Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 324

Search results for: western philosophy

324 Application of Western and Islamic Philosophy to Business Ethics

Authors: Elmamy Ahmedsalem

Abstract:

The world has witnessed the collapse of many corporate giants as a result of unethical behavior in recent decades. This has induced a series of questions by the global community on why such occurrences could happen, even with corporate governance in place. This paper attempts to propose a philosophical approach from an Islamic perspective to be consolidated with current corporate governance in order to confront contemporary dilemmas. In this paper, ethical theories are presented as a discussion followed by their applications to modern cases of financial collapses. Virtue ethics by Aristotle, justice and fairness by John Rawls, deontology by Immanuel Kant, and utilitarianism by John Stuart Mill, are the four theories which can then be contrasted with the paradigm of Muslim scholars. Despite the differences between the fundamental principles of Islamic and Western worldviews, their ethical theories are aimed at making right decisions and solving ethical dilemmas based on what is good for society. Therefore, Islamic principles should be synthesized with Western philosophy to form a more coherent framework. The integration of Islamic and western ethical theories into business is important for sound corporate governance.

Keywords: Business ethics, Islamic philosophy, western philosophy, Western and Islamic Worldview of Ethics.

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323 Considering the Relationship between Architecture and Philosophy: Toyo Ito’s Conceptual Architecture

Authors: Serap Durmus

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to exemplify the relation of architecture and philosophy over the Japanese architect Toyo Ito’s conceptual architecture. The study is practiced in ‘Architecture and Philosophy Readings’ elective course with 22 sophomore architecture students in Karadeniz Technical University Department of Architecture. It is planned as a workshop, which discusses the design philosophy of Toyo Ito’s buildings and the reflections of concept in his intellectual architecture. So, the paper contains Toyo Ito’s philosophy, his discourses and buildings and also thinking similarities with philosopher Gilles Deleuze. Thus, the workshop of course is about architecture and philosophy relationship. With this aspect, a holistic graphic representation is aimed for Toyo Ito who thinks that everything composes a whole. As a result, it can be said that architect and philosopher interaction in architecture and philosophy relation supports creative thinking. Conceptual architecture of Toyo Ito has philosophical roots and his philosophy can be read over his buildings and can be represent totally via a holistic pattern.

Keywords: Architecture, philosophy, Toyo Ito, conceptual architecture, Gilles Deleuze.

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322 Understanding the Architecture of Hindu Temples: A Philosophical Interpretation

Authors: A. Bandyopadhyay

Abstract:

Vedic philosophy is one of the oldest existing philosophies of the world. Started around 6500 BC, in Western Indian subcontinent, the Indus valley Civilizations developed a theology which, gradually developed into a well-established philosophy of beliefs, popularly known as ‘Hindu religion’. In Vedic theology, the abstract concept of God was formulated mostly by close observation of the dynamicity and the recurrence of natural and universal phenomena. Through the ages, the philosophy of this theology went through various discursions, debates, and questionings and the abstract concept of God was, in time, formalized into more representational forms by the means of various signs and symbols. Often, these symbols were used in more subtle ways in the construction of “sacred” sculptures and structures. Apparently, two different philosophies were developed from the Vedic philosophy and these two philosophies are mostly seen in the northern part and southern part of the Indian subcontinent. This paper tries to summarize the complex philosophical treaties of Hinduism of northern and southern India and seeks to understand the meanings of the various signs and symbolisms that were incorporated in the architecture of Hindu temples, including the names given to various parts of the temples. The Hindu temples are not only places of worship or ‘houses of Gods’ like the Greek and Roman temples but are also structures that symbolize the dynamicity and also spiritual upliftment of human beings.

Keywords: Hindu, philosophy, temple, Vedic.

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321 Analysis of the Development Strategies of Cultural and Creative Industry in Small Towns of Western Zhejiang

Authors: Dandong Ge, Lei Tong

Abstract:

This paper studies the cultural creative industry's characteristics between the eastern and western of Zhejiang Province. Through the Comparative analysis, this paper works out that the cultural creative industry in western Zhejiang Province is mainly promoted by the inside force, and its level of development is obviously much lower than the eastern Zhejiang Province whose cultural creative industry is mainly pulled by outside forces. So this paper worked out some strategies for the development of cultural creative industry in western Zhejiang Province, which are based on the economic foundation and the cultural resource endowments. Finally these strategies will help to improve the whole development level of western Zhejiang Province, and contribute to the balance development between the west and east of Zhejiang Province.

