper focuses on analyzing the CO2 produced by the traffic flow at Anzac Parade Road - Barker Street intersection in Sydney, Australia, before and after the implementation of Light rail transport (LRT). The data are gathered during the construction phase of the LRT by collecting the number of vehicles on each path of the intersection for 15 minutes during the evening rush hour of 1 week (6-7 pm, July 04-31, 2018) and then multiplied by 4 to calculate the flow of vehicles in 1 hour. For analyzing the data, the microscopic simulation software “VISSIM” has been used. Through the analysis, the traffic flow was processed in three stages: before and after implementation of light rail train, and one during the construction phase. Finally, the traffic results were input into another software called “EnViVer”, to calculate the amount of CO2 during 1 h. The results showed that after the implementation of the light rail, CO2 will drop by a minimum of 13%. This finding provides an evidence that light rail is a sustainable mode of transport.

Keywords: carbon dioxide, emission modeling, light rail, microscopic model, traffic flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
4889 Research on Evaluation Method of Urban Road Section Traffic Safety Status Based on Video Information

Authors: Qiang Zhang, Xiaojian Hu


Aiming at the problem of the existing real-time evaluation methods for traffic safety status, a video information-based urban road section traffic safety status evaluation method was established, and the rapid detection method of traffic flow parameters based on video information is analyzed. The concept of the speed dispersion of the road section that affects the traffic safety state of the urban road section is proposed, and the method of evaluating the traffic safety state of the urban road section based on the speed dispersion of the road section is established. Experiments show that the proposed method can reasonably evaluate the safety status of urban roads in real-time, and the evaluation results can provide a corresponding basis for the traffic management department to formulate an effective urban road section traffic safety improvement plan.

Keywords: intelligent transportation system, road traffic safety, video information, vehicle speed dispersion

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
4888 Classification of Traffic Complex Acoustic Space

Authors: Bin Wang, Jian Kang


After years of development, the study of soundscape has been refined to the types of urban space and building. Traffic complex takes traffic function as the core, with obvious design features of architectural space combination and traffic streamline. The acoustic environment is strongly characterized by function, space, material, user and other factors. Traffic complex integrates various functions of business, accommodation, entertainment and so on. It has various forms, complex and varied experiences, and its acoustic environment is turned rich and interesting with distribution and coordination of various functions, division and unification of the mass, separation and organization of different space and the cross and the integration of multiple traffic flow. In this study, it made field recordings of each space of various traffic complex, and extracted and analyzed different acoustic elements, including changes in sound pressure, frequency distribution, steady sound source, sound source information and other aspects, to make cluster analysis of each independent traffic complex buildings. It divided complicated traffic complex building space into several typical sound space from acoustic environment perspective, mainly including stable sound space, high-pressure sound space, rhythm sound space and upheaval sound space. This classification can further deepen the study of subjective evaluation and control of the acoustic environment of traffic complex.

Keywords: soundscape, traffic complex, cluster analysis, classification

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
4887 Multi-Objective Optimization of Intersections

Authors: Xiang Li, Jian-Qiao Sun


As the crucial component of city traffic network, intersections have significant impacts on urban traffic performance. Despite of the rapid development in transportation systems, increasing traffic volumes result in severe congestions especially at intersections in urban areas. Effective regulation of vehicle flows at intersections has always been an important issue in the traffic control system. This study presents a multi-objective optimization method at intersections with cellular automata to achieve better traffic performance. Vehicle conflicts and pedestrian interference are considered. Three categories of the traffic performance are studied including transportation efficiency, energy consumption and road safety. The left-turn signal type, signal timing and lane assignment are optimized for different traffic flows. The multi-objective optimization problem is solved with the cell mapping method. The optimization results show the conflicting nature of different traffic performance. The influence of different traffic variables on the intersection performance is investigated. It is observed that the proposed optimization method is effective in regulating the traffic at the intersection to meet multiple objectives. Transportation efficiency can be usually improved by the permissive left-turn signal, which sacrifices safety. Right-turn traffic suffers significantly when the right-turn lanes are shared with the through vehicles. The effect of vehicle flow on the intersection performance is significant. The display pattern of the optimization results can be changed remarkably by the traffic volume variation. Pedestrians have strong interference with the traffic system.

