Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2525

Search results for: theories and models.

2525 A Review of Existing Turnover Intention Theories

Authors: Pauline E. Ngo-Henha

Abstract:

Existing turnover intention theories are reviewed in this paper. This review was conducted with the help of the search keyword “turnover intention theories” in Google Scholar during the month of July 2017. These theories include: The Theory of Organizational Equilibrium (TOE), Social Exchange Theory, Job Embeddedness Theory, Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory, the Resource-Based View, Equity Theory, Human Capital Theory, and the Expectancy Theory. One of the limitations of this review paper is that data were only collected from Google Scholar where many papers were sometimes not freely accessible. However, this paper attempts to contribute to the research in clarifying the distinction between theories and models in the context of turnover intention.

Keywords: Job embeddedness theory, theory of organizational equilibrium (TOE), Herzberg’s two-factor theory, turnover intention theories, theories and models.

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2524 Learning Theories within Coaching Process

Authors: P. Fazel

Abstract:

These days we face with so many advertisements in magazines, those mentioned coaching is pragmatic specialties which help people make change in their lives. Up to know Specialty coaches are not necessarily therapists, consultants or psychologist, thus they may not know psychological theories. The International Coach Federation identifies "facilitating learning and results" as one of its four core coach competencies, without understanding learning theories coaching practice hangs in theoretical abyss. Thus the aim of this article is investigating learning theories within coaching process. Therefore, I reviewed some cognitive and behavioral learning theories and analyzed their contribution with coaching process which has been introduced in mentor coaches and ICF certified coaches' papers and books. The result demonstrated that coaching profession is strongly grounded in learning theories, and it will be strengthened by the validation of theories and evidence-based research as we move forward. Thus, it needs more research in order to applying effective theoretical frameworks.

Keywords: Coaching, Learning theories. Cognitive learning theories, behavioral learning theories.

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2523 Gravitational Frequency Shifts for Photons and Particles

Authors: Jing-Gang Xie

Abstract:

The research, in this case, considers the integration of the Quantum Field Theory and the General Relativity Theory. As two successful models in explaining behaviors of particles, they are incompatible since they work at different masses and scales of energy, with the evidence that regards the description of black holes and universe formation. It is so considering previous efforts in merging the two theories, including the likes of the String Theory, Quantum Gravity models, and others. In a bid to prove an actionable experiment, the paper’s approach starts with the derivations of the existing theories at present. It goes on to test the derivations by applying the same initial assumptions, coupled with several deviations. The resulting equations get similar results to those of classical Newton model, quantum mechanics, and general relativity as long as conditions are normal. However, outcomes are different when conditions are extreme, specifically with no breakdowns even for less than Schwarzschild radius, or at Planck length cases. Even so, it proves the possibilities of integrating the two theories.

Keywords: General relativity theory, particles, photons, quantum gravity model, gravitational frequency shift.

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2522 The Uses of Conspiracy Theories for the Construction of a Political Religion in Venezuela

Authors: Hugo Antonio Pérez Hernáiz

Abstract:

This article analyses conspiracy theories as part of the wider discourses of missionary politics. It presents a case study of Venezuela and describes how its leaders use conspiracy theories as political tools. Through quotes taken form Venezuelan president Chavez-s public speeches and other sources, and through a short analysis of the ideological basis of his discourses, it shows how conspiracy theories are constructed and how they affect the local political praxis. The article also describes how conspiracy theories have been consistently used as an important part of the construction of a political religion for the New Man of the Bolivarian Revolution. It concludes that the use of conspiracy theories by political leaders produces a sense of loss of political agency.

Keywords: Conspiracy Theories, Venezuela, Institutions, Agency, Revolutions, Political Religion, New Man.

