Search results for: Biodegradable metal
740 Mechanical Properties of Powder Metallurgy Processed Biodegradable Zn-Based Alloy for Biomedical Application
Authors: Maruf Yinka Kolawole, Jacob Olayiwola Aweda, Farasat Iqbal, Asif Ali, Sulaiman Abdulkareem
Zinc is a non-ferrous metal with potential application in orthopaedic implant materials. However, its poor mechanical properties were major challenge to its application. Therefore, this paper studies the mechanical properties of biodegradable Zn-based alloy for biomedical application. Pure zinc powder with varying (0, 1, 2, 3 & 6) wt% of magnesium powders were ball milled using ball-to-powder ratio (B:P) of 10:1 at 350 rpm for 4 hours. The resulting milled powders were compacted and sintered at 300 MPa and 350 °C respectively. Microstructural, phase and mechanical properties analyses were performed following American standard of testing and measurement. The results show that magnesium has influence on the mechanical properties of zinc. The compressive strength, hardness and elastic modulus of 210 ± 8.878 MPa, 76 ± 5.707 HV and 45 ± 11.616 GPa respectively as obtained in Zn-2Mg alloy were optimum and meet the minimum requirement of biodegradable metal for orthopaedics application. These results indicate an increase of 111, 93 and 93% in compressive strength, hardness and elastic modulus respectively as compared to pure zinc. The increase in mechanical properties was adduced to effectiveness of compaction pressure and intermetallic phase formation within the matrix resulting in high dislocation density for improving strength. The study concluded that, Zn-2Mg alloy with optimum mechanical properties can therefore be considered a potential candidate for orthopaedic application.
Keywords: Biodegradable metal, biomedical application mechanical properties, powder metallurgy, zinc.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 757
739 The Potential of Natural Waste (Corn Husk) for Production of Environmental Friendly Biodegradable Film for Seedling
Authors: M. Z. Norashikin, M. Z. Ibrahim
Abstract:The use of plastic materials in agriculture causes serious hazards to the environment. The introduction of biodegradable materials, which can be disposed directly into the soil can be one possible solution to this problem. In the present research results of experimental tests carried out on biodegradable film fabricated from natural waste (corn husk) are presented. The film was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and atomic force microscope (AFM) observation. The film is shown to be readily degraded within 7-9 months under controlled soil conditions, indicating a high biodegradability rate. The film fabricated was use to produce biodegradable pot (BioPot) for seedlings plantation. The introduction and the expanding use of biodegradable materials represent a really promising alternative for enhancing sustainable and environmentally friendly agricultural activities.
Keywords: Environment, waste, plastic, biodegradable.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4830
738 Amino Acid Based Biodegradable Amphiphilic Polymers and Micelles as Drug Delivery Systems: Synthesis and Study
Authors: Sophio Kobauri, Vladimir P. Torchilin, David Tugushi, Ramaz Katsarava
Nanotherapy is an actual newest mode of treatment numerous diseases using nanoparticles (NPs) loading with different pharmaceuticals. NPs of biodegradable polymeric micelles (PMs) are gaining increased attention for their numerous and attractive abilities to be used in a variety of applications in the various fields of medicine. The present paper deals with the synthesis of a class of biodegradable micelle-forming polymers, namely ABA triblock-copolymer in which A-blocks represent amino-poly(ethylene glycol) (H2N-PEG) and B-block is biodegradable amino acid-based poly(ester amide) constituted of α-amino acid – L-phenylalanine. The obtained copolymer formed micelles of 70±4 nm size at 10 mg/mL concentration.
