Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Search results for: H. Tolga Bolukbasi

20 Conditions That Brought Bounce-Back in Southern Europe: An Inter-Temporal and Cross-National Analysis on Female Labour Force Participation with Fuzzy Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis

Authors: A. Onur Kutlu, H. Tolga Bolukbasi

Abstract:

Since the 1990s, governments, international organizations and scholars have drawn increasing attention to the significance of women in the labour force. While advanced industrial countries in North Western Europe and North America have managed to increase female labour force participation (FLFP) in the early post world war two period, emerging economies of the 1970s have only been able to increase FLFP only a decade later. Among these areas, Southern Europe features a wave of remarkable bounce backs in FLFP. However, despite striking similarities between the features in Southern Europe and those in Turkey, Turkey has not been able to pull women into the labour force. Despite a host of institutional similarities, Turkey has failed to reach to the level of her Southern European neighbours. This paper addresses the puzzle why Turkey lag behind in FLFP in comparison to her Southern European neighbours. There are signs showing that FLFP is currently reaching a critical threshold at a time when structural factors may allow a trend. It is not known, however, the constellation of conditions which may bring rising FLFP in Turkey. In order to gain analytical leverage from similar transitions in countries that share similar labour market and welfare state regime characteristics, this paper identifies the conditions in Southern Europe that brought rising FLFP to be able to explore the prospects for Turkey. Second, this paper takes these variables in the fuzzy set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA) as conditions which can potentially explain the outcome of rising FLFP in Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece and Turkey. The purpose here is to identify any causal pathway there may exist that lead to rising FLFP in Southern Europe. In order to do so, this study analyses two time periods in all cases, which represent different periods for different countries. The first period is identified on the basis of low FLFP and the second period on the basis of the transition to significantly higher FLFP. Third, the conditions are treated following the standard procedures in fsQCA, which provide equifinal: two distinct paths to higher levels of FLFP in Southern Europe, each of which may potentially increase FLFP in Turkey. Based on this analysis, this paper proposes that there exist two distinct paths leading to higher levels of FLFP in Southern Europe. Among these paths, salience of left parties emerges as a sufficient condition. In cases where this condition was not present, a second path combining enlarging service sector employment, increased tertiary education among women and increased childcare enrolment rates led to increasing FLFP.

Keywords: female labour force participation, fsQCA, Southern Europe, Turkey

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19 The Effect of Type of Nanoparticles on the Quenching Process

Authors: Dogan Ciloglu, Abdurrahim Bolukbasi, Harun Cifci

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In this study, the experiments were carried out to determine the best coolant for the quenching process among water-based silica, alumina, titania and copper oxide nanofluids (0.1 vol%). A sphere made up off brass material was used in the experiments. After the spherical test specimen was heated at high temperatures, it was suddenly plunged into the nanofluid suspensions. All experiments were performed at saturated conditions and under atmospheric pressure. Using the temperature-time data of the specimen, the cooling curves were obtained. The experimental results showed that the cooling performance of test specimen depended on the type of nanofluids. The silica nanoparticles enhanced the performance of boiling heat transfer and it is the best coolant for the quenching among other nanoparticles.

Keywords: quenching, nanofluid, pool boiling, heat transfer

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18 The Application of FSI Techniques in Modeling of Realist Pulmonary Systems

Authors: Abdurrahim Bolukbasi, Hassan Athari, Dogan Ciloglu

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The modeling lung respiratory system which has complex anatomy and biophysics presents several challenges including tissue-driven flow patterns and wall motion. Also, the lung pulmonary system because of that they stretch and recoil with each breath, has not static walls and structures. The direct relationship between air flow and tissue motion in the lung structures naturally prefers an FSI simulation technique. Therefore, in order to toward the realistic simulation of pulmonary breathing mechanics the development of a coupled FSI computational model is an important step. A simple but physiologically-relevant three dimensional deep long geometry is designed and fluid-structure interaction (FSI) coupling technique is utilized for simulating the deformation of the lung parenchyma tissue which produces airflow fields. The real understanding of respiratory tissue system as a complex phenomenon have been investigated with respect to respiratory patterns, fluid dynamics and tissue visco-elasticity and tidal breathing period.