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2521 Educators’ Adherence to Learning Theories and Their Perceptions on the Advantages and Disadvantages of e-Learning

Authors: Samson T. Obafemi, Seraphin D. Eyono Obono

Abstract:

Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are pervasive nowadays, including in education where they are expected to improve the performance of learners. However, the hope placed in ICTs to find viable solutions to the problem of poor academic performance in schools in the developing world has not yet yielded the expected benefits. This problem serves as a motivation to this study whose aim is to examine the perceptions of educators on the advantages and disadvantages of e-learning. This aim will be subdivided into two types of research objectives. Objectives on the identification and design of theories and models will be achieved using content analysis and literature review. However, the objective on the empirical testing of such theories and models will be achieved through the survey of educators from different schools in the Pinetown District of the South African Kwazulu-Natal province. SPSS is used to quantitatively analyse the data collected by the questionnaire of this survey using descriptive statistics and Pearson correlations after assessing the validity and the reliability of the data. The main hypothesis driving this study is that there is a relationship between the demographics of educators’ and their adherence to learning theories on one side, and their perceptions on the advantages and disadvantages of e-learning on the other side, as argued by existing research; but this research views these learning theories under three perspectives: educators’ adherence to self-regulated learning, to constructivism, and to progressivism. This hypothesis was fully confirmed by the empirical study except for the demographic factor where teachers’ level of education was found to be the only demographic factor affecting the perceptions of educators on the advantages and disadvantages of e-learning.

Keywords: Academic performance, e-learning, Learning theories, Teaching and Learning.

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2520 Examining the Perceived Usefulness of ICTs for Learning about Indigenous Foods

Authors: K. M. Ngcobo, S. D. Eyono Obono

Abstract:

Science and technology has a major impact on many societal domains such as communication, medicine, food, transportation, etc. However, this dominance of modern technology can have a negative unintended impact on indigenous systems, and in particular on indigenous foods. This problem serves as a motivation to this study whose aim is to examine the perceptions of learners on the usefulness of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) for learning about indigenous foods. This aim will be subdivided into two types of research objectives. The design and identification of theories and models will be achieved using literature content analysis. The objective on the empirical testing of such theories and models will be achieved through the survey of Hospitality studies learners from different schools in the iLembe and Umgungundlovu Districts of the South African Kwazulu-Natal province. SPSS is used to quantitatively analyze the data collected by the questionnaire of this survey using descriptive statistics and Pearson correlations after the assessment of the validity and the reliability of the data. The main hypothesis behind this study is that there is a connection between the demographics of learners, their perceptions on the usefulness of ICTs for learning about indigenous foods, and the following personality and eLearning related theories constructs: Computer self-efficacy, Trust in ICT systems, and Conscientiousness; as suggested by existing studies on learning theories. This hypothesis was fully confirmed by the survey conducted by this study except for the demographic factors where gender and age were not found to be determinant factors of learners’ perceptions on the usefulness of ICTs for learning about indigenous foods.

Keywords: E-learning, Indigenous Foods, Information and Communication Technologies, Learning Theories, Personality.

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2519 Mathematical Models for Overall Gas Transfer Coefficient Using Different Theories and Evaluating Their Measurement Accuracy

Authors: Shashank.B. Thakre, Lalit.B. Bhuyar, Samir.J. Deshmukh

Abstract:

Oxygen transfer, the process by which oxygen is transferred from the gaseous to liquid phase, is a vital part of the waste water treatment process. Because of low solubility of oxygen and consequent low rate of oxygen transfer, sufficient oxygen to meet the requirement of aerobic waste does not enter through normal surface air water interface. Many theories have come up in explaining the mechanism of gas transfer and absorption of non-reacting gases in a liquid, of out of which, Two film theory is important. An exiting mathematical model determines approximate value of Overall Gas Transfer coefficient. The Overall Gas Transfer coefficient, in case of Penetration theory, is 1.13 time more than that obtained in case of Two film theory. The difference is due to the difference in assumptions in the two theories. The paper aims at development of mathematical model which determines the value of Overall Gas Transfer coefficient with greater accuracy than the existing model.