Keywords: Amino acids, biodegradable poly(ester amide), amphiphilic triblock-copolymer, micelles.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 576
737 Mathematical Modeling for Continuous Reactive Extrusion of Poly Lactic Acid formation by Ring Opening Polymerization Considering Metal/Organic Catalyst and Alternative Energies
Authors: Satya P. Dubey, Hrushikesh A. Abhyankar, Veronica Marchante, James L. Brighton, Björn Bergmann
PLA emerged as a promising polymer because of its property as a compostable, biodegradable thermoplastic made from renewable sources. PLA can be polymerized from monomers (Lactide or Lactic acid) obtained by fermentation processes from renewable sources such as corn starch or sugarcane. For PLA synthesis, ring opening polymerization (ROP) of Lactide monomer is one of the preferred methods. In the literature, the technique mainly developed for ROP of PLA is based on metal/bimetallic catalyst (Sn, Zn and Al) or other organic catalysts in suitable solvent. However, the PLA synthesized using such catalysts may contain trace elements of the catalyst which may cause toxicity. This work estimated the usefulness and drawbacks of using different catalysts as well as effect of alternative energies and future aspects for PLA production.
Keywords: Alternative energy, bio-degradable, metal catalyst, poly lactic acid (PLA), ring opening polymerization (ROP).Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2563
736 Fabrication and Characterization of Sawdust Composite Biodegradable Film
Authors: M.Z. Norashikin, M.Z. Ibrahim
Abstract:This report shows the performance of composite biodegradable film from chitosan, starch and sawdust fiber. The main objectives of this research are to fabricate and characterize composite biodegradable film in terms of morphology and physical properties. The film was prepared by casting method. Sawdust fiber was used as reinforcing agent and starch as polymer matrix in the casting solution. The morphology of the film was characterized using atomic force microscope (AFM). The result showed that the film has smooth structure. Chemical composition of the film was investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) where the result revealed present of starch in the film. The thermal properties were characterized using thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) where the results showed that the film has small difference in melting and degradation temperature.
Keywords: Sawdust, composite, film, biodegradable.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2469
735 Propane Dehydrogenation with Better Stability by a Modified Pt-Based Catalyst
Authors: N. Hataivichian, K. Suriye, S. Kunjara Na Ayudhya, P. Praserthdam, S. Phatanasri
The effect of transition metal doping on Pt/Al2O3 catalyst used in propane dehydrogenation reaction at 500°C was studied. The preparation methods investigated were sequential impregnation (Pt followed by the 2nd metal or the 2nd metal followed by Pt) and co-impregnation. The metal contents of these catalysts were fixed as the weight ratio of Pt per the 2nd metal of around 0.075. These catalysts were characterized by N2-physisorption, TPR, COchemisorption and NH3-TPD. It was found that the impregnated 2nd metal had an effect upon reducibility of Pt due to its interaction with transition metal-containing structure. This was in agreement with the CO-chemisorption result that the presence of Pt metal, which is a result from Pt species reduction, was decreased. The total acidity of bimetallic catalysts is decreased but the strong acidity is slightly increased. It was found that the stability of bimetallic catalysts prepared by co-impregnation and sequential impregnation where the 2nd metal was impregnated before Pt were better than that of monometallic catalyst (undoped Pt one) due to the forming of Pt sites located on the transition metal-oxide modified surface. Among all preparation methods, the sequential impregnation method- having Pt impregnated before the 2nd metal gave the worst stability because this catalyst lacked the modified Pt sites and some fraction of Pt sites was covered by the 2nd metal.
Keywords: Alumina, dehydrogenation, platinum, transition metal.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2268
734 The removal of Ni, Cu and Fe from a Mixed Metal System using Sodium Hypophosphite as a Reducing Agent
Authors: Promise Sethembiso Ngema, Freeman Ntuli, Mohamed Belaid
The main objective of this study was to remove and recover Ni, Cu and Fe from a mixed metal system using sodium hypophosphite as a reducing agent and nickel powder as seeding material. The metal systems studied consisted of Ni-Cu, Ni-Fe and Ni-Cu-Fe solutions. A 5 L batch reactor was used to conduct experiments where 100 mg/l of each respective metal was used. It was found that the metals were reduced to their elemental form with removal efficiencies of over 80%. The removal efficiency decreased in the order Fe>Ni>Cu. The metal powder obtained contained between 97-99% Ni and was almost spherical and porous. Size enlargement by aggregation was the dominant particulate process.