Keywords: lung deformation and mechanics; Tissue mechanics; Viscoelasticity; Fluid-structure interactions; ANSYS

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17 The Search of Anomalous Higgs Boson Couplings at the Large Hadron Electron Collider and Future Circular Electron Hadron Collider

Authors: Ilkay Turk Cakir, Murat Altinli, Zekeriya Uysal, Abdulkadir Senol, Olcay Bolukbasi Yalcinkaya, Ali Yilmaz

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The Higgs boson was discovered by the ATLAS and CMS experimental groups in 2012 at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Production and decay properties of the Higgs boson, Standard Model (SM) couplings, and limits on effective scale of the Higgs boson’s couplings with other bosons are investigated at particle colliders. Deviations from SM estimates are parametrized by effective Lagrangian terms to investigate Higgs couplings. This is a model-independent method for describing the new physics. In this study, sensitivity to neutral gauge boson anomalous couplings with the Higgs boson is investigated using the parameters of the Large Hadron electron Collider (LHeC) and the Future Circular electron-hadron Collider (FCC-eh) with a model-independent approach. By using [email protected] multi-purpose event generator with the parameters of LHeC and FCC-eh, the bounds on the anomalous Hγγ, HγZ and HZZ couplings in e− p → e− q H process are obtained. Detector simulations are also taken into account in the calculations.

Keywords: anomalos couplings, FCC-eh, Higgs, Z boson

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16 Impact of Unbalanced Urban Structure on the Traffic Congestion in Biskra, Algeria

Authors: Khaled Selatnia

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Nowadays, the traffic congestion becomes increasingly a chronic problem. Sometimes, the cause is attributed to the recurrent road works that create barriers to the efficient movement. But congestion, which usually occurs in cities, can take diverse forms and magnitudes. The case study of Biskra city in Algeria and the diagnosis of its road network show that throughout all the micro regional system, the road network seems at first quite dense. However, this density although it is important, does not cover all areas. A major flow is concentrated in the axis Sidi Okba – Biskra – Tolga. The largest movement of people in the Wilaya (prefecture) revolves around these three centers and their areas of influence. Centers farthest from the trio are very poorly served. This fact leads us to ask questions about the extent of congestion in Biskra city and its relationship to the imbalance of the urban framework. The objective of this paper is to highlight the impact of the urban fact on the traffic congestion.

Keywords: congestion, urban framework, regional, urban and regional studies

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15 The Utilization of FSI Technique and Two-Way Particle Coupling System on Particle Dynamics in the Human Alveoli

Authors: Hassan Athari, Abdurrahim Bolukbasi, Dogan Ciloglu

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This study represented the respiratory alveoli system, and determined the trajectory of inhaled particles more accurately using the modified three-dimensional model with deformable walls of alveoli. The study also considered the tissue tension in the model to demonstrate the effect of lung. Tissue tensions are transferred by the lung parenchyma and produce the pressure gradient. This load expands the alveoli and establishes a sub-ambient (vacuum) pressure within the lungs. Thus, at the alveolar level, the flow field and movement of alveoli wall lead to an integrated effect. In this research, we assume that the three-dimensional alveolus has a visco-elastic tissue (walls). For accurate investigation of pulmonary tissue mechanical properties on particle transport and alveolar flow field, the actual relevance between tissue movement and airflow is solved by two-way FSI (Fluid Structure Interaction) simulation technique in the alveolus. Therefore, the essence of real simulation of pulmonary breathing mechanics can be achieved by developing a coupled FSI computational model. We, therefore conduct a series of FSI simulations over a range of tissue models and breathing rates. As a result, the fluid flows and streamlines have changed during present flexible model against the rigid models and also the two-way coupling particle trajectories have changed against the one-way particle coupling.