Keywords: Theories, Dissolved oxygen, Mathematical model, Gas Transfer coefficient, Accuracy.

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2518 Perceptions of Educators on the Learners’ Youngest Age for the Introduction of ICTs in Schools: A Personality Theory Approach

Authors: K. E. Oyetade, S. D. Eyono Obono

Abstract:

Age ratings are very helpful in providing parents with relevant information for the purchase and use of digital technologies by the children; this is why the non-definition of age ratings for the use of ICTs by children in schools is a major concern; and this problem serves as a motivation for this study whose aim is to examine the factors affecting the perceptions of educators on the learners’ youngest age for the introduction of ICTs in schools. This aim is achieved through two types of research objectives: the identification and design of theories and models on age ratings, and the empirical testing of such theories and models in a survey of educators from the Camperdown district of the South African KwaZulu-Natal province. A questionnaire is used for the collection of the data of this survey whose validity and reliability is checked in SPSS prior to its descriptive and correlative quantitative analysis. The main hypothesis supporting this research is the association between the demographics of educators, their personality, and their perceptions on the learners’ youngest age for the introduction of ICTs in schools; as claimed by existing research; except that the present study looks at personality from three dimensions: self-actualized personalities, fully functioning personalities, and healthy personalities. This hypothesis was fully confirmed by the empirical study conducted by this research except for the demographic factor where only the educators’ grade or class was found to be associated with the personality of educators.

Keywords: Age ratings, Educators, E-learning, Personality Theories.

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2517 Simulating and Forecasting Qualitative Marcoeconomic Models Using Rule-Based Fuzzy Cognitive Maps

Authors: Spiros Mazarakis, George Matzavinos, Peter P. Groumpos

Abstract:

Economic models are complex dynamic systems with a lot of uncertainties and fuzzy data. Conventional modeling approaches using well known methods and techniques cannot provide realistic and satisfactory answers to today-s challenging economic problems. Qualitative modeling using fuzzy logic and intelligent system theories can be used to model macroeconomic models. Fuzzy Cognitive maps (FCM) is a new method been used to model the dynamic behavior of complex systems. For the first time FCMs and the Mamdani Model of Intelligent control is used to model macroeconomic models. This new model is referred as the Mamdani Rule-Based Fuzzy Cognitive Map (MBFCM) and provides the academic and research community with a new promising integrated advanced computational model. A new economic model is developed for a qualitative approach to Macroeconomic modeling. Fuzzy Controllers for such models are designed. Simulation results for an economic scenario are provided and extensively discussed

Keywords: Macroeconomic Models, Mamdani Rule Based- FCMs(MBFCMs), Qualitative and Dynamics System, Simulation.

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2516 News Media in Arab Societies

Authors: B. Al-Jenaibi

Abstract:

The paper examines the theories of media, dominant effects and critical and cultural theories that are used to examine media and society issues, and then apply the theories to explore the current situation of news media in Arab societies. The research is meant to explore the nature of media in the Arab world and the way that modern technologies have changed the nature of the Arab public sphere. It considers the role of an open press in promoting a more democratic society, while recognizing the unique qualities of an Arab culture.

Keywords: Arab media and effects theory, Arab new media, Al-Jazeera channel and critical and cultural theories of communication.

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2515 Continuum-Based Modelling Approaches for Cell Mechanics

Authors: Yogesh D. Bansod, Jiri Bursa

Abstract:

The quantitative study of cell mechanics is of paramount interest, since it regulates the behaviour of the living cells in response to the myriad of extracellular and intracellular mechanical stimuli. The novel experimental techniques together with robust computational approaches have given rise to new theories and models, which describe cell mechanics as combination of biomechanical and biochemical processes. This review paper encapsulates the existing continuum-based computational approaches that have been developed for interpreting the mechanical responses of living cells under different loading and boundary conditions. The salient features and drawbacks of each model are discussed from both structural and biological points of view. This discussion can contribute to the development of even more precise and realistic computational models of cell mechanics based on continuum approaches or on their combination with microstructural approaches, which in turn may provide a better understanding of mechanotransduction in living cells.