Keywords: Cultural creative industry, underdeveloped, western Zhejiang, strategies.

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320 A Comparison between Russian and Western Approach for Deep Foundation Design

Authors: Saeed Delara, Kendra MacKay

Abstract:

Varying methodologies are considered for pile design for both Russian and Western approaches. Although both approaches rely on toe and side frictional resistances, different calculation methods are proposed to estimate pile capacity. The Western approach relies on compactness (internal friction angle) of soil for cohesionless soils and undrained shear strength for cohesive soils. The Russian approach relies on grain size for cohesionless soils and liquidity index for cohesive soils. Though most recommended methods in the Western approaches are relatively simple methods to predict pile settlement, the Russian approach provides a detailed method to estimate single pile and pile group settlement. Details to calculate pile axial capacity and settlement using the Russian and Western approaches are discussed and compared against field test results.

Keywords: Pile capacity, pile settlement, Russian approach, western approach.

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319 Tax Incentives in Western Balkan Countries

Authors: H. Šimović, M. Mihelja Žaja

Abstract:

This paper provides an analysis of corporate income tax (CIT) incentives in the Western Balkan countries: Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia and Albania. Western Balkan countries, as other transition and developing countries, use large number of the corporate income tax incentives (CIT) to attract foreign investments and to stimulate economic activity. The main goal of this paper is to investigate how often these countries use CIT incentives and provide review of existing tax incentives in Western Balkan countries. Paper will focus on reduced CIT rates, tax holidays, and other investment incentives which imply incentives like accelerated depreciation, tax allowances and tax credits.

Keywords: tax incentives, tax rate, tax holidays, WesternBalkan countries

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318 Dao Embodied – Embodying Dao: The Body as Locus of Personal Cultivation in Ancient Daoist and Confucian Philosophy

Authors: Geir Sigurðsson

Abstract:

This paper compares ancient Daoist and Confucian approaches to the human body as a locus for learning, edification or personal cultivation. While pointing out some major differences between ancient Chinese and mainstream Western visions of the body, it seeks at the same time inspiration in some seminal Western phenomenological and post-structuralist writings, in particular from Maurice Merleau-Ponty and Pierre Bourdieu. By clarifying the somewhat dissimilar scopes of foci found in Daoist and Confucian philosophies with regard to the role of and attitude to the body, the conclusion is nevertheless that their approaches are comparable, and that both traditions take the physical body to play a vital role in the cultivation of excellence. Lastly, it will be argued that cosmological underpinnings prevent the Confucian li from being rigid and invariable and that it rather emerges as a flexible learning device to train through active embodiment a refined sensibility for one’s cultural environment.

Keywords: Body, Confucianism, Daoism, li, phenomenology, ritual.

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317 The Impact of Host Country Effects on Transferring HRM Practices from Western Headquarters to Ukrainian Subsidiaries

Authors: O. A. Novitskaya

Abstract:

The emerging markets of post-USSR countries have attracted Western multinational companies; however, weak institutions and unstable host country environments have hindered the implementation of successful management practices. The Ukrainian market, in light of recent events, is particularly interesting to study for its compatibility with Western businesses. This paper focuses on factors that can facilitate or inhibit the transfer of human resource management practices from Western headquarters to Ukrainian subsidiaries. To explain the national context’s effects better, a business systems approach has been applied to a qualitative study of 16 wholly owned Western subsidiaries, dissecting the reasons for a weak integration of Western practices in Ukraine. Results show that underdeveloped institutions have forced companies to develop additional practices that compensate for national weaknesses, as well as to adjust to a constantly changing environment. Flexibility and local responsiveness were observed as vital for success in Ukraine.

Keywords: Business system, HR practices, human resource management, multinational companies, Ukraine.