Keywords: crystallization, electroless plating, heavy metal removal, wastewater treatmentProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1893
733 Preparation of Porous Metal Membrane by Thermal Annealing for Thin Film Encapsulation
Authors: Jaibir Sharma, Lee JaeWung, Merugu Srinivas, Navab Singh
Abstract:This paper presents thermal annealing de-wetting technique for the preparation of porous metal membrane for Thin Film Encapsulation (TFE) application. Thermal annealing de-wetting experimental results reveal that pore size formation in porous metal membrane depend upon i.e. 1. The substrate at which metal is deposited, 2. Melting point of metal used for porous metal cap layer membrane formation, 3. Thickness of metal used for cap layer, 4. Temperature used for formation of porous metal membrane. In order to demonstrate this technique, Silver (Ag) was used as a metal for preparation of porous metal membrane on amorphous silicon (a-Si) and silicon oxide. The annealing of the silver thin film of various thicknesses was performed at different temperature. Pores in porous silver film were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). In order to check the usefulness of porous metal film for TFE application, the porous silver film prepared on amorphous silicon (a- Si) and silicon oxide was released using XeF2 and VHF, respectively. Finally, guide line and structures are suggested to use this porous membrane for robust TFE application.
Keywords: De-wetting, thermal annealing, metal, melting point, porous.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1767
732 AI Applications to Metal Stamping Die Design– A Review
Authors: Vishal Naranje, Shailendra Kumar
Abstract:Metal stamping die design is a complex, experiencebased and time-consuming task. Various artificial intelligence (AI) techniques are being used by worldwide researchers for stamping die design to reduce complexity, dependence on human expertise and time taken in design process as well as to improve design efficiency. In this paper a comprehensive review of applications of AI techniques in manufacturability evaluation of sheet metal parts, die design and process planning of metal stamping die is presented. Further the salient features of major research work published in the area of metal stamping are presented in tabular form and scope of future research work is identified.
Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Die design, ManufacturabilityEvaluation, Metal Stamping Die.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3566
731 Heavy Metal Concentration in Orchard Area, Amphawa District, Samut Songkram Province, Thailand
Authors: Sisuwan Kaseamsawat, Sivapan Choo-In
A study was conducted in May to July 2013 with the aim of determination of heavy metal concentration in orchard area. 60 samples were collected and analyzed for Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb), and Zinc (Zn) by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS).
The heavy metal concentrations in sediment of orchards, that use chemical for Cd (1.13 ± 0.26 mg/l), Cu (8.00 ± 1.05 mg/l), Pb (13.16 ± 2.01) and Zn (37.41 ± 3.20 mg/l). The heavy metal concentrations in sediment of the orchards, that do not use chemical for Cd (1.28 ± 0.50 mg/l), Cu (7.60 ± 1.20 mg/l), Pb (29.87 ± 4.88) and Zn (21.79 ± 2.98 mg/l). Statistical analysis between heavy metal in sediment from the orchard, that use chemical and the orchard, that not use chemical were difference statistic significant of 0.5 level of significant for Cd and Pb while no statistically difference for Cu and Zn.
Keywords: Heavy metal, Orchard, Pollution and monitoring, Sediment.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1877
730 A Comparison of Conventional and Biodegradable Chelating Agent in Different Type of Surfactant Solutions for Soap Scum Removal
Authors: Prariyada Theptat, Sumaeth Chavadej, John F. Scamehorn
One of the most challenges for hard surface cleaning product is to get rid of soap scum, a filmy sticky layer in the bathroom. The deposits of soap scum can be removed by using a proper surfactant solution with chelating agent. Unfortunately, the conventional chelating agent, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), has low biodegradability, which can be tolerance in water resources and harmful to aquatic animal and microorganism. In this study, two biodegradable chelating agents, ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) and glutamic acid diacetic acid (GLDA) were introduced as a replacement of EDTA. The result shows that using GLDA with amphoteric surfactant gave the highest equilibrium solubility of soap scum.