Keywords: Cell mechanics, computational models, continuum approach, mechanical models.

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2514 Students’ Perception of Using Dental e-Models in an Inquiry-Based Curriculum

Authors: Yanqi Yang, Chongshan Liao, Cheuk Hin Ho, Susan Bridges

Abstract:

Aim: To investigate students’ perceptions of using e-models in an inquiry-based curriculum. Approach: 52 second-year dental students completed a pre- and post-test questionnaire relating to their perceptions of e-models and their use in inquiry-based learning. The pre-test occurred prior to any learning with e-models. The follow-up survey was conducted after one year's experience of using e-models. Results: There was no significant difference between the two sets of questionnaires regarding students’ perceptions of the usefulness of e-models and their willingness to use e-models in future inquiry-based learning. Most students preferred using both plaster models and e-models in tandem. Conclusion: Students did not change their attitude towards e-models and most of them agreed or were neutral that e-models are useful in inquiry-based learning. Whilst recognizing the utility of 3D models for learning, students' preference for combining these with solid models has implications for the development of haptic sensibility in an operative discipline.

Keywords: E-models, inquiry-based curriculum, education.

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2513 Analyzing the Perceived Relationship between Motivation and Satisfaction for Rural Tourists in a Digital World

Authors: N. P. Tsephe, S. D. Eyono Obono

Abstract:

Rural tourism is usually associated with rural development because it has strong linkages to rural resources; but it remains underdeveloped compared to urban tourism. This underdevelopment of rural tourism serves as a motivation for this study whose aim is to examine the factors affecting the perceived satisfaction of rural tourists. The objectives of this study are: to identify and design theories and models on rural tourism satisfaction, and to empirically validate these models and theories through a survey of tourists from the Malealea Lodge which is located in the Mafeteng District, in the Mountain Kingdom of Lesotho. Data generated by the collection of questionnaires used by this survey was analyzed quantitatively using descriptive statistics and correlations in SPSS after checking the validity and the reliability of the questionnaire. The main hypothesis behind this study is the relationship between the demographics of rural tourists, their motivation, and their satisfaction, as supported by existing literature; except that motivation is measured in this study according to three dimensions: push factors, pull factors, and perceived usefulness of ICTs in the rural tourism experience. Findings from this study indicate that among the demographics factors, continent of origin and marital status influence the satisfaction of rural tourists; and their occupation affects their perceptions on the use of ICTs in rural tourism. Moreover, only pull factors were found to influence the satisfaction of rural tourists.

Keywords: Digital world, Motivation, Rural tourism, Satisfaction.

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2512 Multisymplectic Geometry and Noether Symmetries for the Field Theories and the Relativistic Mechanics

Authors: H. Loumi-Fergane, A. Belaidi

Abstract:

The problem of symmetries in field theory has been analyzed using geometric frameworks, such as the multisymplectic models by using in particular the multivector field formalism. In this paper, we expand the vector fields associated to infinitesimal symmetries which give rise to invariant quantities as Noether currents for classical field theories and relativistic mechanic using the multisymplectic geometry where the Poincaré-Cartan form has thus been greatly simplified using the Second Order Partial Differential Equation (SOPDE) for multi-vector fields verifying Euler equations. These symmetries have been classified naturally according to the construction of the fiber bundle used.  In this work, unlike other works using the analytical method, our geometric model has allowed us firstly to distinguish the angular moments of the gauge field obtained during different transformations while these moments are gathered in a single expression and are obtained during a rotation in the Minkowsky space. Secondly, no conditions are imposed on the Lagrangian of the mechanics with respect to its dependence in time and in qi, the currents obtained naturally from the transformations are respectively the energy and the momentum of the system.

Keywords: Field theories, relativistic mechanics, Lagrangian formalism, multisymplectic geometry, symmetries, Noether theorem, conservation laws.