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316 Diversity of Short-Horned Grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Caelifera) from Forested Region of Kolhapur District, Maharashtra, India of Northern Western Ghats

Authors: Sunil M. Gaikwad, Yogesh J. Koli, Gopal A. Raut, Ganesh P. Bhawane

Abstract:

The present investigation was directed to study the diversity of short-horned grasshoppers from a forested area of Kolhapur district, Maharashtra, India, which is spread along the hilly terrain of the Northern Western Ghats. The collection was made during 2013 to 2015, and identified with the help of a reference collection of ZSI, Kolkata, and recent literature and dry preserved. The study resulted in the enumeration of 40 species of short-horned grasshoppers belonging to four families of suborder: Caelifera. The family Acrididae was dominant (27 species) followed by Tetrigidae (eight species), Pyrgomorphidae (four species) and Chorotypidae (one species). The report of 40 species from the forest habitat of the study region highlights the significance of the Western Ghats. Ecologically, short-horned grasshoppers are integral to food chains, being consumed by a wide variety of animals. The observations of the present investigation may prove useful for conservation of the Diversity in Northern Western Ghats.

Keywords: Diversity, Kolhapur, Northern Western Ghats, Short-horned grasshoppers.

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315 Motivation and Livelihood of Undergraduate Students Based On Sufficiency Economy Philosophy in Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Luedech Girdwichai, Suwaree Yordchim, Phusit Phukamchanoad

Abstract:

This research aimed to study about motivation for students of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University to follow and happily live according to Sufficiency Economy Philosophy. Having collected 394 questionnaires, the result showed that most students had great motivation to follow this philosophy at a high level, especially in terms of righteousness in profession; besides, students’ determination and intention to apply this philosophy in everyday lives was impressive though the students’ families were not completely ready. Each of students, in fact, consulted their families for plans of any activities without tiredness and discouragement based on the saying, “Where there’s a will, there’s a way.” On the part of universities life, students interacted with society and created projects that supported income to the community including exercises, sports, recreational activities, and community services.

Keywords: Livelihood, Motivation, Sufficiency Economy Philosophy, Undergraduate Students of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University.

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314 An Ontological Approach to Existentialist Theatre and Theatre of the Absurd in the Works of Jean-Paul Sartre and Samuel Beckett

Authors: Gülten Silindir Keretli

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to analyse the works of playwrights within the framework of existential philosophy. It is to observe the ontological existence in the plays of No Exit and Endgame. Literary works will be discussed separately in each section of this study. The despair of post-war generation of Europe problematized the ‘human condition’ in every field of literature which is the very product of social upheaval. With this concern in his mind, Sartre’s creative works portrayed man as a lonely being, burdened with terrifying freedom to choose and create his own meaning in an apparently meaningless world. The traces of the existential thought are to be found throughout the history of philosophy and literature. On the other hand, the theatre of the absurd is a form of drama showing the absurdity of the human condition and it is heavily influenced by the existential philosophy. Beckett is the most influential playwright of the theatre of the absurd. The themes and thoughts in his plays share many tenets of the existential philosophy. The existential philosophy posits the meaninglessness of existence and it regards man as being thrown into the universe and into desolate isolation. To overcome loneliness and isolation, the human ego needs recognition from the other people. Sartre calls this need of recognition as the need for ‘the Look’ (Le regard) from the Other. In this paper, existentialist philosophy and existentialist angst will be elaborated and then the works of existentialist theatre and theatre of absurd will be discussed within the framework of existential philosophy.

Keywords: Consciousness, existentialism, the notion of absurd, the other.

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313 Analysis of the Learners’ Responses of the Adjusted Rorschach Comprehensive System: Critical Psychological Perspective

Authors: Mokgadi Moletsane-Kekae, Robert Kananga Mukuna

Abstract:

The study focused on the analysis of the Adjusted Rorschach Comprehensive System’s responses. The objective of this study is to analyse the participants’ response rate of the Adjusted Rorschach Comprehensive System with regards to critical psychology approach. The use of critical psychology theory in this study was crucial because it responds to the current inadequate western theory or practice in the field of psychology. The study adopted a qualitative approach and a case study design. The study was grounded on interpretivist paradigm. The sample size comprised six learners (three boys and three girls, aged of 14 years) from historically disadvantaged school in the Western Cape, South Africa. The Adjusted Rorschach Comprehensive System (ARCS) administration procedure, biographical information, semi-structured interviews, and observation were used to collect data. Data was analysed using thematic framework. The study found out that, factors that increased the response rates during the administration of ARCS were, language, seating arrangement, drawing, viewing, and describing. The study recommended that, psychological test designers take into consideration the philosophy or worldviews of the local people for whom the test is designed to minimize low response rates.

