Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 639

Search results for: Conditioning Circuit.

639 Hysteresis Control of Power Conditioning Unit for Fuel Cell Distributed Generation System

Authors: Kanhu Charan Bhuyan, Subhransu Padhee, Rajesh Kumar Patjoshi, Kamalakanta Mahapatra

Abstract:

Fuel cell is an emerging technology in the field of renewable energy sources which has the capacity to replace conventional energy generation sources. Fuel cell utilizes hydrogen energy to produce electricity. The electricity generated by the fuel cell can’t be directly used for a specific application as it needs proper power conditioning. Moreover, the output power fluctuates with different operating conditions. To get a stable output power at an economic rate, power conditioning circuit is essential for fuel cell. This paper implements a two-staged power conditioning unit for fuel cell based distributed generation using hysteresis current control technique.

Keywords: Fuel cell, power conditioning unit, hysteresis control.

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638 Signal Generator Circuit Carrying Information as Embedded Features from Multi-Transducer Signals

Authors: Sheroz Khan, Mustafa Zeki, Shihab Abdel Hameed, AHM Zahirul Alam, Aisha Hassan Abdalla, A. F. Salami, W. A. Lawal

Abstract:

A novel circuit for generating a signal embedded with features about data from three sensors is presented. This suggested circuit is making use of a resistance-to-time converter employing a bridge amplifier, an integrator and a comparator. The second resistive sensor (Rz) is transformed into duty cycle. Another bridge with varying resistor, (Ry) in the feedback of an OP AMP is added in series to change the amplitude of the resulting signal in a proportional relationship while keeping the same frequency and duty cycle representing proportional changes in resistors Rx and Rz already mentioned. The resultant output signal carries three types of information embedded as variations of its frequency, duty cycle and amplitude.

Keywords: Integrator, Comparator, Bridge Circuit, Resistanceto-Time Converter, Conditioning Circuit.

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637 Real Time Force Sensing Mat for Human Gait Analysis

Authors: Darwin Gouwanda, S. M. N. Arosha Senanayake, M. M. Danushka Ranjana Marasinghe, Mervin Chandrapal, Jeya Mithra Kumar, Tung Mun Hon, Yulius

Abstract:

This paper presents a real time force sensing instrument that is designed for human gait analysis purposes. This instrument mainly consists of three main elements: the force sensing mat, signal conditioning and switching circuit and data acquisition device. In order to control and to process the incoming signals from the force sensing mat, Force-Logger and Force-Reloader program are developed using Labview 8.0. This paper describes the architecture of the force sensing mat, signal conditioning and switching circuit and the real time streaming of the incoming data from the force sensing mat.

Keywords: Force platform, Force sensing resistor, human gait analysis

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636 Real Time Multi-Sensory Force Sensing Mat for Sports Biomechanics and Human Gait Analysis

Authors: D. Gouwanda, S. M. N. A. Senanayake

Abstract:

This paper presents a real time force sensing instrument that is designed for human gait analysis purposes. It is capable of recording and monitoring ground reaction forces exerted by human foot during various activities such as walking, running and jumping in real time. In overall, force sensing mat mainly consists of three elements: the force sensing mat, signal conditioning circuit and data acquisition device. Force sensing mat is the mat that contains an array of force sensing elements. To control and process the incoming signal from the force sensing mat, Force-Logger and Force-Reloader are developed using National Instrument Labview. This paper describes the architecture of the force sensing mat, signal conditioning circuit and the real time streaming of the incoming data from the force sensing mat. Additionally, a preliminary experiment dataset is presented in this paper.

Keywords: Force platform, force sensing resistor, human gait analysis.

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635 The Conditioning Effect on Celebrity Multiple Endorsements

Authors: Chia-Ching Tsai

Abstract:

This research adapts experimental design to investigate the effect of conditioning or not and pre-exposure or not on brand attitude, so it is a 2×2=4 factorial design. The results show that the brand attitude of conditioning group is significantly higher than that of unconditioning group. The brand attitude with pre-exposure is significantly higher than that without pre-exposure. Conditioning or not and pre-exposure or not have significant interaction. No matter the celebrity is pre-exposure or not, the brand attitude is higher under conditioning process.