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2511 Overriding Moral Intuitions – Does It Make Us Immoral? Dual-Process Theory of Higher Cognition Account for Moral Reasoning

Authors: Michał Białek, Simon J. Handley

Abstract:

Moral decisions are considered as an intuitive process, while conscious reasoning is mostly used only to justify those intuitions. This problem is described in few different dual-process theories of mind, that are being developed e.g. by Frederick and Kahneman, Stanovich and Evans. Those theories recently evolved into tri-process theories with a proposed process that makes ultimate decision or allows to paraformal processing with focal bias.. Presented experiment compares the decision patterns to the implications of those models. In presented study participants (n=179) considered different aspects of trolley dilemma or its footbridge version and decided after that. Results show that in the control group 70% of people decided to use the lever to change tracks for the running trolley, and 20% chose to push the fat man down the tracks. In contrast, after experimental manipulation almost no one decided to act. Also the decision time difference between dilemmas disappeared after experimental manipulation. The result supports the idea of three co-working processes: intuitive (TASS), paraformal (reflective mind) and algorithmic process.

Keywords: Moral reasoning, moral decision, reflection, trolley problem, dual-process theory of reasoning, tri-process theory of cognition.

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2510 Is E-learning Based On Learning Theories? A Literature Review

Authors: Apostolia Pange, Jenny Pange

Abstract:

E-learning aims to build knowledge and skills in order to enhance the quality of learning. Research has shown that the majority of the e-learning solutions lack in pedagogical background and present some serious deficiencies regarding teaching strategies and content delivery, time and pace management, interface design and preservation of learners- focus. The aim of this review is to approach the design of e-learning solutions with a pedagogical perspective and to present some good practices of e-learning design grounded on the core principles of Learning Theories (LTs).

Keywords: design principles, e-learning, Learning Theories

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2509 Why Traditional Technology Acceptance Models Won't Work for Future Information Technologies?

Authors: Carsten Röcker

Abstract:

This paper illustrates why existing technology acceptance models are only of limited use for predicting and explaining the adoption of future information and communication technologies. It starts with a general overview over technology adoption processes, and presents several theories for the acceptance as well as adoption of traditional information technologies. This is followed by an overview over the recent developments in the area of information and communication technologies. Based on the arguments elaborated in these sections, it is shown why the factors used to predict adoption in existing systems, will not be sufficient for explaining the adoption of future information and communication technologies.

Keywords: Technology Diffusion, Technology AcceptanceModels, Ambient Intelligence, Ubiquitous and Pervasive Computing.

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2508 A Review of the Theoretical Context of the Role of Innovation in Economic Development

Authors: Maria E. Eggink

Abstract:

It is the aim of this paper to place the role of innovation in economic development in its theoretical context through a literature review. The review compares classical economic theory and the neoclassical theories of “equilibrium in the markets” and “perfectly competitive markets” with the Schumpeterian theory. It was found that Schumpeter’s role in contributing towards economic development theories, and by creating awareness of the role of innovation in these theories is of immeasurable importance. His contribution led to a change in economic thinking, although this was only realized much later than when his theories were first published. The neo-Schumpeterian thinking expanded on the Schumpeterian theory by studying innovation within a system of interaction among different role players. Studies on innovation should be founded in the neo-Schumpeterian school of thought in order to accommodate the complexity of the innovation system concept.

Keywords: Economic development, evolutionary economics, innovation, Schumpeter.