Keywords: FSI, two-way particle coupling, alveoli, CDF

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14 Estimating the Properties of Polymer Concrete Using the Response Surface Method

Authors: Oguz Ugurkan Akkaya, Alpaslan Sipahi, Ozgur Firat Pamukcu, Murat Yasar, Tolga Guler, Arif Ulu, Ferit Cakir

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With the increase in human population, expansion, and renovation of cities, infrastructure systems today need to be manufactured to be more durable and long-lasting. The most cost-effective and durable manufacturing of components is a general problem of all engineering disciplines. Therefore, it is important to determine the most optimal components. This study mainly focuses on the most optimal component design of the polymer concrete. For this purpose, the lower and upper limits of the three main components of the polymer concrete are determined. The effects of these three principal components on the compressive strength, tensile strength, and unit price of polymer concrete are estimated using the response surface method. Box-Behnken Design is used in designing the experiments. Compressive strength, tensile strength, and unit prices are successfully estimated with variance ratios (R²) of 0.82, 0.92, and 0.90, respectively, and the optimum mixture quantity is determined.

Keywords: Box-Behnken Design, compressive strength, mechanical tests, polymer concrete, tensile strength

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13 Instant Fire Risk Assessment Using Artifical Neural Networks

Authors: Tolga Barisik, Ali Fuat Guneri, K. Dastan

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Major industrial facilities have a high potential for fire risk. In particular, the indices used for the detection of hidden fire are used very effectively in order to prevent the fire from becoming dangerous in the initial stage. These indices provide the opportunity to prevent or intervene early by determining the stage of the fire, the potential for hazard, and the type of the combustion agent with the percentage values of the ambient air components. In this system, artificial neural network will be modeled with the input data determined using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, which is a multi-layer sensor (CAA) (teacher-learning) type, before modeling the modeling methods in the literature. The actual values produced by the indices will be compared with the outputs produced by the network. Using the neural network and the curves to be created from the resulting values, the feasibility of performance determination will be investigated.

Keywords: artifical neural networks, fire, Graham Index, levenberg-marquardt algoritm, oxygen decrease percentage index, risk assessment, Trickett Index

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12 An Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Control Algorithm on the Energy Consumption and Temperature Distribution of a Household Refrigerator

Authors: G. Peker, Tolga N. Aynur, E. Tinar

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In order to determine the energy consumption level and cooling characteristics of a domestic refrigerator controlled with various cooling system algorithms, a side by side type (SBS) refrigerator was tested in temperature and humidity controlled chamber conditions. Two different control algorithms; so-called drop-in and frequency controlled variable capacity compressor algorithms, were tested on the same refrigerator. Refrigerator cooling characteristics were investigated for both cases and results were compared with each other. The most important comparison parameters between the two algorithms were taken as; temperature distribution, energy consumption, evaporation and condensation temperatures, and refrigerator run times. Standard energy consumption tests were carried out on the same appliance and resulted in almost the same energy consumption levels, with a difference of %1,5. By using these two different control algorithms, the power consumptions character/profile of the refrigerator was found to be similar. By following the associated energy measurement standard, the temperature values of the test packages were measured to be slightly higher for the frequency controlled algorithm compared to the drop-in algorithm. This paper contains the details of this experimental study conducted with different cooling control algorithms and compares the findings based on the same standard conditions.

Keywords: control algorithm, cooling, energy consumption, refrigerator

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11 Spatio-Temporal Data Mining with Association Rules for Lake Van

Authors: Tolga Aydin, M. Fatih Alaeddinoğlu

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People, throughout the history, have made estimates and inferences about the future by using their past experiences. Developing information technologies and the improvements in the database management systems make it possible to extract useful information from knowledge in hand for the strategic decisions. Therefore, different methods have been developed. Data mining by association rules learning is one of such methods. Apriori algorithm, one of the well-known association rules learning algorithms, is not commonly used in spatio-temporal data sets. However, it is possible to embed time and space features into the data sets and make Apriori algorithm a suitable data mining technique for learning spatio-temporal association rules. Lake Van, the largest lake of Turkey, is a closed basin. This feature causes the volume of the lake to increase or decrease as a result of change in water amount it holds. In this study, evaporation, humidity, lake altitude, amount of rainfall and temperature parameters recorded in Lake Van region throughout the years are used by the Apriori algorithm and a spatio-temporal data mining application is developed to identify overflows and newly-formed soil regions (underflows) occurring in the coastal parts of Lake Van. Identifying possible reasons of overflows and underflows may be used to alert the experts to take precautions and make the necessary investments.