Keywords: Celebrity, Multiple endorsements, Pre-exposure, Classical condition, Second-order conditioning

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634 Design of Air Conditioning Automation for Patisserie Shopwindow

Authors: Kemal Tutuncu, Recai Ozcan

Abstract:

Having done in this study, air-conditioning automation for patisserie shopwindow was designed. In the cooling sector it is quite important to cooling up the air temperature in the shopwindow within short time interval. Otherwise the patisseries inside of the shopwindow will be spoilt in a few days. Additionally the humidity is other important parameter for the patisseries kept in shopwindow. It must be raised up to desired level in a quite short time. Traditional patisserie shopwindows only allow controlling temperature manually. There is no humidity control and humidity is supplied by fans that are directed to the water at the bottom of the shopwindows. In this study, humidity and temperature sensors (SHT11), PIC, AC motor controller, DC motor controller, ultrasonic nebulizer and other electronic circuit members were used to simulate air conditioning automation for patisserie shopwindow in proteus software package. The simulation results showed that temperature and humidity values are adjusted in desired time duration by openloop control technique. Outer and inner temperature and humidity values were used for control mechanism.

Keywords: Air conditioning automation, temperature and humidity, SHT11, AC motor controller, open-loop control.

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633 A Dynamically Reconfigurable Arithmetic Circuit for Complex Number and Double Precision Number

Authors: Haruo Shimada, Akinori Kanasugi

Abstract:

This paper proposes an architecture of dynamically reconfigurable arithmetic circuit. Dynamic reconfiguration is a technique to realize required functions by changing hardware construction during operations. The proposed circuit is based on a complex number multiply-accumulation circuit which is used frequently in the field of digital signal processing. In addition, the proposed circuit performs real number double precision arithmetic operations. The data formats are single and double precision floating point number based on IEEE754. The proposed circuit is designed using VHDL, and verified the correct operation by simulations and experiments.

Keywords: arithmetic circuit, complex number, double precision, dynamic reconfiguration

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632 Analysis of SCR-Based ESD Protection Circuit on Holding Voltage Characteristics

Authors: Yong Seo Koo, Jong Ho Nam, Yong Nam Choi, Dae Yeol Yoo, Jung Woo Han

Abstract:

This paper presents a silicon controller rectifier (SCR) based ESD protection circuit for IC. The proposed ESD protection circuit has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage compared with conventional SCR ESD protection circuit. Electrical characteristics of the proposed ESD protection circuit are simulated and analyzed using TCAD simulator. The proposed ESD protection circuit verified effective low voltage ESD characteristics with low trigger voltage and high holding voltage.

Keywords: ESD (Electro-Static Discharge), SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier), holding Voltage.

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631 A New True RMS-to-DC Converter in CMOS Technology

Authors: H. Asiaban, E. Farshidi

Abstract:

This paper presents a new true RMS-to-DC converter circuit based on a square-root-domain squarer/divider. The circuit is designed by employing up-down translinear loop and using of MOSFET transistors that operate in strong inversion saturation region. The converter offer advantages of two-quadrant input current, low circuit complexity, low supply voltage (1.2V) and immunity from the body effect. The circuit has been simulated by HSPICE. The simulation results are seen to conform to the theoretical analysis and shows benefits of the proposed circuit.

Keywords: Current-mode, squarer/divider, low-pass filter, converter, translinear loop, RMS-to-DC.

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630 Experience-based Learning Program for Electronic Circuit Design

Authors: Koyu Chinen, Haruka Mikamori

Abstract:

A new multi-step comprehensive experience-based learning program was developed and carried out so that the students understood about what was the principle of the circuit function and how the designed circuit was used in actual advanced applications.