Keywords: Adjusted Rorschach comprehensive system, critical psychology, learners, responses.

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312 Western Architecture in Grand Palace, Under Thai Social and Cultural Conditions in the Early Reign of King Chulalongkorn

Authors: Somchai Seviset, Lin Jian Qun

Abstract:

Chakri Maha Prasart Throne Hall is the important Audience hall in Grand Palace, Bangkok, Thailand which was established in the early reign of King Chulalongkorn (King Rama V) in 1882. The Throne was designed with the distinguished architecture by significant blending of Western and Thai Traditional styles under the Thai Social changing in Colony Era and Thai traditional culture. The western style was represented of modernization and civilization as the other European countries. In the other hand, Thai traditional architecture style with national emblem or Royal emblem was shown the status and power of Thai King as the Thai believes and culture.

Keywords: Chakri Maha Prasart Throne hall, Western Architecture, Thai grand palace, Thai social and cultural conditions, The early reign of King Chulalongkorn era.

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311 Guideline for Happy Living According to Sufficiency Economy Philosophy of People and Community Leaders in Urban Communities

Authors: Phusit Phukamchanoad

Abstract:

This research was to analyze personality’s activities based on sufficiency economy philosophy of people and community leaders in urban communities. The data were collected through questionnaires administered to 392 people and interviewed with community leaders. It was found that most people revealed that their lives depend on activities in accordance with the sufficiency economy philosophy in high level especially, being honest and aware on sufficiency, occupations, peacefulness in the community leaders’ side, they reported on extravagant reduction, planting home vegetable garden, having household accounting, expense planning by dividing into 3 categories; 1) saving for illness cover 2) saving for business cover, and 3) household daily expense. The samples were also adjusted their livings quite well with the rapid change of urbanization. Although those people have encountered with any hardships, their honesty in occupations and awareness on sufficiency remain to survive happily.

Keywords: Sufficiency Economy Philosophy, individual and household activities, urban community.

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310 21st Century Islam: Global Challenges of Islamic Representation and Knowledge Acquisition

Authors: M. M. Muhammed, O. Khuzaima

Abstract:

This research examined and outlined some of the challenges facing Islam and Muslims in the 21st century, considering global Islamic representation and knowledge acquisition as key objectives. It was observed that the Western media misrepresentation of Islam and the Western ethos embodied by the acquisition of western civilisation are major challenges faced by Islam and Muslims today. The problem of sectarianism, decline in the socio-economic power of Muslim communities and the archaic nature of the Islamic creed were recorded as major actors to the evolving global Islamic issues. It was therefore concluded that Islam is not the reason for these challenges, rather the action of some Muslims and non-Muslims were the contributing factors to the pandemics faced by Islam and Muslims. Some relevant recommendations were made to the Islamic world that could serve as effectual solutions to these lingering problems.

Keywords: Islam, challenges, Misrepresentation, twenty-first century.

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309 Management of Local Towns (Tambon) According to Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy

Authors: Wichian Sriprachan, Chutikarn Sriviboon

Abstract:

The objectives of this research were to study the management of local towns and to develop a better model of town management according to the Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy. This study utilized qualitative research, field research, as well as documentary research at the same time. A total of 10 local towns or Tambons of Supanburi province, Thailand were selected for an in-depth interview. The findings revealed that the model of local town management according to Philosophy of Sufficient Economy was in a level of “good” and the model of management has the five basic guidelines: 1) ability to manage budget information and keep it up-to-date, 2) ability to decision making according to democracy rules, 3) ability to use check and balance system, 4) ability to control, follow, and evaluation, and 5) ability to allow the general public to participate. In addition, the findings also revealed that the human resource management according to Philosophy of Sufficient Economy includes obeying laws, using proper knowledge, and having integrity in five areas: plan, recruit, select, train, and maintain human resources.  