Keywords: apriori algorithm, association rules, data mining, spatio-temporal data

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10 South Korean Tourists' Expectation, Satisfaction and Loyalty Relationship

Authors: Tolga Gok, Kursad Sayin

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The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between expectation, satisfaction and loyalty of South Korean tourists visiting Turkey. In the research, a questionnaire was used as a data collecting tool. The questionnaires are filled by South Korean tourists coming to Turkey through package tours and individual. The survey was conducted in 2014 in Nevsehir (Cappadocia Region) and Istanbul. Tourist guides and agency staff have helped the implementation of surveys. The survey questions are composed of 4 parts, which are “demographic characteristics of tourists”, “travel behavior characteristics”, “perception of expectations on destination attributes” and “perception of destination loyalty”. 5-point Likert type scale including 28 destination attributes was used to measure the expectations of South Korean tourists coming to Turkey. Questions were directed to the tourists to measure the destination loyalty. The questions relating to destination loyalty are “Talking about Turkey to others”, “Recommendation Turkey to others” and “Tourists’ intentions to revisit Turkey”. The basic hypothesis of the research is that there is a statistically significant relationship among expectations, satisfactions and destination loyalty of South Korean tourists coming to Turkey. The results indicated that the expectation had a significant effect on overall satisfaction. In addition, it was seen that between overall satisfaction of tourists and destination loyalty had a significant relationship. Based on findings, some suggestions for tour operators and travel agencies were made.

Keywords: tourist expectation, tourist satisfaction, destination loyalty, destination attributes

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9 The Role of Online Social Networks in Social Movements: Social Polarization and Violations against Social Unity and Privacy of Individuals in Turkey

Authors: Tolga Yazıcı

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As a matter of the fact that online social networks like Twitter, Facebook and MySpace have experienced an extensive growth in recent years. Social media offers individuals with a tool for communicating and interacting with one another. These social networks enable people to stay in touch with other people and express themselves. This process makes the users of online social networks active creators of content rather than being only consumers of traditional media. That’s why millions of people show strong desire to learn the methods and tools of digital content production and necessary communication skills. However, the booming interest in communication and interaction through online social networks and high level of eagerness to invent and implement the ways to participate in content production raise some privacy and security concerns. This presentation aims to open the assumed revolutionary, democratic and liberating nature of the online social media up for discussion by reviewing some recent political developments in Turkey. Firstly, the role of Internet and online social networks in mobilizing collective movements through social interactions and communications will be questioned. Secondly, some cases from Gezi and Okmeydanı Protests and also December 17-25 period will be presented in order to illustrate misinformation and manipulation in social media and violation of individual privacy through online social networks in order to damage social unity and stability contradictory to democratic nature of online social networking.

Keywords: online social media networks, democratic participation, social movements, social polarization, privacy of individuals, Turkey

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8 Transferring Data from Glucometer to Mobile Device via Bluetooth with Arduino Technology

Authors: Tolga Hayit, Ucman Ergun, Ugur Fidan

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Being healthy is undoubtedly an indispensable necessity for human life. With technological improvements, in the literature, various health monitoring and imaging systems have been developed to satisfy your health needs. In this context, the work of monitoring and recording the data of individual health monitoring data via wireless technology is also being part of these studies. Nowadays, mobile devices which are located in almost every house and which become indispensable of our life and have wireless technology infrastructure have an important place of making follow-up health everywhere and every time because these devices were using in the health monitoring systems. In this study, Arduino an open-source microcontroller card was used in which a sample sugar measuring device was connected in series. In this way, the glucose data (glucose ratio, time) obtained with the glucometer is transferred to the mobile device based on the Android operating system with the Bluetooth technology channel. A mobile application was developed using the Apache Cordova framework for listing data, presenting graphically and reading data over Arduino. Apache Cordova, HTML, Javascript and CSS are used in coding section. The data received from the glucometer is stored in the local database of the mobile device. It is intended that people can transfer their measurements to their mobile device by using wireless technology and access the graphical representations of their data. In this context, the aim of the study is to be able to perform health monitoring by using different wireless technologies in mobile devices that can respond to different wireless technologies at present. Thus, that will contribute the other works done in this area.