Keywords: Biodegradable chelating agent, EDDS, GLDA, Soap scum.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4853
729 Experimental Study on the Vibration Isolation Performance of Metal-Net Rubber Vibration Absorber
Authors: Su Yi Ming, Hou Ying, Zou Guang Ping
Abstract:Metal-net rubber is a new dry friction damping material, compared with the traditional metal rubber, which has high mechanization degree, and the mechanical performance of metal-net rubber is more stable. Through the sine sweep experiment and random vibration experiment of metal-net rubber vibration isolator, the influence of several important factors such as the lines slope, relative density and wire diameter on the transfer rate, natural frequency and root-mean-square response acceleration of metal-net rubber vibration isolation system, were studied through the method of control variables. Also, several relevant change curves under different vibration levels were derived, and the effects of vibration level on the natural frequency and root-mean-square response acceleration were analyzed through the curves.
Keywords: Metal-net rubber vibration isolator, relative density, vibration level, wire diameter.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1140
728 Determination of Material Properties for Biodegradable Polylactic Acid Plastic Used in 3D Printers
Authors: Juraj Beniak, Ľubomír Šooš, Peter Križan, Miloš Matúš
Abstract:Within Rapid Prototyping technologies are used many types of materials. Many of them are recyclable but there are still as plastic like, so practically they do not degrade in the landfill. Polylactic acid (PLA) is one of the special plastic materials, which are biodegradable and available for 3D printing within Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) technology. The question is, if the mechanical properties of produced models are comparable to similar technical plastic materials which are usual for prototype production. Presented paper shows the experiments results for tensile strength measurements for specimens prepared with different 3D printer settings and model orientation. Paper contains also the comparison of tensile strength values with values measured on specimens produced by conventional technologies as injection moulding.
Keywords: 3D printing, biodegradable plastic, fused deposition modeling, PLA plastic, rapid prototyping.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1805
727 Towards a Complete Automation Feature Recognition System for Sheet Metal Manufacturing
Authors: Bahaa Eltahawy, Mikko Ylihärsilä, Reino Virrankoski, Esko Petäjä
Abstract:Sheet metal processing is automated, but the step from product models to the production machine control still requires human intervention. This may cause time consuming bottlenecks in the production process and increase the risk of human errors. In this paper we present a system, which automatically recognizes features from the CAD-model of the sheet metal product. By using these features, the system produces a complete model of the particular sheet metal product. Then the model is used as an input for the sheet metal processing machine. Currently the system is implemented, capable to recognize more than 11 of the most common sheet metal structural features, and the procedure is fully automated. This provides remarkable savings in the production time, and protects against the human errors. This paper presents the developed system architecture, applied algorithms and system software implementation and testing.
Keywords: Feature recognition, automation, sheet metal manufacturing, CAM, CAD.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 829
726 Magnesium Alloy: A Biomaterial for Development of Degradation Rate Controllable Esophageal Stent
Authors: Li Hong Chen, Wei Zhou, Chu Sing Lim, Eng Kiong Teo, Ngai Moh Law
Magnesium alloy has been widely investigated as biodegradable cardiovascular stent and bone implant. Its application for biodegradable esophageal stenting remains unexplored. This paper reports the biodegradation behaviors of AZ31 magnesium alloy in artificial saliva and various types of beverage in vitro. Results show that the magnesium ion release rate of AZ31 in artificial saliva for a stent (2cm diameter, 10cm length at 50% stent surface coverage) is 43 times lower than the daily allowance of human body magnesium intakes. The degradation rates of AZ31 in different beverages could also be significantly different. These results suggest that the esophagus in nature is a less aggressive chemical environment for degradation of magnesium alloys. The significant difference in degradation rates of AZ31 in different beverages opens new opportunities for development of degradation controllable esophageal stent through customizing ingested beverages.