Keywords: Electronic circuit education, Experience based learning, Comprehensive education,

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629 Non-Isolated Direct AC-DC Converter Design with BCM-PFC Circuit

Authors: Y. Kobori, L. Xing, H. Gao, N.Onozawa, S. Wu, S. N. Mohyar, Z. Nosker, H. Kobayashi, N. Takai, K. Niitsu

Abstract:

This paper proposes two types of non-isolated direct AC-DC converters. First, it shows a buck-boost converter with an H-bridge, which requires few components (three switches, two diodes, one inductor and one capacitor) to convert AC input to DC output directly. This circuit can handle a wide range of output voltage. Second, a direct AC-DC buck converter is proposed for lower output voltage applications. This circuit is analyzed with output voltage of 12V. We describe circuit topologies, operation principles and simulation results for both circuits.

Keywords: AC-DC converter, Buck-boost converter, Buck converter, PFC, BCM PFC circuit.

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628 Simulation of Surge Protection for a Direct Current Circuit

Authors: Pedro Luis Ferrer Penalver, Edmundo da Silva Braga

Abstract:

In this paper, the performance of a simple surge protection for a direct current circuit was simulated. The protection circuit was developed from modified electric macro models of a gas discharge tube and a transient voltage suppressor diode. Moreover, a combination wave generator circuit was used as source of energy surges. The simulations showed that the circuit presented ensures immunity corresponding with test level IV of the IEC 61000-4-5:2014 international standard. The developed circuit can be modified to meet the requirements of any other equipment to be protected. Similarly, the parameters of the combination wave generator can be changed to provide different surge amplitudes.

Keywords: Combination wave generator, IEC 61000-4-5, Pspice simulation, surge protection.

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627 Realization of a Temperature Based Automatic Controlled Domestic Electric Boiling System

Authors: Shengqi Yu, Jinwei Zhao

Abstract:

This paper presents a kind of analog circuit based temperature control system, which is mainly composed by threshold control signal circuit, synchronization signal circuit and trigger pulse circuit. Firstly, the temperature feedback signal function is realized by temperature sensor TS503F3950E. Secondly, the main control circuit forms the cycle controlled pulse signal to control the thyristor switching model. Finally two reverse paralleled thyristors regulate the output power by their switching state. In the consequence, this is a modernized and energy-saving domestic electric heating system.

Keywords: Time base circuit, automatic control, zero-crossing trigger, temperature control.

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626 A Study on Changing of Energy-Saving Performance of GHP Air Conditioning System with Time-Series Variation

Authors: Ying Xin, Shigeki Kametani

Abstract:

This paper deals the energy saving performance of GHP (Gas engine heat pump) air conditioning system has improved with time-series variation. There are two types of air conditioning systems, VRF (Variable refrigerant flow) and central cooling and heating system. VRF is classified as EHP (Electric driven heat pump) and GHP. EHP drives the compressor with electric motor. GHP drives the compressor with the gas engine. The electric consumption of GHP is less than one tenth of EHP does.

In this study, the energy consumption data of GHP installed the junior high schools was collected. An annual and monthly energy consumption per rated thermal output power of each apparatus was calculated, and then their energy efficiency was analyzed. From these data, we investigated improvement of the energy saving of the GHP air conditioning system by the change in the generation.

Keywords: Energy-saving, VRF, GHP, EHP, Air Conditioning System.

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625 A Semi-Cylindrical Capacitive Sensor Used for Soil Moisture Measurement

Authors: Subir Das, Tuhin Subhra Sarkar, Badal Chakraborty

Abstract:

Differing from the structure of traditional parallel plate capacitive sensor a semi cylindrical capacitive sensor has been introduced in this present work to measure the soil moisture conveniently. Here, the numerical analysis method to evaluate the capacitance from the semi-cylindrical capacitive sensor is analyzed and discussed. The changes of capacitance with the variation of soil moisture obtained linear in the nano farad range (nF) and which converted into voltage variation by using proper signal conditioning circuit. Experimental results depict the satisfactory performance of the sensor for measurement of soil moisture in the range of 0 to 70%. We investigated the linearity of 4% of FSO and sensitivity of 70 mV/unit percentage changes in soil moisture level (DB).

Keywords: Semi cylindrical Capacitive Sensor, Capacitance to Voltage converter Circuit, Soil Moisture.