Keywords: Management, Local Town (Tambon), Principles of Sufficiency Economy.

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308 Management by Sufficient Economy Philosophy for Hospitality Business in Samut Songkram

Authors: Krisada Sungkhamanee

Abstract:

The objectives of this research are to know the management form of Samut Songkram lodging entrepreneurs with sufficient economy framework, to know the threat that affect this business and drawing the fit model for this province in order to sustain their business with Samut Songkram style. What will happen if they do not use this philosophy? Will they have a cash short fall? The data and information are collected by informal discussion with 8 managers and 400 questionnaires. We will use a mix of methods both qualitative research and quantitative research for our study. Bent Flyvbjerg’s phronesis is utilized for this analysis. Our research will prove that sufficient economy can help small and medium business firms solve their problems. We think that the results of our research will be a financial model to solve many problems of the entrepreneurs and this way will use to practice in other areas of our country. 

Keywords: Samut Songkram, Hospitality Business, Sufficient Economy Philosophy.

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307 Bioremediation of Oil-Polluted Soil of Western Kazakhstan

Authors: S. A. Aytkeldiyeva, A. K. Sadanov, E. R. Faizulina, A. A. Kurmanbayev

Abstract:

15 strains of oil-destructing microorganisms were isolated from oil polluted soil of Western Kazakhstan. Strains 2-A and 41-3 with the highest oil-destructing activities were chosen from them. It was shown that these strains oxidized n-alkanes very well, but isoalkanes, isoparaffin, cycloparaffin and heavy aromatic compounds were destructed very slowly. These both strains were tested as preparations for bioremediation of oil-polluted soil in model and field experiments. The degree of utilizing of soil oil by this preparation was 79-84 % in field experiments.

Keywords: Bioremediation, n-alkanes, oil-polluted soil, oiloxidizingmicroorganisms.

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306 Open Science Philosophy and Paradigm of Scientific Research

Authors: C. Ardil

Abstract:

This paper presents the open science philosophy and paradigm of scientific research on how to transform classical research and innovation approaches. Open science is the practice of providing free and unrestricted online access to the products of scholarly research. Open science advocates for the immediate and unrestricted online access to published, peer-reviewed research in digital format. Open science research is made available for free in perpetuity and includes guidelines and/or licenses that communicate how researchers and readers can share and re-use the digital content. The emergence of open science has changed the scholarly research and publishing landscape, making research more broadly accessible to academic and non-academic audiences alike. Consequently, open science philosophy and its practice are discussed to cover all aspects of cyberscience in the context of research and innovation excellence for the benefit of global society.

Keywords: Open science, open data, open access, cyberscience , cybertechnology.

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305 Application of Vortex Tubes for Extracting Sediments Using SHARC Software - A Case Study of the Western Canal in the Dez Diversion Weir

Authors: A. H. Sajedi Pour, N. Hedayat, Z. Yazdi

Abstract:

Sediment loads transfer in hydraulic installations and their consequences for the O&M of modern canal systems is emerging as one of the most important considerations in hydraulic engineering projects apriticularly those which are inteded to feed the irrigation and draiange schemes of large command areas such as the Dez and Mogahn in Iran.. The aim of this paper is to investigate the applicability of the vortex tube as a viable means of extracting sediment loads entering the canal systems in general and the water inatke structures in particulars. The Western conveyance canal of the Dez Diversion weir which feeds the Karkheh Flood Plain in Sothwestern Dezful has been used as the case study using the data from the Dastmashan Hydrometric Station. The SHARC software has been used as an analytical framework to interprete the data. Results show that given the grain size D50 and the canal turbulence the adaption length from the beginning of the canal and after the diversion dam is estimated at 477 m, a point which is suitable for laying the vortex tube.