Keywords: Biodegradable esophageal stent, beverages, magnesium alloy, saliva.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2167
725 Carbon Nanotubes Based Porous Framework for Filtration Applications Using Industrial Grinding Waste
Authors: V. J. Pillewan, D. N. Raut, K. N. Patil, D. K. Shinde
Abstract:Forging, milling, turning, grinding and shaping etc. are the various industrial manufacturing processes which generate the metal waste. Grinding is extensively used in the finishing operation. The waste generated contains significant impurities apart from the metal particles. Due to these significant impurities, it becomes difficult to process and gets usually dumped in the landfills which create environmental problems. Therefore, it becomes essential to reuse metal waste to create value added products. Powder injection molding process is used for producing the porous metal matrix framework. This paper discusses the presented design of the porous framework to be used for the liquid filter application. Different parameters are optimized to obtain the better strength framework with variable porosity. Carbon nanotubes are used as reinforcing materials to enhance the strength of the metal matrix framework.
Keywords: Grinding waste, powder injection molding, carbon nanotubes, metal matrix composites.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 876
724 The Determination of Heavy Metal in Herb Used in Dusit Community to Develop a Sustainable Quality of Life
Authors: Chinnawat Satsananan
This research aimed to find amount of heavy metal in herb used in Dusit community and compare of heavy metal in each part by quantity in herb and standard determination in Thai herb books to develop a sustainable quality of life, the result of study in 14 herbs do not find sample of heavy metal., by quantity of heavy contamination of 4 kinds: Cd, Co, Fe and Pb have lower than standard of 2 organizations: Thai herb standard, and World Health Organization, from the test 14 herbs have Fe in every part of herbs and all 14 kinds has Fe that is necessary for our health.
Keywords: Herbs Plants, Heavy Metal, Dusit DistrictProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1724
723 Heavy Metal Concentrations in Fanworth (Cabombafurcata) from Lake Chini, Malaysia
Authors: Ahmad, A.K., Shuhaimi-Othman, M. Hoon, L.P.
Abstract:Study was conducted to determine the concentration of copper, cadmium, lead and zinc in Cabomba furcata that found abundance in Lake Chini. This aquatic plant was collected randomly within the lake for heavy metal determination. Water quality measurement was undertaken in situ for temperature, pH, conductivity and dissolved oksigen using portable multi sensor probe YSI model 556. The C. furcata was digested using wet digestion method and heavy metal concentrations were analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS) Perkin Elmer 4100B (flame method). Result of water quality classify Lake Chini between class II to class III using Malaysian Water Quality Standard. According to this standard, Lake Chini has moderate quality, which normal for natural lake. Heavy metal concentrations in C.furcata were low and found to be lower than the critical toxic value in aquatic plants. Oneway ANOVA test indicated the heavy metal concentrations in C.furcata were significantly differ between sampling location. Water quality and heavy metal concentrations indicates that Lake Chini was not receives anthropogenic load from nearby activities.
Keywords: Cabomba furcata, Heavy metal, Lake Chini, WaterqualityProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1801
722 Effect of Filler Metal Diameter on Weld Joint of Carbon Steel SA516 Gr 70 and Filler Metal SFA 5.17 in Submerged Arc Welding SAW
Authors: A. Nait Salah, M. Kaddami
This work describes an investigation on the effect of filler metals diameter to weld joint, and low alloy carbon steel A516 Grade 70 is the base metal. Commercially SA516 Grade70 is frequently used for the manufacturing of pressure vessels, boilers and storage tank, etc. In fabrication industry, the hardness of the weld joint is between the important parameters to check, after heat treatment of the weld. Submerged arc welding (SAW) is used with two filler metal diameters, and this solid wire electrode is used for SAW non-alloy and for fine grain steels (SFA 5.17). The different diameters were selected (Ø = 2.4 mm and Ø = 4 mm) to weld two specimens. Both specimens were subjected to the same preparation conditions, heat treatment, macrograph, metallurgy micrograph, and micro-hardness test. Samples show almost similar structure with highest hardness. It is important to indicate that the thickness used in the base metal is 22 mm, and all specifications, preparation and controls were according to the ASME section IX. It was observed that two different filler metal diameters performed on two similar specimens demonstrated that the mechanical property (hardness) increases with decreasing diameter. It means that even the heat treatment has the same effect with the same conditions, the filler metal diameter insures a depth weld penetration and better homogenization. Hence, the SAW welding technique mentioned in the present study is favorable to implicate for the industry using the small filler metal diameter.