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624 A 1.5V,100MS/s,12-bit Current-Mode CMOSS ample-and-Hold Circuit

Authors: O. Hashemipour, S. G. Nabavi

Abstract:

A high-linearity and high-speed current-mode sampleand- hold circuit is designed and simulated using a 0.25μm CMOS technology. This circuit design is based on low voltage and it utilizes a fully differential circuit. Due to the use of only two switches the switch related noise has been reduced. Signal - dependent -error is completely eliminated by a new zero voltage switching technique. The circuit has a linearity error equal to ±0.05μa, i.e. 12-bit accuracy with a ±160 μa differential output - input signal frequency of 5MHZ, and sampling frequency of 100 MHZ. Third harmonic is equal to –78dB.

Keywords: Zero-voltage-technique, MOS-resistor, OTA, Feedback-resistor.

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623 Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor-Only Process Corner Monitoring Circuit

Authors: Davit Mirzoyan, Ararat Khachatryan

Abstract:

A process corner monitoring circuit (PCMC) is presented in this work. The circuit generates a signal, the logical value of which depends on the process corner only. The signal can be used in both digital and analog circuits for testing and compensation of process variations (PV). The presented circuit uses only metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistors, which allow increasing its detection accuracy, decrease power consumption and area. Due to its simplicity the presented circuit can be easily modified to monitor parametrical variations of only n-type and p-type MOS (NMOS and PMOS, respectively) transistors, resistors, as well as their combinations. Post-layout simulation results prove correct functionality of the proposed circuit, i.e. ability to monitor the process corner (equivalently die-to-die variations) even in the presence of within-die variations.

Keywords: Detection, monitoring, process corner, process variation.

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622 Charge-Pump with a Regulated Cascode Circuit for Reducing Current Mismatch in PLLs

Authors: Jae Hyung Noh, Hang Geun Jeong

Abstract:

The charge-pump circuit is an important component in a phase-locked loop (PLL). The charge-pump converts Up and Down signals from the phase/frequency detector (PFD) into current. A conventional CMOS charge-pump circuit consists of two switched current sources that pump charge into or out of the loop filter according to two logical inputs. The mismatch between the charging current and the discharging current causes phase offset and reference spurs in a PLL. We propose a new charge-pump circuit to reduce the current mismatch by using a regulated cascode circuit. The proposed charge-pump circuit is designed and simulated by spectre with TSMC 0.18-μm 1.8-V CMOS technology.

Keywords: Phase-locked loop (PLL), charge-pump, phase/frequency detector (PFD), regulated cascode.

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621 Realization of Electronically Controllable Current-mode Square-rooting Circuit Based on MO-CFTA

Authors: P. Silapan, C. Chanapromma, T. Worachak

Abstract:

This article proposes a current-mode square-rooting circuit using current follower transconductance amplifier (CTFA). The amplitude of the output current can be electronically controlled via input bias current with wide input dynamic range. The proposed circuit consists of only single CFTA. Without any matching conditions and external passive elements, the circuit is then appropriate for an IC architecture. The magnitude of the output signal is temperature-insensitive. The PSpice simulation results are depicted, and the given results agree well with the theoretical anticipation. The power consumption is approximately 1.96mW at ±1.5V supply voltages.

Keywords: CFTA, Current-mode, Square-rooting Circuit

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620 A Low-Voltage Current-Mode Wheatstone Bridge using CMOS Transistors

Authors: Ebrahim Farshidi

Abstract:

This paper presents a new circuit arrangement for a current-mode Wheatstone bridge that is suitable for low-voltage integrated circuits implementation. Compared to the other proposed circuits, this circuit features severe reduction of the elements number, low supply voltage (1V) and low power consumption (<350uW). In addition, the circuit has favorable nonlinearity error (<0.35%), operate with multiple sensors and works by single supply voltage. The circuit employs MOSFET transistors, so it can be used for standard CMOS fabrication. Simulation results by HSPICE show high performance of the circuit and confirm the validity of the proposed design technique.

Keywords: Wheatstone bridge, current-mode, low-voltage, MOS.