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2507 Analytical Solution of the Boundary Value Problem of Delaminated Doubly-Curved Composite Shells

Authors: András Szekrényes

Abstract:

Delamination is one of the major failure modes in laminated composite structures. Delamination tips are mostly captured by spatial numerical models in order to predict crack growth. This paper presents some mechanical models of delaminated composite shells based on shallow shell theories. The mechanical fields are based on a third-order displacement field in terms of the through-thickness coordinate of the laminated shell. The undelaminated and delaminated parts are captured by separate models and the continuity and boundary conditions are also formulated in a general way providing a large size boundary value problem. The system of differential equations is solved by the state space method for an elliptic delaminated shell having simply supported edges. The comparison of the proposed and a numerical model indicates that the primary indicator of the model is the deflection, the secondary is the widthwise distribution of the energy release rate. The model is promising and suitable to determine accurately the J-integral distribution along the delamination front. Based on the proposed model it is also possible to develop finite elements which are able to replace the computationally expensive spatial models of delaminated structures.

Keywords: J-integral, Lévy method, third-order shell theory, state space solution.

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2506 Modeling Child Development Factors for the Early Introduction of ICTs in Schools

Authors: K. E. Oyetade, S. D. Eyono Obono

Abstract:

One of the fundamental characteristics of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has been the ever-changing nature of continuous release and models of ICTs with its impact on the academic, social, and psychological benefits of its introduction in schools. However, there seems to be a growing concern about its negative impact on students when introduced early in schools for teaching and learning. This study aims to design a model of child development factors affecting the early introduction of ICTs in schools in an attempt to improve the understanding of child development and introduction of ICTs in schools. The proposed model is based on a sound theoretical framework. It was designed following a literature review of child development theories and child development factors. The child development theoretical framework that fitted to the best of all child development factors was then chosen as the basis for the proposed model. This study hence found that the Jean Piaget cognitive developmental theory is the most adequate theoretical frameworks for modeling child development factors for ICT introduction in schools.

Keywords: Child development factors, child development theories, ICTs, theory.

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2505 Lean Models Classification: Towards a Holistic View

Authors: Y. Tiamaz, N. Souissi

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to present a classification of Lean models which aims to capture all the concepts related to this approach and thus facilitate its implementation. This classification allows the identification of the most relevant models according to several dimensions. From this perspective, we present a review and an analysis of Lean models literature and we propose dimensions for the classification of the current proposals while respecting among others the axes of the Lean approach, the maturity of the models as well as their application domains. This classification allowed us to conclude that researchers essentially consider the Lean approach as a toolbox also they design their models to solve problems related to a specific environment. Since Lean approach is no longer intended only for the automotive sector where it was invented, but to all fields (IT, Hospital, ...), we consider that this approach requires a generic model that is capable of being implemented in all areas.

Keywords: Lean approach, lean models, classification, dimensions, holistic view.

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2504 The Effect of Particle Porosity in Mixed Matrix Membrane Permeation Models

Authors: Z. Sadeghi, M. R. Omidkhah, M. E. Masoomi

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to examine gas transport behavior of mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) combined with porous particles. Main existing models are categorized in two main groups; two-phase (ideal contact) and three-phase (non-ideal contact). A new coefficient, J, was obtained to express equations for estimating effect of the particle porosity in two-phase and three-phase models. Modified models evaluates with existing models and experimental data using Matlab software. Comparison of gas permeability of proposed modified models with existing models in different MMMs shows a better prediction of gas permeability in MMMs.

Keywords: Mixed Matrix Membrane, Permeation Models, Porous particles, Porosity.

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2503 Methodologies for Crack Initiation in Welded Joints Applied to Inspection Planning

Authors: Guang Zou, Kian Banisoleiman, Arturo González

Abstract:

Crack initiation and propagation threatens structural integrity of welded joints and normally inspections are assigned based on crack propagation models. However, the approach based on crack propagation models may not be applicable for some high-quality welded joints, because the initial flaws in them may be so small that it may take long time for the flaws to develop into a detectable size. This raises a concern regarding the inspection planning of high-quality welded joins, as there is no generally acceptable approach for modeling the whole fatigue process that includes the crack initiation period. In order to address the issue, this paper reviews treatment methods for crack initiation period and initial crack size in crack propagation models applied to inspection planning. Generally, there are four approaches, by: 1) Neglecting the crack initiation period and fitting a probabilistic distribution for initial crack size based on statistical data; 2) Extrapolating the crack propagation stage to a very small fictitious initial crack size, so that the whole fatigue process can be modeled by crack propagation models; 3) Assuming a fixed detectable initial crack size and fitting a probabilistic distribution for crack initiation time based on specimen tests; and, 4) Modeling the crack initiation and propagation stage separately using small crack growth theories and Paris law or similar models. The conclusion is that in view of trade-off between accuracy and computation efforts, calibration of a small fictitious initial crack size to S-N curves is the most efficient approach.