Keywords: ASME, base metal, filler metal, micro-hardness test, submerged arc welding.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 709
721 Effect of UV-Treatment on Properties of Biodegradable Film From Rice Starch
Authors: Nawapat Detduangchan, Thawien Wittaya
Abstract:Photo-crosslinked rice starch-based biodegradable films were prepared by casting film-solution on leveled trays and ultra violet (UV) irradiation was applied for 10 minute. The effect of the content (3%, 6% and 9 wt. %)of photosensitiser (sodium benzoate) on mechanical properties, water vapor permeability (WVP) and structural properties of rice starch films were investigated. The tensile strength increased while elongation at break and water resistance properties of rice starch films decreased with addition and increasing content of photosensitiser. The % crystallinity of rice starch films were decreased when the content of photosensitiser increased and UV were applied. The results showed that the carboxylate group band of sodium benzoate was found in the FTIR spectrum of rice starch films and found that incorporation of 6% of photosensitiser into the films showed a higher absorption band of resulted films. This result pointed out the highest interaction between starch molecules was occurred.
Keywords: Biodegradable film, Rice starch, UV treatment, Photosensitiser, Photo-crosslinkProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2325
720 Selective Sulfidation of Copper, Zinc and Nickelin Plating Wastewater using Calcium Sulfide
Authors: K. Soya, N. Mihara, D. Kuchar, M. Kubota, H. Matsuda, T. Fukuta
Abstract:The present work is concerned with sulfidation of Cu, Zn and Ni containing plating wastewater with CaS. The sulfidation experiments were carried out at a room temperature by adding solid CaS to simulated metal solution containing either single-metal of Ni, Zn and Cu, or Ni-Zn-Cu mixture. At first, the experiments were conducted without pH adjustment and it was found that the complete sulfidation of Zn and Ni was achieved at an equimolar ratio of CaS to a particular metal. However, in the case of Cu, a complete copper sulfidation was achieved at CaS to Cu molar ratio of about 2. In the case of the selective sulfidation, a simulated plating solution containing Cu, Zn and Ni at the concentration of 100 mg/dm3 was treated with CaS under various pH conditions. As a result, selective precipitation of metal sulfides was achieved by a sulfidation treatment at different pH values. Further, the precipitation agents of NaOH, Na2S and CaS were compared in terms of the average specific filtration resistance and compressibility coefficients of metal sulfide slurry. Consequently, based on the lowest filtration parameters of the produced metal sulfides, it was concluded that CaS was the most effective precipitation agent for separation and recovery of Cu, Zn and Ni.
Keywords: Calcium sulfide, Plating Wastewater, Filtrationcharacteristics, Heavy metals, Sulfidation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3121
719 Utilization of Agro-Industrial Waste in Metal Matrix Composites: Towards Sustainability
Authors: L. Lancaster, M. H. Lung, D. Sujan
Abstract:The application of agro-industrial waste in Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites has been getting more attention as they can reinforce particles in metal matrix which enhance the strength properties of the composites. In addition, by applying these agroindustrial wastes in useful way not only save the manufacturing cost of products but also reduce the pollutions on environment. This paper represents a literature review on a range of industrial wastes and their utilization in metal matrix composites. The paper describes the synthesis methods of agro-industrial waste filled metal matrix composite materials and their mechanical, wear, corrosion, and physical properties. It also highlights the current application and future potential of agro-industrial waste reinforced composites in aerospace, automotive and other construction industries.