Keywords: Arduino, Bluetooth, glucose measurement, mobile health monitoring

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7 Econophysical Approach on Predictability of Financial Crisis: The 2001 Crisis of Turkey and Argentina Case

Authors: Arzu K. Kamberli, Tolga Ulusoy

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Technological developments and the resulting global communication have made the 21st century when large capitals are moved from one end to the other via a button. As a result, the flow of capital inflows has accelerated, and capital inflow has brought with it crisis-related infectiousness. Considering the irrational human behavior, the financial crisis in the world under the influence of the whole world has turned into the basic problem of the countries and increased the interest of the researchers in the reasons of the crisis and the period in which they lived. Therefore, the complex nature of the financial crises and its linearly unexplained structure have also been included in the new discipline, econophysics. As it is known, although financial crises have prediction mechanisms, there is no definite information. In this context, in this study, using the concept of electric field from the electrostatic part of physics, an early econophysical approach for global financial crises was studied. The aim is to define a model that can take place before the financial crises, identify financial fragility at an earlier stage and help public and private sector members, policy makers and economists with an econophysical approach. 2001 Turkey crisis has been assessed with data from Turkish Central Bank which is covered between 1992 to 2007, and for 2001 Argentina crisis, data was taken from IMF and the Central Bank of Argentina from 1997 to 2007. As an econophysical method, an analogy is used between the Gauss's law used in the calculation of the electric field and the forecasting of the financial crisis. The concept of Φ (Financial Flux) has been adopted for the pre-warning of the crisis by taking advantage of this analogy, which is based on currency movements and money mobility. For the first time used in this study Φ (Financial Flux) calculations obtained by the formula were analyzed by Matlab software, and in this context, in 2001 Turkey and Argentina Crisis for Φ (Financial Flux) crisis of values has been confirmed to give pre-warning.

Keywords: econophysics, financial crisis, Gauss's Law, physics

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6 Technology Roadmapping in Defense Industry

Authors: Sevgi Özlem Bulu, Arif Furkan Mendi, Tolga Erol, İzzet Gökhan Özbilgin

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The rapid progress of technology in today's competitive conditions has also accelerated companies' technology development activities. As a result, companies are paying more attention to R&D studies and are beginning to allocate a larger share to R&D projects. A more systematic, comprehensive, target-oriented implementation of R&D studies is crucial for the company to achieve successful results. As a consequence, Technology Roadmap (TRM) is gaining importance as a management tool. It has critical prospects for achieving medium and long term success as it contains decisions about past business, future plans, technological infrastructure. When studies on TRM are examined, projects to be placed on the roadmap are selected by many different methods. Generally preferred methods are based on multi-criteria decision making methods. Management of selected projects becomes an important point after the selection phase of the projects. At this stage, TRM are used. TRM can be created in many different ways so that each institution can prepare its own Technology Roadmap according to their strategic plan. Depending on the intended use, there can be TRM with different layers at different sizes. In the evaluation phase of the R&D projects and in the creation of the TRM, HAVELSAN, Turkey's largest defense company in the software field, carries out this process with great care and diligence. At the beginning, suggested R&D projects are evaluated by the Technology Management Board (TMB) of HAVELSAN in accordance with the company's resources, objectives, and targets. These projects are presented to the TMB periodically for evaluation within the framework of certain criteria by board members. After the necessary steps have been passed, the approved projects are added to the time-based TRM, which is composed of four layers as market, product, project and technology. The use of a four-layered roadmap provides a clearer understanding and visualization of company strategy and objectives. This study demonstrates the benefits of using TRM, four-layered Technology Roadmapping and the possibilities for the institutions in the defense industry.

