Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 85

Search results for: Dissolved oxygen

85 Prediction of Dissolved Oxygen in Rivers Using a Wang-Mendel Method – Case Study of Au Sable River

Authors: Mahmoud R. Shaghaghian

Abstract:

Amount of dissolve oxygen in a river has a great direct affect on aquatic macroinvertebrates and this would influence on the region ecosystem indirectly. In this paper it is tried to predict dissolved oxygen in rivers by employing an easy Fuzzy Logic Modeling, Wang Mendel method. This model just uses previous records to estimate upcoming values. For this purpose daily and hourly records of eight stations in Au Sable watershed in Michigan, United States are employed for 12 years and 50 days period respectively. Calculations indicate that for long period prediction it is better to increase input intervals. But for filling missed data it is advisable to decrease the interval. Increasing partitioning of input and output features influence a little on accuracy but make the model too time consuming. Increment in number of input data also act like number of partitioning. Large amount of train data does not modify accuracy essentially, so, an optimum training length should be selected.

Keywords: Dissolved oxygen, Au Sable, fuzzy logic modeling, Wang Mendel.

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84 Dissolved Oxygen Prediction Using Support Vector Machine

Authors: Sorayya Malek, Mogeeb Mosleh, Sharifah M. Syed

Abstract:

In this study, Support Vector Machine (SVM) technique was applied to predict the dichotomized value of Dissolved oxygen (DO) from two freshwater lakes namely Chini and Bera Lake (Malaysia). Data sample contained 11 parameters for water quality features from year 2005 until 2009. All data parameters were used to predicate the dissolved oxygen concentration which was dichotomized into 3 different levels (High, Medium, and Low). The input parameters were ranked, and forward selection method was applied to determine the optimum parameters that yield the lowest errors, and highest accuracy. Initial results showed that pH, Water Temperature, and Conductivity are the most important parameters that significantly affect the predication of DO. Then, SVM model was applied using the Anova kernel with those parameters yielded 74% accuracy rate. We concluded that using SVM models to predicate the DO is feasible, and using dichotomized value of DO yields higher prediction accuracy than using precise DO value.

Keywords: Dissolved oxygen, Water quality, predication DO, Support Vector Machine.

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83 Modeling of Oxygen Supply Profiles in Stirred-Tank Aggregated Stem Cells Cultivation Process

Authors: Vytautas Galvanauskas, Vykantas Grincas, Rimvydas Simutis

Abstract:

This paper investigates a possible practical solution for reasonable oxygen supply during the pluripotent stem cells expansion processes, where the stem cells propagate as aggregates in stirred-suspension bioreactors. Low glucose and low oxygen concentrations are preferred for efficient proliferation of pluripotent stem cells. However, strong oxygen limitation, especially inside of cell aggregates, can lead to cell starvation and death. In this research, the oxygen concentration profile inside of stem cell aggregates in a stem cell expansion process was predicted using a modified oxygen diffusion model. This profile can be realized during the stem cells cultivation process by manipulating the oxygen concentration in inlet gas or inlet gas flow. The proposed approach is relatively simple and may be attractive for installation in a real pluripotent stem cell expansion processes.

Keywords: Aggregated stem cells, dissolved oxygen profiles, modeling, stirred-tank, 3D expansion.

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82 Modeling Aeration of Sharp Crested Weirs by Using Support Vector Machines

Authors: Arun Goel

Abstract:

The present paper attempts to investigate the prediction of air entrainment rate and aeration efficiency of a free overfall jets issuing from a triangular sharp crested weir by using regression based modelling. The empirical equations, Support vector machine (polynomial and radial basis function) models and the linear regression techniques were applied on the triangular sharp crested weirs relating the air entrainment rate and the aeration efficiency to the input parameters namely drop height, discharge, and vertex angle. It was observed that there exists a good agreement between the measured values and the values obtained using empirical equations, Support vector machine (Polynomial and rbf) models and the linear regression techniques. The test results demonstrated that the SVM based (Poly & rbf) model also provided acceptable prediction of the measured values with reasonable accuracy along with empirical equations and linear regression techniques in modelling the air entrainment rate and the aeration efficiency of a free overfall jets issuing from triangular sharp crested weir. Further sensitivity analysis has also been performed to study the impact of input parameter on the output in terms of air entrainment rate and aeration efficiency.

Keywords: Air entrainment rate, dissolved oxygen, regression, SVM, weir.

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81 Mathematical Models for Overall Gas Transfer Coefficient Using Different Theories and Evaluating Their Measurement Accuracy

Authors: Shashank.B. Thakre, Lalit.B. Bhuyar, Samir.J. Deshmukh

Abstract:

Oxygen transfer, the process by which oxygen is transferred from the gaseous to liquid phase, is a vital part of the waste water treatment process. Because of low solubility of oxygen and consequent low rate of oxygen transfer, sufficient oxygen to meet the requirement of aerobic waste does not enter through normal surface air water interface. Many theories have come up in explaining the mechanism of gas transfer and absorption of non-reacting gases in a liquid, of out of which, Two film theory is important. An exiting mathematical model determines approximate value of Overall Gas Transfer coefficient. The Overall Gas Transfer coefficient, in case of Penetration theory, is 1.13 time more than that obtained in case of Two film theory. The difference is due to the difference in assumptions in the two theories. The paper aims at development of mathematical model which determines the value of Overall Gas Transfer coefficient with greater accuracy than the existing model.