Keywords: cellular automata, intersection, multi-objective optimization, traffic system

Procedia PDF Downloads 369
4886 Estimating the Traffic Impacts of Green Light Optimal Speed Advisory Systems Using Microsimulation

Authors: C. B. Masera, M. Imprialou, L. Budd, C. Morton


Even though signalised intersections are necessary for urban road traffic management, they can act as bottlenecks and disrupt traffic operations. Interrupted traffic flow causes congestion, delays, stop-and-go conditions (i.e. excessive acceleration/deceleration) and longer journey times. Vehicle and infrastructure connectivity offers the potential to provide improved new services with additional functions of assisting drivers. This paper focuses on one of the applications of vehicle-to-infrastructure communication namely Green Light Optimal Speed Advisory (GLOSA). To assess the effectiveness of GLOSA in the urban road network, an integrated microscopic traffic simulation framework is built into VISSIM software. Vehicle movements and vehicle-infrastructure communications are simulated through the interface of External Driver Model. A control algorithm is developed for recommending an optimal speed that is continuously updated in every time step for all vehicles approaching a signal-controlled point. This algorithm allows vehicles to pass a traffic signal without stopping or to minimise stopping times at a red phase. This study is performed with all connected vehicles at 100% penetration rate. Conventional vehicles are also simulated in the same network as a reference. A straight road segment composed of two opposite directions with two traffic lights per lane is studied. The simulation is implemented under 150 vehicles per hour and 200 per hour traffic volume conditions to identify how different traffic densities influence the benefits of GLOSA. The results indicate that traffic flow is improved by the application of GLOSA. According to this study, vehicles passed through the traffic lights more smoothly, and waiting times were reduced by up to 28 seconds. Average delays decreased for the entire network by 86.46% and 83.84% under traffic densities of 150 vehicles per hour per lane and 200 vehicles per hour per lane, respectively.

Keywords: connected vehicles, GLOSA, intelligent transport systems, vehicle-to-infrastructure communication

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4885 Stochastic Modeling for Parameters of Modified Car-Following Model in Area-Based Traffic Flow

Authors: N. C. Sarkar, A. Bhaskar, Z. Zheng


The driving behavior in area-based (i.e., non-lane based) traffic is induced by the presence of other individuals in the choice space from the driver’s visual perception area. The driving behavior of a subject vehicle is constrained by the potential leaders and leaders are frequently changed over time. This paper is to determine a stochastic model for a parameter of modified intelligent driver model (MIDM) in area-based traffic (as in developing countries). The parametric and non-parametric distributions are presented to fit the parameters of MIDM. The goodness of fit for each parameter is measured in two different ways such as graphically and statistically. The quantile-quantile (Q-Q) plot is used for a graphical representation of a theoretical distribution to model a parameter and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test is used for a statistical measure of fitness for a parameter with a theoretical distribution. The distributions are performed on a set of estimated parameters of MIDM. The parameters are estimated on the real vehicle trajectory data from India. The fitness of each parameter with a stochastic model is well represented. The results support the applicability of the proposed modeling for parameters of MIDM in area-based traffic flow simulation.

Keywords: area-based traffic, car-following model, micro-simulation, stochastic modeling

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4884 A Hybrid Traffic Model for Smoothing Traffic Near Merges

Authors: Shiri Elisheva Decktor, Sharon Hornstein


Highway merges and unmarked junctions are key components in any urban road network, which can act as bottlenecks and create traffic disruption. Inefficient highway merges may trigger traffic instabilities such as stop-and-go waves, pose safety conditions and lead to longer journey times. These phenomena occur spontaneously if the average vehicle density exceeds a certain critical value. This study focuses on modeling the traffic using a microscopic traffic flow model. A hybrid traffic model, which combines human-driven and controlled vehicles is assumed. The controlled vehicles obey different driving policies when approaching the merge, or in the vicinity of other vehicles. We developed a co-simulation model in SUMO (Simulation of Urban Mobility), in which the human-driven cars are modeled using the IDM model, and the controlled cars are modeled using a dedicated controller. The scenario chosen for this study is a closed track with one merge and one exit, which could be later implemented using a scaled infrastructure on our lab setup. This will enable us to benchmark the results of this study obtained in simulation, to comparable results in similar conditions in the lab. The metrics chosen for the comparison of the performance of our algorithm on the overall traffic conditions include the average speed, wait time near the merge, and throughput after the merge, measured under different travel demand conditions (low, medium, and heavy traffic).