Keywords: technology roadmap, research and development project, project selection, research development in defense industry

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5 Bean in Turkey: Characterization, Inter Gene Pool Hybridization Events, Breeding, Utilizations

Authors: Faheem Shahzad Baloch, Muhammad Azhar Nadeem, Muhammad Amjad Nawaz, Ephrem Habyarimana, Gonul Comertpay, Tolga Karakoy, Rustu Hatipoglu, Mehmet Zahit Yeken, Vahdettin Ciftci

Abstract:

Turkey is considered a bridge between Europe, Asia, and Africa and possibly played an important role in the distribution of many crops including common bean. Hundreds of common bean landraces can be found in Turkey, particularly in farmers’ fields, and they consistently contribute to the overall production. To investigate the existing genetic diversity and hybridization events between the Andean and Mesoamerican gene pools in the Turkish common bean, 188 common bean accessions (182 landraces and 6 modern cultivars as controls) were collected from 19 different Turkish geographic regions. These accessions were characterized using phenotypic data (growth habit and seed weight), geographic provenance, 12557 high-quality whole-genome DArTseq markers, and 3767 novel DArTseq loci were also identified. The clustering algorithms resolved the Turkish common bean landrace germplasm into the two recognized gene pools, the Mesoamerican and Andean gene pools. Hybridization events were observed in both gene pools (14.36% of the accessions) but mostly in the Mesoamerican (7.97% of the accessions), and was low relative to previous European studies. The lower level of hybridization witnessed the existence of Turkish common bean germplasm in its original form as compared to Europe. Mesoamerican gene pool reflected a higher level of diversity, while the Andean gene pool was predominant (56.91% of the accessions), but genetically less diverse and phenotypically more pure, reflecting farmers greater preference for the Andean gene pool. We also found some genetically distinct landraces and overall, a meaningful level of genetic variability which can be used by the scientific community in breeding efforts to develop superior common bean strains.

Keywords: bean germplasm, DArTseq markers, genotyping by sequencing, Turkey, whole genome diversity

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4 Effects of Learner-Content Interaction Activities on the Context of Verbal Learning Outcomes in Interactive Courses

Authors: Alper Tolga Kumtepe, Erdem Erdogdu, M. Recep Okur, Eda Kaypak, Ozlem Kaya, Serap Ugur, Deniz Dincer, Hakan Yildirim

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Interaction is one of the most important components of open and distance learning. According to Moore, who proposed one of the keystones on interaction types, there are three basic types of interaction: learner-teacher, learner-content, and learner-learner. From these interaction types, learner-content interaction, without doubt, can be identified as the most fundamental one on which all education is based. Efficacy, efficiency, and attraction of open and distance learning systems can be achieved by the practice of effective learner-content interaction. With the development of new technologies, interactive e-learning materials have been commonly used as a resource in open and distance learning, along with the printed books. The intellectual engagement of the learners with the content that is course materials may also affect their satisfaction for the open and distance learning practices in general. Learner satisfaction holds an important place in open and distance learning since it will eventually contribute to the achievement of learning outcomes. Using the learner-content interaction activities in course materials, Anadolu University, by its Open Education system, tries to involve learners in deep and meaningful learning practices. Especially, during the e-learning material design and production processes, identifying appropriate learner-content interaction activities within the context of learning outcomes holds a big importance. Considering the lack of studies adopting this approach, as well as its being a study on the use of e-learning materials in Open Education system, this research holds a big value in open and distance learning literature. In this respect, the present study aimed to investigate a) which learner-content interaction activities included in interactive courses are the most effective in learners’ achievement of verbal information learning outcomes and b) to what extent distance learners are satisfied with these learner-content interaction activities. For this study, the quasi-experimental research design was adopted. The 120 participants of the study were from Anadolu University Open Education Faculty students living in Eskişehir. The students were divided into 6 groups randomly. While 5 of these groups received different learner-content interaction activities as a part of the experiment, the other group served as the control group. The data were collected mainly through two instruments: pre-test and post-test. In addition to those tests, learners’ perceived learning was assessed with an item at the end of the program. The data collected from pre-test and post-test were analyzed by ANOVA, and in the light of the findings of this approximately 24-month study, suggestions for the further design of e-learning materials within the context of learner-content interaction activities will be provided at the conference. The current study is planned to be an antecedent for the following studies that will examine the effects of activities on other learning domains.