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619 Tensile Strength of Asphalt Concrete due to Moisture Conditioning

Authors: Md R. Islam, Rafiqul A. Tarefder

Abstract:

This study investigates the effect of moisture conditioning on the Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS) of asphalt concrete. As a first step, cylindrical samples of 100 mm diameter and 50 mm thick were prepared using a Superpave gyratory compactor. Next, the samples were conditioned using Moisture Induced Susceptibility Test (MIST) device at different numbers of moisture conditioning cycles. In the MIST device, samples are subjected water pressure through the sample pores cyclically. The MIST conditioned samples were tested for ITS. Results show that the ITS does not change significantly with MIST conditioning at the specific pressure and cycles adopted in this study.

Keywords: Asphalt concrete, tensile strength, moisture, laboratory test.

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618 Complementary Energy Path Adiabatic Logic based Full Adder Circuit

Authors: Shipra Upadhyay , R. K. Nagaria, R. A. Mishra

Abstract:

In this paper, we present the design and experimental evaluation of complementary energy path adiabatic logic (CEPAL) based 1 bit full adder circuit. A simulative investigation on the proposed full adder has been done using VIRTUOSO SPECTRE simulator of cadence in 0.18μm UMC technology and its performance has been compared with the conventional CMOS full adder circuit. The CEPAL based full adder circuit exhibits the energy saving of 70% to the conventional CMOS full adder circuit, at 100 MHz frequency and 1.8V operating voltage.

Keywords: Adiabatic, CEPAL, full adder, power clock

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617 Reliability Modeling and Data Analysis of Vacuum Circuit Breaker Subject to Random Shocks

Authors: Rafik Medjoudj, Rabah Medjoudj, D. Aissani

Abstract:

The electrical substation components are often subject to degradation due to over-voltage or over-current, caused by a short circuit or a lightning. A particular interest is given to the circuit breaker, regarding the importance of its function and its dangerous failure. This component degrades gradually due to the use, and it is also subject to the shock process resulted from the stress of isolating the fault when a short circuit occurs in the system. In this paper, based on failure mechanisms developments, the wear out of the circuit breaker contacts is modeled. The aim of this work is to evaluate its reliability and consequently its residual lifetime. The shock process is based on two random variables such as: the arrival of shocks and their magnitudes. The arrival of shocks was modeled using homogeneous Poisson process (HPP). By simulation, the dates of short-circuit arrivals were generated accompanied with their magnitudes. The same principle of simulation is applied to the amount of cumulative wear out contacts. The objective reached is to find the formulation of the wear function depending on the number of solicitations of the circuit breaker.

Keywords: reliability, short-circuit, models of shocks.

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616 A Capacitive Sensor Interface Circuit Based on Phase Differential Method

Authors: H. A. Majid, N. Razali, M. S. Sulaiman, A. K. A'ain

Abstract:

A new interface circuit for capacitive sensor is presented. This paper presents the design and simulation of soil moisture capacitive sensor interface circuit based on phase differential technique. The circuit has been designed and fabricated using MIMOS- 0.35"m CMOS technology. Simulation and test results show linear characteristic from 36 – 52 degree phase difference, representing 0 – 100% in soil moisture level. Test result shows the circuit has sensitivity of 0.79mV/0.10 phase difference, translating into resolution of 10% soil moisture level.

Keywords: Capacitive sensor, interface, phase differential.

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615 Analog Circuit Design using Genetic Algorithm: Modified

Authors: Amod P. Vaze

Abstract:

Genetic Algorithm has been used to solve wide range of optimization problems. Some researches conduct on applying Genetic Algorithm to analog circuit design automation. These researches show a better performance due to the nature of Genetic Algorithm. In this paper a modified Genetic Algorithm is applied for analog circuit design automation. The modifications are made to the topology of the circuit. These modifications will lead to a more computationally efficient algorithm.

Keywords: Genetic algorithm, analog circuits, design.