Keywords: highway merges, traffic modeling, SUMO, driving policy

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4883 Perception of Risk toward Traffic Violence among Road Users in Makassar, Indonesia

Authors: Sulasmi Sudirman, Rachmadanty Mujah Hartika


Traffic violence is currently a big issue in Indonesia. However, the road users perceived risk that is caused by traffic violence is low. The lack of safety driving awareness is one of the factors that road users committed to traffic violence. There are several lists of common traffic violence in Indonesia such as lack of physical fitness, not wearing helmet, unfasten seatbelt, breaking through the traffic light, not holding a driving license, and some more violence. This research sought to explore the perception of road users toward traffic violence. The participants were road users in Makassar, Indonesia who were using cars and motorbikes. The method of the research was a qualitative approach by using a personal interview to collect data. The research showed that there three main ideas of perceiving traffic violence which are motives, environment that supported traffic violence, and reinforcement. The road users committed traffic violence had particular motive, for example, rushing. The road users committed to traffic violence when other road users and significant other did the same. The road users committed traffic violence when the police were not there to give a ticket. It can be concluded that the perception of road users toward traffic violence determined by internal aspect, the social aspect, and regulation.

Keywords: perception, road users, traffic, violence

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4882 Implementation of Traffic Engineering Using MPLS Technology

Authors: Vishal H. Shukla, Sanjay B. Deshmukh


Traffic engineering, at its center, is the ability of moving traffic approximately so that traffic from a congested link is moved onto the unused capacity on another link. Traffic Engineering ensures the best possible use of the resources. Now to support traffic engineering in the today’s network, Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is being used which is very helpful for reliable packets delivery in an ongoing internet services. Here a topology is been implemented on GNS3 to focus on the analysis of the communication take place from one site to other through the ISP. The comparison is made between the IP network & MPLS network based on Bandwidth & Jitter which are one of the performance parameters using JPERF simulator.

Keywords: GNS3, JPERF, MPLS, traffic engineering, VMware

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4881 Detecting Port Maritime Communities in Spain with Complex Network Analysis

Authors: Nicanor Garcia Alvarez, Belarmino Adenso-Diaz, Laura Calzada Infante


In recent years, researchers have shown an interest in modelling maritime traffic as a complex network. In this paper, we propose a bipartite weighted network to model maritime traffic and detect port maritime communities. The bipartite weighted network considers two different types of nodes. The first one represents Spanish ports, while the second one represents the countries with which there is major import/export activity. The flow among both types of nodes is modeled by weighting the volume of product transported. To illustrate the model, the data is segmented by each type of traffic. This will allow fine tuning and the creation of communities for each type of traffic and therefore finding similar ports for a specific type of traffic, which will provide decision-makers with tools to search for alliances or identify their competitors. The traffic with the greatest impact on the Spanish gross domestic product is selected, and the evolution of the communities formed by the most important ports and their differences between 2019 and 2009 will be analyzed. Finally, the set of communities formed by the ports of the Spanish port system will be inspected to determine global similarities between them, analyzing the sum of the membership of the different ports in communities formed for each type of traffic in particular.

Keywords: bipartite networks, competition, infomap, maritime traffic, port communities

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4880 Feasibility Study of Distributed Lightless Intersection Control with Level 1 Autonomous Vehicles

Authors: Bo Yang, Christopher Monterola


Urban intersection control without the use of the traffic light has the potential to vastly improve the efficiency of the urban traffic flow. For most proposals in the literature, such lightless intersection control depends on the mass market commercialization of highly intelligent autonomous vehicles (AV), which limits the prospects of near future implementation. We present an efficient lightless intersection traffic control scheme that only requires Level 1 AV as defined by NHTSA. The technological barriers of such lightless intersection control are thus very low. Our algorithm can also accommodate a mixture of AVs and conventional vehicles. We also carry out large scale numerical analysis to illustrate the feasibility, safety and robustness, comfort level, and control efficiency of our intersection control scheme.

Keywords: intersection control, autonomous vehicles, traffic modelling, intelligent transport system

Procedia PDF Downloads 331