Keywords: Bond layer, Interfacial shear stress, Bi-layered assembly, Thermal mismatch, Flip Chip Ball Grid Array.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4441
718 Studies of Interfacial Microstructure and Mechanical Properties on Dissimilar Sheet Metal Combination Joints Using Laser Beam Welding
Authors: K. Kalaiselvan, A. Elango
Laser beam welding of dissimilar sheet metal combinations such as Ti/Al, SS/Al and Cu/Al are increasingly demanded due to high energy densities with less fusion and heat affected zones. A good weld joint strength involves combinations of dissimilar metals and the formation of solid solution in the weld pool. Many metal pairs suffer from significant intermetallic phase formation during welding which greatly reduces their strength. The three different sheet metal mentioned above is critically reviewed and phase diagram for the combinations are given. The aim of this study is to develop an efficient metal combinations and the influence on their interfacial characteristics. For that the following parameters such as weld geometry, residual distortion, micro hardness, microstructure and mechanical properties are analyzed systematically.
Keywords: Laser Beam Welding (LBW), dissimilar metals, Ti/Al, SS/Al and Cu/Al sheets.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2574
717 Briquetting of Metal Chips by Controlled Impact: Experimental Study
Authors: Todor Penchev, Dimitar Karastojanov, Ivan Altaparmakov
Abstract:For briquetting of metal chips are used hydraulic and mechanical presses. The density of the briquettes in this case is about 60% - 70 % on the density of solid metal. In this work are presented the results of experimental studies for briquetting of metal chips, by using a new technology for impact briquetting. The used chips are by Armco iron, steel, cast iron, copper, aluminum and brass. It has been found that: (i) in a controlled impact the density of the briquettes can be increases up to 30%; (ii) at the same specific impact energy Es (J/sm3) the density of the briquettes increases with increasing of the impact velocity; (iii), realization of the repeated impact leads to decrease of chips density, which can be explained by distribution of elastic waves in the briquette.
Keywords: Briquetting, chips briquetting, impact briquetting.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1002
716 Variability of Metal Composition and Concentrations in Road Dust in the Urban Environment
Authors: Sandya Mummullage, Prasanna Egodawatta, Ashantha Goonetilleke, Godwin A. Ayoko
Urban road dust comprises of a range of potentially toxic metal elements and plays a critical role in degrading urban receiving water quality. Hence, assessing the metal composition and concentration in urban road dust is a high priority. This study investigated the variability of metal composition and concentrations in road dust in 4 different urban land uses in Gold Coast, Australia. Samples from 16 road sites were collected and tested for selected 12 metal species. The data set was analyzed using both univariate and multivariate techniques. Outcomes of the data analysis revealed that the metal concentrations inroad dust differs considerably within and between different land uses. Iron, aluminum, magnesium and zinc are the most abundant in urban land uses. It was also noted that metal species such as titanium, nickel, copper and zinc have the highest concentrations in industrial land use. The study outcomes revealed that soil and traffic related sources as key sources of metals deposited on road surfaces.
Keywords: Metals build-up, Pollutant accumulation, Stormwater quality, Urban road dust.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2232
715 An Automatic Feature Extraction Technique for 2D Punch Shapes
Authors: Awais Ahmad Khan, Emad Abouel Nasr, H. M. A. Hussein, Abdulrahman Al-Ahmari
Sheet-metal parts have been widely applied in electronics, communication and mechanical industries in recent decades; but the advancement in sheet-metal part design and manufacturing is still behind in comparison with the increasing importance of sheet-metal parts in modern industry. This paper presents a methodology for automatic extraction of some common 2D internal sheet metal features. The features used in this study are taken from Unipunch ™ catalogue. The extraction process starts with the data extraction from STEP file using an object oriented approach and with the application of suitable algorithms and rules, all features contained in the catalogue are automatically extracted. Since the extracted features include geometry and engineering information, they will be effective for downstream application such as feature rebuilding and process planning.