Keywords: Vortex tube, sediments, western canal, SHARCmodel

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304 Nazi Propaganda and the 1930 Berlin Film Premiere of “All Quiet on the Western Front”

Authors: Edward C. Smith III

Abstract:

Historical narration is an act that necessarily develops and deforms history. This “translation” is examined within the historical and political context of the 1930 Berlin film premiere of “All Quiet on the Western Front,” a film based on Erich Maria Remarque’s 1928 best-selling novel. Both the film and the novel appeared during an era in which life was conceived of as innately artistic. The emergence of this “aestheticization” of memory and history enabled conservative propaganda of the period to denounce all art that did not adhere conceptually to its political tenets, with “All Quiet” becoming yet another of its “victims.”

Keywords: Propaganda, Film, International Literature, Popular Culture.

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303 Philosophy of Education: The Challenges of Globalization and Innovation in the Information Society

Authors: Shattyk Aliyev, Zhakypbek Altayev, Zuchra Ismagambetova, Yerkin Massanov

Abstract:

Information society is an absolutely new public formation at which the infrastructure and the social relations correspond to the socialized essence of «information genotype» mankind. Information society is a natural social environment which allows the person to open completely the information nature, to use intelligence for joint creation with other people of new information on the basis of knowledge earlier saved up by previous generations.

Keywords: Information society, Philosophy, Education, Globalization and innovation.

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302 Sufficiency Economy: A Contribution to Economic Development

Authors: Prasopchoke Mongsawad

Abstract:

The Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy, bestowed by His Majesty the King Bhumibol Adulyadej to the people of Thailand, highlights a balanced way of living. Three principles of moderation reasonableness, and immunity, along with the conditions for morality and knowledge, can be applied to any level of the society–from an individual to the nation. The Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy helps address the current development challenges, which are issues on institutions, environmental sustainability, human well-being, and the role of the government.

Keywords: Sufficiency Economy, Development Theory, Sustainable Development, Environmental Sustainability, Social Capital, Human Well-Being,

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301 Nationalist Approach to the Music Culture in Early Republican Period in Turkey

Authors: Hilmi Yazici

Abstract:

The more homogenized population taken over by the Republic immediately after the Ottoman was being canalized towards the goal of national identity and the historical and cultural structure of the nation was being readdressed and redefined. Modernization and Westernization history of the new Turkey, which started with Ottoman reforms and took its final form with the Kemalist nation-state, politically resulted in transformation from a multinational empire to a “nation-state” and adopted reaching to the level of Western civilizations as a sociology ideal. This objective of change will be achieved, on the one hand, by finding the Turkish culture which was preserved only by the society and by instilling Western civilization to national culture, on the other hand.  In line with this, it is seen that in musical considerations while Turkish folk music was accepted and adopted as an indispensible part of Turkish identity, Turkish classical music was refused on the ground that it was not a part of Turkish identity. Again in this period, it is seen that with the notion of cultural reform, which is a part of “nation building”, the desire to create a national music to be performed with Western techniques brought along deliberate interventions to folk music.

Keywords: Folk song, Nationalism, National music, nation-state, Turkish music.

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300 Study on Guangzhou's Employment Subcentres and Polycentricity

Authors: L. Jiang

Abstract:

Since the late 1980s, the new phenomena of 'employment subcentres' or 'polycentricity' has appeared in the metropolises of North American and Western Europe and it has been an interesting topic for academics and researchers. This paper specifically uses one case study-Guangzhou to explore the development and the mechanism of employment subcentres and polycentricity in Chinese metropolises by spatial analysis method on the basis of the first economic census data. In conclusion, the paper regards that the employment subcentres and polycentricity has existed in Chinese metropolises. And that, the mechanism of them is mainly from the secondary industry instead of the tertiary industry in North American and Western Europe

Keywords: Employment Subcentre, Polycentricity, Guangzhou.

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299 The Epistemological Crisis in the Theory of Vittorio Guidano

Authors: Mauricio Otaíza Morales

Abstract:

This work shows a basic philosophical difficulty in the constructivist foundations of the cognitive posracionalist psychology of Vittorio Guidano. This is a difficulty caused by the problem of the existential crisis. It will be analyzed how Guidano-s suggestions about this problem depend on felt experience. Then it will appear how Guidano-s philosophy and psychotherapy must turn towards a phenomenological approach. Finally, some references are given about Eugen Gendlin-s philosophy which could be considered as a radical way to confront these questions.