Keywords: Crack initiation, fatigue reliability, inspection planning, welded joints.

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2502 MMU Simulation in Hardware Simulator Based-on State Transition Models

Authors: Zhang Xiuping, Yang Guowu, Zheng Desheng

Abstract:

Embedded hardware simulator is a valuable computeraided tool for embedded application development. This paper focuses on the ARM926EJ-S MMU, builds state transition models and formally verifies critical properties for the models. The state transition models include loading instruction model, reading data model, and writing data model. The properties of the models are described by CTL specification language, and they are verified in VIS. The results obtained in VIS demonstrate that the critical properties of MMU are satisfied in the state transition models. The correct models can be used to implement the MMU component in our simulator. In the end of this paper, the experimental results show that the MMU can successfully accomplish memory access requests from CPU.

Keywords: MMU, State transition, Model, Simulation.

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2501 Neuro-Hybrid Models for Automotive System Identification

Authors: Ventura Assuncao

Abstract:

In automotive systems almost all steps concerning the calibration of several control systems, e.g., low idle governor or boost pressure governor, are made with the vehicle because the timeto- production and cost requirements on the projects do not allow for the vehicle analysis necessary to build reliable models. Here is presented a procedure using parametric and NN (neural network) models that enables the generation of vehicle system models based on normal ECU engine control unit) vehicle measurements. These models are locally valid and permit pre and follow-up calibrations so that, only the final calibrations have to be done with the vehicle.

Keywords: Automotive systems, neuro-hybrid models, demodulator, nonlinear systems, identification, and neural networks.

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2500 A Method to Saturation Modeling of Synchronous Machines in d-q Axes

Authors: Mohamed A. Khlifi, Badr M. Alshammari

Abstract:

This paper discusses the general methods to saturation in the steady-state, two axis (d & q) frame models of synchronous machines. In particular, the important role of the magnetic coupling between the d-q axes (cross-magnetizing phenomenon), is demonstrated. For that purpose, distinct methods of saturation modeling of dumper synchronous machine with cross-saturation are identified, and detailed models synthesis in d-q axes. A number of models are given in the final developed form. The procedure and the novel models are verified by a critical application to prove the validity of the method and the equivalence between all developed models is reported. Advantages of some of the models over the existing ones and their applicability are discussed.

Keywords: Cross-magnetizing, models synthesis, synchronous machine, saturated modeling, state-space vectors.

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2499 Attribution Theory and Perceived Reliability of Cellphones for Teaching and Learning

Authors: Mayowa A. Sofowora, Seraphim D. Eyono Obono

Abstract:

The use of information and communication technologies such as computers, mobile phones and the Internet is becoming prevalent in today’s world; and it is facilitating access to a vast amount of data, services and applications for the improvement of people’s lives. However, this prevalence of ICTs is hampered by the problem of low income levels in developing countries to the point where people cannot timeously replace or repair their ICT devices when damaged or lost; and this problem serves as a motivation for this study whose aim is to examine the perceptions of teachers on the reliability of cellphones when used for teaching and learning purposes. The research objectives unfolding this aim are of two types: Objectives on the selection and design of theories and models, and objectives on the empirical testing of these theories and models. The first type of objectives is achieved using content analysis in an extensive literature survey: and the second type of objectives is achieved through a survey of high school teachers from the ILembe and UMgungundlovu districts in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. Data collected from this questionnaire based survey is analysed in SPSS using descriptive statistics and Pearson correlations after checking the reliability and validity of the questionnaires. The main hypothesis driving this study is that there is a relationship between the demographics and the attribution identity of teachers on one hand, and their perceptions on the reliability of cellphones on the other hand, as suggested by existing literature; except that attribution identities are considered in this study under three angles: intention, knowledge and ability, and action. The results of this study confirm that the perceptions of teachers on the reliability of cellphones for teaching and learning are affected by the school location of these teachers, and by their perceptions on learners’ cellphones usage intentions and actual use.

