Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30663
On the Perceived Awareness of Physical Education Teachers on Adoptable ICTs for PE

Authors: Seraphin D. Eyono Obono, Tholokuhle T. Ntshakala


Nations are still finding it quite difficult to win mega sport competitions despite the major contribution of sport to society in terms of social and economic development, personal health, and in education. Even though the world of sports has been transformed into a huge global economy, it is important to note that the first step of sport is usually its introduction to children at school through physical education or PE. In other words, nations who do not win mega sport competitions also suffer from a weak and neglected PE system. This problem of the neglect of PE systems is the main motivation of this research aimed at examining the factors affecting the perceived awareness of physical education teachers on the ICTs that are adoptable for the teaching and learning of physical education. Two types of research objectives will materialize this aim: relevant theories will be identified in relation to the analysis of the perceived ICT awareness of PE teachers and subsequent models will be compiled and designed from existing literature; the empirical testing of such theories and models will also be achieved through the survey of PE teachers from the Camperdown magisterial district of the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. The main hypothesis at the heart of this study is the relationship between the demographics of PE teachers, their behavior both as individuals and as social entities, and their perceived awareness of the ICTs that are adoptable for PE, as postulated by existing literature; except that this study categorizes human behavior under performance expectancy, computer attitude, and social influence. This hypothesis was partially confirmed by the survey conducted by this research in the sense that performance expectancy and teachers’ age, gender, computer usage, and class size were found to be the only factors affecting their awareness of ICTs for physical education.

Keywords: Teachers, Human Behavior, ICT Awareness, physical education

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1595


[1] J. Surman, “Sports and Recreation,” n.d, ch 10.
[2] K. Gilbert, and W. Bennett, “Sport for development and peace,” Sport and Society, 2012.
[3] EU-Commission, “Study on the contribution of sport to economic growth and employment in the EU,” 2012.
[4] G. Thornton, “SA 2010 soccer world cup bid: Executive Summary,”
[5] S. Allmers, and W. Maenning, “Economic impacts of the FIFA Soccer World Cups in France 1998, German 2006, and outlook for the South Africa 2010,” Eastern Economic Journal, vol. 35, pp. 500-519, 2009.
[6] T. CorneliBen, and C. Pfeifer, “The impact of participation in sports on educational attainment: new evidence from Germany,” 2007.
[7] A. Krishna, and E. Haglund, “Why do some countries win more Olympic medals? Lesson for social mobility and poverty reduction,” Economic and Political WEEKLY, 2008.
[8] S.R. Jory, and D.K. Boojihawon, “The economic Implications of the FIFA 2010 World Cup in South Africa,” African Journal of Business and Economic Research, pp. 7-21, 2011.
[9] S. Corbridge, and J. Cordridge, “Why is the England football team doing so poorly? A geographical analysis,” The London School of Economics and Political Science, unpublished.
[10] Z. n Dornyei, “Motivation in second and foreign language learning,” Language Teaching, vol. 31, pp. 117-135, 1998.
[11] M. Fishbein, and I, Ajzen, “Beliefs, attitude, intention, and behavior: A introduction to theory to theory and research,” Reading, MA: Addison- Wesley, 1975.
[12] I. Ajzen, “From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior,” In J. Kuhl, and J. Beckmann (Eds), Action-control: From cognition to behavior, Heidelberg:Sprinder, pp. 11-39, 1985.
[13] R.M. Ryan, and E.L. Deci, “Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-Being,” American Psychological Association, vol. 55, pg. 68-78, 2000.
[14] Z. Goktas, “The attitude of physical education and sport students towards Information and Communication Technologies,” TechTrends, vol. 56, pp. 22-30, 2012.
[15] A. Thomas, and G. Stratton, “What are we really doing with ICT in physical education: a national audit of equipment, use, teachers attitude, support, and training,” British Journal of Educational Technology, vol. 37, pp.617-632, 2006.
[16] I.C. Elendu, and A.N, Amasiatu, “Utilization and constrains to the use of sports-related websites and source of sports information among human kinetics students, University of Port Harcourt, River State, Nigeria,” Academic Research International, vol. 3, pp. 71-82, 2012.
[17] P.-O. Erixon, “School subject paradigms and teaching practice in lower secondary Swedish schools influenced by ICT and media,” Computers and Education, vol. 54, pp. 1212-1221, 2010.
[18] E. Bebetsos, and P. Antonior, “University students’ difference on attitude towards computer use. Comparison with students’ attitude towards physical activity,” Interactive Educational Multimedia, pp.20- 28, 2008
[19] S. Juniu, M. Shonfeld, and A. Ganot, “Technology integration in physical education teacher education program: A comparative analysis,” vol. 13, pp. 1-22, 2013.
[20] A. Heidary, H. Honary, and A. Saiah, “Application of information technology among physical education students at Payam Noor University Tehran-Iran,” International Journal of Education Research and Technology, vol. 2, pp. 47-49, 2012.
[21] P. Tearle, and G. Golder, “The use of ICT in teaching and learning of physical education in compulsory education: how do we prepare the workforce of the future?,” European Journal of Teacher Education, vol.31, pp. 55-72, 2008.
[22] T. Weir, and S. Connor, “The use of digital video in physical education,” Technology, Pedagogy, and Education, vol. 18, pp. 155-171, 2009.
[23] L. Lockyer, and J.W. Patterson, “Technology use, technology views: anticipating professional use of ICT for beginning physical and health education teachers,” Issues in Information Science and Information Technology, vol. 4, pp. 261-267, 2007.
[24] National Curriculum Statement (NCS), “Curriculum and assessment policy: Grade 7-9 Life Orientation,” Department of Education, Pretoria South Africa, 2011.
[25] T. Jones, and V.A. Clarke, “A computer attitude scale for secondary students,” Computers in Education, vol. 4, pp. 315-318.
[26] V. Venkatesh, M.G. Morris, G.B. Davis, and F.D. Davis, “User acceptance of information technology: Towards a unified view,” MIS Quartely, vol. 27, pp. 425-478, 2003.
[27] Y. Gulbahar, I. Guven, “A survey on ICT usage and the perceptions of social studies teachers in Turkey,” Educational Technology and Society, vol. 11, pp. 37-51, 2008.
[28] S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, "Education Management Information Systems Masterlist Data," Department of Education., Pretoria, South Africa, 2013.
[29] L. Naing, T. Winn, and B. N. Rusli, “ Practical Issues in Calculating Sample Size for Prevalence Studies,” Archives of Orofacial Sciences, vol. 1, pp. 9-14, 2006.
[30] Unesco, "The Place of Sports in Esucation A Comparative Study," 1956.
[31] D. P. Coe, J. M. Pivarnik, C. J. Womack, M. J. Reeves, and R. M. Malina, "Effect of physical education and activity levels on academic achievement in children," Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 38, p. 1515, 2006.
[32] M. Conner, and C.J Armitage, “Extending the theory of planned behavior: A review and avenues for further research,” Journal of Applied Social Psychology, vol. 28, pp. 1429-1464, 1998.