Keywords: Cognitive posracionalist psychology of VittorioGuidano, Epistemological crisis, Existential crisis, Experience asdirectly felt.

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298 Bowen Ratio in Western São Paulo State, Brazil

Authors: Elaine C. Barboza, Antonio J. Machado

Abstract:

This paper discusses micrometeorological aspects of the urban climate in three cities in Western São Paulo State: Presidente Prudente, Assis and Iepê. Particular attention is paid to the method used to estimate the components of the energy balance at the surface. Estimates of convective fluxes showed that the Bowen ratio was an indicator of the local climate and that its magnitude varied between 0.3 and 0.7. Maximum values for the Bowen ratio occurred earlier in Iepê (11:00 am) than in Presidente Prudente (4:00 pm). The results indicate that the Bowen ratio is modulated by the radiation balance at the surface and by different clusters of vegetation.

Keywords: Bowen ratio, medium-sized cities, surface energy balance, urban climate.

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297 Analysis of Some Solutions to Protect the Tombolo of GIENS

Authors: Yves Lacroix, Van Van Than, Didier Leandri, Pierre Liardet

Abstract:

The tombolo of Giens is located in the town of Hyères (France). We recall the history of coastal erosion, and prominent factors affecting the evolution of the western tombolo. We then discuss the possibility of stabilizing the western tombolo. Our argumentation relies on a coupled model integrating swells, currents, water levels and sediment transport. We present the conclusions of the simulations of various scenarios, including pre-existing propositions from coastal engineering offices. We conclude that beach replenishment seems to be necessary but not sufficient for the stabilization of the beach. Breakwaters reveal effective particularly in the most exposed northern area. Some solutions fulfill conditions so as to be elected as satisfactory. We give a comparative analysis of the efficiency of 14 alternatives for the protection of the tombolo.

Keywords: Breakwaters, coupled models, replenishment, silting.

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296 Bioconcentration Analysis of Iodine Species in Seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii) from Maluku Marine as Alternative Food Source

Authors: Yeanchon H. Dulanlebit, Nikmans Hattu, Gloria Bora

Abstract:

Seaweed is a type of macro algae which are good source of iodine and have been widely used as food and nutrition supplement. One of iodine species that found in ocean plant is iodate. Analysis of iodate in seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii) from coastal area of Maluku has been done. The determination is done by using spectrophotometric method. Iodate in sample is reduced in excess of potassium iodide in the presence of acid solution, and then is reacted with starch to form blue complex. The study found out that the highest wavelength on determination of iodate species using spectrophotometer analysis method is 570 nm. Optimum value to yield maximum absorption is used in this research. Contents of iodate in seawater from coastal area of Ambon Island, Western Seram and Southeast Maluku are 0.2655, 0.2719 and 0.1760 mg/L, respectively. While in seaweeds from Ambon Island, Western Seram, Southeast Maluku-Taar, Ohoidertawun and Wab are 6.3122, 6.3293, 6.2333, 3.7406 and 4.4207 mg/kg in dry weight. Bioconcentration (enrichment) factor of iodate in seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii) from the three samples (cluster) is different; in Coastal area of Ambon Island, Western Seram and Southeast Maluku respectively are 23.78, 23.28 and 27.26.

Keywords: Bioconcentration, Eucheuma cottonii, iodate, iodine, seaweed.

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295 Analyzing and Comparing the Architectural Specifications and the Urban Role of Scientific– Technological Parks in Iran and the World

Authors: Shahryar Shaghaghi G., Mojtaba H. Ghoshouni, Bahareh S. Ghabel

Abstract:

The issue of scientific – technological parks has been proposed in several countries of the world especially in western countries since a few decades ago and its efficiency is under examination. In our county Iran, some scientific – technological parks have been established or are being established. This design would evaluate the urban role and method of architecture of these parks in order to criticize its efficiency and offer some suggestions, as much as possible to improve its building methods in Iran. The main problem of this design is that how much these parks in Iran do meet the international measurements. So for this reason, one scientific park in Iran and one from western countries would be studied and compared with each other.

Keywords: Applicability, Architectural pattern, Scientific _technological park , Urban role

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