Keywords: Feature Extraction, Internal Features, Punch Shapes, Sheet metal, STEP.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1513
714 Improvement of Energy Efficiency using Porous Fins in Heat Exchangers
Authors: Hadi Niknami Esfahani , Hossein Shokouhmand, Fahim Faraji
The forced convection heat transfer in high porosity metal-foam filled tube heat exchangers are studied in this paper. The Brinkman Darcy momentum model and two energy equations for both solid and fluid phases in porous media are employed .The study shows that using metal-foams can significantly improve the heat transfer in heat exchangers.
Keywords: Metal foam, Nusselt number, heat exchanger, heat flux.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1933
713 Modification of Anodized Mg Alloy Surface By Pulse Condition for Biodegradable Material
Authors: Y.K. Kim, Y.S. Jang, H.H. Park, J.H. Ji, I.S. Park, T.S. Bae, M.H. Lee
Abstract:Magnesium is used implant material potentially for non-toxicity to the human body. Due to the excellent bio-compatibility, Mg alloys is applied to implants avoiding removal second surgery. However, it is found commercial magnesium alloys including aluminum has low corrosion resistance, resulting subcutaneous gas bubbles and consequently the approach as permanent bio-materials. Generally, Aluminum is known to pollution substance, and it raises toxicity to nervous system. Therefore especially Mg-35Zn-3Ca alloy is prepared for new biodegradable materials in this study. And the pulsed power is used in constant-current mode of DC power kinds of anodization. Based on the aforementioned study, it examines corrosion resistance and biocompatibility by effect of current and frequency variation. The surface properties and thickness were compared using scanning electronic microscopy. Corrosion resistance was assessed via potentiodynamic polarization and the effect of oxide layer on the body was assessed cell viability. Anodized Mg-35Zn-3Ca alloy has good biocompatibility in vitro by current and frequency variation.
Keywords: Biodegradable material, Mg, anodization, osteoblast cell, pulse power.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2044
712 Relaxation Dynamics of Quantum Emitters Resonantly Coupled to a Localized Surface Plasmon
Authors: Khachatur V. Nerkararyan, Sergey I. Bozhevolnyi
We investigate relaxation dynamics of a quantum dipole emitter (QDE), e.g., a molecule or quantum dot, located near a metal nanoparticle (MNP) exhibiting a dipolar localized surface plasmon (LSP) resonance at the frequency of the QDE radiative transition. It is shown that under the condition of the QDE-MNP characteristic relaxation time being much shorter than that of the QDE in free-space but much longer than the LSP lifetime. It is also shown that energy dissipation in the QDE-MNP system is relatively weak with the probability of the photon emission being about 0.75, a number which, rather surprisingly, does not explicitly depend on the metal absorption characteristics. The degree of entanglement measured by the concurrency takes the maximum value, while the distances between the QDEs and metal ball approximately are equal.
Keywords: Metal nanoparticle, Localized surface plasmon, Quantum dipole emitter, Relaxation dynamics.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1710
711 Experimental Study of the Metal Foam Flow Conditioner for Orifice Plate Flowmeters
Authors: B. Manshoor, N. Ihsak, Amir Khalid
Abstract:The sensitivity of orifice plate metering to disturbed flow (either asymmetric or swirling) is a subject of great concern to flow meter users and manufacturers. The distortions caused by pipe fittings and pipe installations upstream of the orifice plate are major sources of this type of non-standard flows. These distortions can alter the accuracy of metering to an unacceptable degree. In this work, a multi-scale object known as metal foam has been used to generate a predetermined turbulent flow upstream of the orifice plate. The experimental results showed that the combination of an orifice plate and metal foam flow conditioner is broadly insensitive to upstream disturbances. This metal foam demonstrated a good performance in terms of removing swirl and producing a repeatable flow profile within a short distance downstream of the device. The results of using a combination of a metal foam flow conditioner and orifice plate for non-standard flow conditions including swirling flow and asymmetric flow show this package can preserve the accuracy of metering up to the level required in the standards.
Keywords: Metal foam flow conditioner, flow measurement, orifice plate.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1877