Keywords: Attribution, Cellphones, E-learning, Reliability

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2498 Dynamic Models versus Frailty Models for Recurrent Event Data

Authors: Entisar A. Elgmati

Abstract:

Recurrent event data is a special type of multivariate survival data. Dynamic and frailty models are one of the approaches that dealt with this kind of data. A comparison between these two models is studied using the empirical standard deviation of the standardized martingale residual processes as a way of assessing the fit of the two models based on the Aalen additive regression model. Here we found both approaches took heterogeneity into account and produce residual standard deviations close to each other both in the simulation study and in the real data set.

Keywords: Dynamic, frailty, misspecification, recurrent events.

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2497 On the Perceived Awareness of Physical Education Teachers on Adoptable ICTs for PE

Authors: Tholokuhle T. Ntshakala, Seraphin D. Eyono Obono

Abstract:

Nations are still finding it quite difficult to win mega sport competitions despite the major contribution of sport to society in terms of social and economic development, personal health, and in education. Even though the world of sports has been transformed into a huge global economy, it is important to note that the first step of sport is usually its introduction to children at school through physical education or PE. In other words, nations who do not win mega sport competitions also suffer from a weak and neglected PE system. This problem of the neglect of PE systems is the main motivation of this research aimed at examining the factors affecting the perceived awareness of physical education teachers on the ICTs that are adoptable for the teaching and learning of physical education. Two types of research objectives will materialize this aim: relevant theories will be identified in relation to the analysis of the perceived ICT awareness of PE teachers and subsequent models will be compiled and designed from existing literature; the empirical testing of such theories and models will also be achieved through the survey of PE teachers from the Camperdown magisterial district of the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. The main hypothesis at the heart of this study is the relationship between the demographics of PE teachers, their behavior both as individuals and as social entities, and their perceived awareness of the ICTs that are adoptable for PE, as postulated by existing literature; except that this study categorizes human behavior under performance expectancy, computer attitude, and social influence. This hypothesis was partially confirmed by the survey conducted by this research in the sense that performance expectancy and teachers’ age, gender, computer usage, and class size were found to be the only factors affecting their awareness of ICTs for physical education.

Keywords: Human Behavior, ICT Awareness, Physical Education, Teachers.

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2496 Application of Western and Islamic Philosophy to Business Ethics

Authors: Elmamy Ahmedsalem

Abstract:

The world has witnessed the collapse of many corporate giants as a result of unethical behavior in recent decades. This has induced a series of questions by the global community on why such occurrences could happen, even with corporate governance in place. This paper attempts to propose a philosophical approach from an Islamic perspective to be consolidated with current corporate governance in order to confront contemporary dilemmas. In this paper, ethical theories are presented as a discussion followed by their applications to modern cases of financial collapses. Virtue ethics by Aristotle, justice and fairness by John Rawls, deontology by Immanuel Kant, and utilitarianism by John Stuart Mill, are the four theories which can then be contrasted with the paradigm of Muslim scholars. Despite the differences between the fundamental principles of Islamic and Western worldviews, their ethical theories are aimed at making right decisions and solving ethical dilemmas based on what is good for society. Therefore, Islamic principles should be synthesized with Western philosophy to form a more coherent framework. The integration of Islamic and western ethical theories into business is important for sound corporate governance.

Keywords: Business ethics, Islamic philosophy, western philosophy, Western and Islamic Worldview of Ethics.

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