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614 Adsorptive Waste Heat Based Air-Conditioning Control Strategy for Automotives

Authors: Indrasen Raghupatruni, Michael Glora, Ralf Diekmann, Thomas Demmer

Abstract:

As the trend in automotive technology is fast moving towards hybridization and electrification to curb emissions as well as to improve the fuel efficiency, air-conditioning systems in passenger cars have not caught up with this trend and still remain as the major energy consumers amongst others. Adsorption based air-conditioning systems, e.g. with silica-gel water pair, which are already in use for residential and commercial applications, are now being considered as a technology leap once proven feasible for the passenger cars. In this paper we discuss a methodology, challenges and feasibility of implementing an adsorption based air-conditioning system in a passenger car utilizing the exhaust waste heat. We also propose an optimized control strategy with interfaces to the engine control unit of the vehicle for operating this system with reasonable efficiency supported by our simulation and validation results in a prototype vehicle, additionally comparing to existing implementations, simulation based as well as experimental. Finally we discuss the influence of start-stop and hybrid systems on the operation strategy of the adsorption air-conditioning system.

Keywords: Adsorption air-conditioning, feasibility study, optimized control strategy, prototype vehicle.

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613 The Invariant Properties of Two-Port Circuits

Authors: Alexandr A. Penin

Abstract:

Application of projective geometry to the theory of two-ports and cascade circuits with a load change is considered. The equations linking the input and output of a two-port are interpreted as projective transformations which have the invariant as a cross-ratio of four points. This invariant has place for all regime parameters in all parts of a cascade circuit. This approach allows justifying the definition of a regime and its change, to calculate a circuit without explicitly finding the aparameters, to transmit accurately an analogue signal through the unstable two-port.

Keywords: Circuit regime, geometric circuit theory, projective geometry, two-port.

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612 Equivalent Circuit Modelling of Active Reflectarray Antenna

Authors: M. Y. Ismail, M. Inam

Abstract:

This paper presents equivalent circuit modeling of active planar reflectors which can be used for the detailed analysis and characterization of reflector performance in terms of lumped components. Equivalent circuit representation has been proposed for PIN diodes and liquid crystal based active planar reflectors designed within X-band frequency range. A very close agreement has been demonstrated between equivalent circuit results, 3D EM simulated results as well as measured scattering parameter results. In the case of measured results, a maximum discrepancy of 1.05dB was observed in the reflection loss performance, which can be attributed to the losses occurred during measurement process.

Keywords: Equivalent circuit modelling, planar reflectors, reflectarray antenna, PIN diode, liquid crystal.

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611 Design and Simulation Interface Circuit for Piezoresistive Accelerometers with Offset Cancellation Ability

Authors: Mohsen Bagheri, Ahmad Afifi

Abstract:

This paper presents a new method for read out of the piezoresistive accelerometer sensors. The circuit works based on Instrumentation amplifier and it is useful for reducing offset In Wheatstone Bridge. The obtained gain is 645 with 1μv/°c Equivalent drift and 1.58mw power consumption. A Schmitt trigger and multiplexer circuit control output node. a high speed counter is designed in this work .the proposed circuit is designed and simulated In 0.18μm CMOS technology with 1.8v power supply.

Keywords: Piezoresistive accelerometer, zero offset, Schmitt trigger, bidirectional reversible counter

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610 On-Chip Aging Sensor Circuit Based on Phase Locked Loop Circuit

Authors: Ararat Khachatryan, Davit Mirzoyan

Abstract:

In sub micrometer technology, the aging phenomenon starts to have a significant impact on the reliability of integrated circuits by bringing performance degradation. For that reason, it is important to have a capability to evaluate the aging effects accurately. This paper presents an accurate aging measurement approach based on phase-locked loop (PLL) and voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) circuit. The architecture is rejecting the circuit self-aging effect from the characteristics of PLL, which is generating the frequency without any aging phenomena affects. The aging monitor is implemented in low power 32 nm CMOS technology, and occupies a pretty small area. Aging simulation results show that the proposed aging measurement circuit improves accuracy by about 2.8% at high temperature and 19.6% at high voltage.

Keywords: Nanoscale, aging, effect, NBTI, HCI.

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