Keywords: interaction, distance education, interactivity, online courses

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3 Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Air Distribution System of Larder Type Refrigerator

Authors: Funda Erdem Şahnali, Ş. Özgür Atayılmaz, Tolga N. Aynur

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Almost all of the domestic refrigerators operate on the principle of the vapor compression refrigeration cycle and removal of heat from the refrigerator cabinets is done via one of the two methods: natural convection or forced convection. In this study, airflow and temperature distributions inside a 375L no-frost type larder cabinet, in which cooling is provided by forced convection, are evaluated both experimentally and numerically. Airflow rate, compressor capacity and temperature distribution in the cooling chamber are known to be some of the most important factors that affect the cooling performance and energy consumption of a refrigerator. The objective of this study is to evaluate the original temperature distribution in the larder cabinet, and investigate for better temperature distribution solutions throughout the refrigerator domain via system optimizations that could provide uniform temperature distribution. The flow visualization and airflow velocity measurements inside the original refrigerator are performed via Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (SPIV). In addition, airflow and temperature distributions are investigated numerically with Ansys Fluent. In order to study the heat transfer inside the aforementioned refrigerator, forced convection theories covering the following cases are applied: closed rectangular cavity representing heat transfer inside the refrigerating compartment. The cavity volume has been represented with finite volume elements and is solved computationally with appropriate momentum and energy equations (Navier-Stokes equations). The 3D model is analyzed as transient, with k-ε turbulence model and SIMPLE pressure-velocity coupling for turbulent flow situation. The results obtained with the 3D numerical simulations are in quite good agreement with the experimental airflow measurements using the SPIV technique. After Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of the baseline case, the effects of three parameters: compressor capacity, fan rotational speed and type of shelf (glass or wire) are studied on the energy consumption; pull down time, temperature distributions in the cabinet. For each case, energy consumption based on experimental results is calculated. After the analysis, the main effective parameters for temperature distribution inside a cabin and energy consumption based on CFD simulation are determined and simulation results are supplied for Design of Experiments (DOE) as input data for optimization. The best configuration with minimum energy consumption that provides minimum temperature difference between the shelves inside the cabinet is determined.

Keywords: air distribution, CFD, DOE, energy consumption, experimental, larder cabinet, refrigeration, uniform temperature

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2 The Effect of Rheological Properties and Spun/Meltblown Fiber Characteristics on “Hotmelt Bleed through” Behavior in High Speed Textile Backsheet Lamination Process

Authors: Kinyas Aydin, Fatih Erguney, Tolga Ceper, Serap Ozay, Ipar N. Uzun, Sebnem Kemaloglu Dogan, Deniz Tunc

Abstract:

In order to meet high growth rates in baby diaper industry worldwide, the high-speed textile backsheet lamination lines have recently been introduced to the market for non-woven/film lamination applications. It is a process where two substrates are bonded to each other via hotmelt adhesive (HMA). Nonwoven (NW) lamination system basically consists of 4 components; polypropylene (PP) nonwoven, polyethylene (PE) film, HMA and applicator system. Each component has a substantial effect on the process efficiency of continuous line and final product properties. However, for a precise subject cover, we will be addressing only the main challenges and possible solutions in this paper. The NW is often produced by spunbond method (SSS or SMS configuration) and has a 10-12 gsm (g/m²) basis weight. The NW rolls can have a width and length up to 2.060 mm and 30.000 linear meters, respectively. The PE film is the 2ⁿᵈ component in TBS lamination, which is usually a 12-14 gsm blown or cast breathable film. HMA is a thermoplastic glue (mostly rubber based) that can be applied in a large range of viscosity ranges. The main HMA application technology in TBS lamination is the slot die application in which HMA is spread on the top of the NW along the whole width at high temperatures in the melt form. Then, the NW is passed over chiller rolls with a certain open time depending on the line speed. HMAs are applied at certain levels in order to provide a proper de-lamination strength in cross and machine directions to the entire structure. Current TBS lamination line speed and width can be as high as 800 m/min and 2100 mm, respectively. They also feature an automated web control tension system for winders and unwinders. In order to run a continuous trouble-free mass production campaign on the fast industrial TBS lines, rheological properties of HMAs and micro-properties of NWs can have adverse effects on the line efficiency and continuity. NW fiber orientation and fineness, as well as spun/melt blown composition fabric micro-level properties, are the significant factors to affect the degree of “HMA bleed through.” As a result of this problem, frequent line stops are observed to clean the glue that is being accumulated on the chiller rolls, which significantly reduces the line efficiency. HMA rheology is also important and to eliminate any bleed through the problem; one should have a good understanding of rheology driven potential complications. So, the applied viscosity/temperature should be optimized in accordance with the line speed, line width, NW characteristics and the required open time for a given HMA formulation. In this study, we will show practical aspects of potential preventative actions to minimize the HMA bleed through the problem, which may stem from both HMA rheological properties and NW spun melt/melt blown fiber characteristics.

Keywords: breathable, hotmelt, nonwoven, textile backsheet lamination, spun/melt blown

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1 Forced Immigration to Turkey: The Socio-Spatial Impacts of Syrian Immigrants on Turkish Cities

Authors: Tolga Levent

Abstract:

Throughout the past few decades, forced immigration has been a significant problem for many developing countries. Turkey is one of those countries, which has experienced lots of forced immigration waves in the Republican era. However, the ongoing forced immigration wave of Syrians started with Syrian Civil War in 2011, is strikingly influential due to its intensity. In six years, approximately 3,4 million Syrians have entered to Turkey and presented high-level spatial concentrations in certain cities proximate to the Syrian border. These concentrations make Syrians and their problems relatively visible, especially in those cities. The problems of Syrians in Turkish cities could be associated with all dimensions of daily lives. Within economical dimension, high rates of Syrian unemployment push them to informal jobs offering very low wages. The financial aids they continuously demand from public authorities trigger anti-Syrian behaviors of local communities. Moreover, their relatively limited social adaptation capacities increase integration problems within social dimension day by day. Even, there are problems related to public health dimension such as the reappearance of certain child's illnesses due to the insufficiency of vaccination of Syrian children. These problems are significant but relatively easy to be prevented by using different types of management strategies and structural policies. However, there are other types of problems -urban problems- emerging with socio-spatial impacts of Syrians on Turkish cities in a very short period of time. There are relatively limited amount of studies about these impacts since they are difficult to be comprehended. The aim of the study, in this respect, is to understand these rapidly-emerging impacts and urban problems resulted from this massive immigration influx and to discuss new qualities of urban planning facing them. In the first part, there is a brief historical consideration of forced immigration waves in Turkey. These waves are important to make comparison with the ongoing immigration wave and to understand its significance. The second part is about quantitative and qualitative analyses of the spatial existence of Syrian immigrants in the city of Mersin, as an example of cities where Syrians are highly concentrated. By using official data from public authorities, quantitative statistical analyses are made to detect spatial concentrations of Syrians at neighborhood level. As methods of qualitative research, observations and in-depth interviews are used to define socio-spatial impacts of Syrians. The main results show that there emerges 'cities in cities' though sharp socio-spatial segregations which change density surfaces; produce unforeseen land-use patterns; result in inadequacies of public services and create degradations/deteriorations of urban environments occupied by Syrians. All these problems are significant; however, Turkish planning system does not have a capacity to cope with them. In the final part, there is a discussion about new qualities of urban planning facing these impacts and urban problems. The main point of discussion is the possibility of resilient urban planning under the conditions of uncertainty and unpredictability fostered by immigration crisis. Such a resilient planning approach might provide an option for countries aiming to cope with negative socio-spatial impacts of massive immigration influxes.

Keywords: cities, forced immigration, Syrians, urban planning

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