Keywords: Theories, Dissolved oxygen, Mathematical model, Gas Transfer coefficient, Accuracy.

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80 Effect of Different Configurations of Mechanical Aerators on Oxygen Transfer and Aeration Efficiency with respect to Power Consumption

Authors: S.B. Thakre, L.B. Bhuyar, S.J. Deshmukh

Abstract:

This paper examines the use of mechanical aerator for oxidation-ditch process. The rotor, which controls the aeration, is the main component of the aeration process. Therefore, the objective of this study is to find out the variations in overall oxygen transfer coefficient (KLa) and aeration efficiency (AE) for different configurations of aerator by varying the parameters viz. speed of aerator, depth of immersion, blade tip angles so as to yield higher values of KLa and AE. Six different configurations of aerator were developed and fabricated in the laboratory and were tested for abovementioned parameters. The curved blade rotor (CBR) emerged as a potential aerator with blade tip angle of 47°. The mathematical models are developed for predicting the behaviour of CBR w.r.t kLa and power. In laboratory studies, the optimum value of KLa and AE were observed to be 10.33 h-1 and 2.269 kg O2/ kWh.

Keywords: Aerator, Aeration efficiency, Dissolve Oxygen, Overall oxygen transfer coefficient, Oxidation ditch.

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79 Improvement in Power Transformer Intelligent Dissolved Gas Analysis Method

Authors: S. Qaedi, S. Seyedtabaii

Abstract:

Non-Destructive evaluation of in-service power transformer condition is necessary for avoiding catastrophic failures. Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA) is one of the important methods. Traditional, statistical and intelligent DGA approaches have been adopted for accurate classification of incipient fault sources. Unfortunately, there are not often enough faulty patterns required for sufficient training of intelligent systems. By bootstrapping the shortcoming is expected to be alleviated and algorithms with better classification success rates to be obtained. In this paper the performance of an artificial neural network, K-Nearest Neighbour and support vector machine methods using bootstrapped data are detailed and shown that while the success rate of the ANN algorithms improves remarkably, the outcome of the others do not benefit so much from the provided enlarged data space. For assessment, two databases are employed: IEC TC10 and a dataset collected from reported data in papers. High average test success rate well exhibits the remarkable outcome.

Keywords: Dissolved gas analysis, Transformer incipient fault, Artificial Neural Network, Support Vector Machine (SVM), KNearest Neighbor (KNN)

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78 Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Dissolved Gas Analysis of Transformers-A Review

Authors: Deepika Bhalla, Raj Kumar Bansal, Hari Om Gupta

Abstract:

The gases generated in oil filled transformers can be used for qualitative determination of incipient faults. The Dissolved Gas Analysis has been widely used by utilities throughout the world as the primarily diagnostic tool for transformer maintenance. In this paper, various Artificial Intelligence Techniques that have been used by the researchers in the past have been reviewed, some conclusions have been drawn and a sequential hybrid system has been proposed. The synergy of ANN and FIS can be a good solution for reliable results for predicting faults because one should not rely on a single technology when dealing with real–life applications.

Keywords: Dissolved Gas Analysis, Artificial IntelligenceTechniques, Incipient Faults, Transformer Fault Diagnosis, andHybrid Systems.

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77 Separation of Dissolved Gas for Breathing of a Human against Sudden Waves Using Hollow Fiber Membranes

Authors: Pil Woo Heo, In Sub Park

Abstract:

The separation of dissolved gas including dissolved oxygen can be used in breathing for a human under water. When one is suddenly wrecked or meets a tsunami, one is instantly drowned and cannot breathe under water. To avoid this crisis, when we meet waves, the dissolved gas separated from water by wave is used, while air can be used to breathe when we are about to escape from water. In this thesis, we investigated the separation characteristics of dissolved gas using the pipe type of hollow fiber membrane with polypropylene and the nude type of one with polysulfone. The hollow fiber membranes with good characteristics under water are used to separate the dissolved gas. The hollow fiber membranes with good characteristics in an air are used to transfer air. The combination of membranes with good separation characteristics under water and good transferring one in an air is used to breathe instantly under water to be alive at crisis. These results showed that polypropylene represented better performance than polysulfone under both of air and water conditions.

Keywords: separation, wave, dissolved gas, hollow fiber

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76 Application of Fuzzy Logic in Fault Diagnosis in Transformers using Dissolved Gas based on Different Standards

Authors: Rahmatollah Hooshmand, Mahdi Banejad

Abstract:

One of the problems in fault diagnosis of transformer based on dissolved gas, is lack of matching the result of fault diagnosis of different standards with the real world. In this paper, the result of the different standards is analyzed using fuzzy and the result is compared with the empirical test. The comparison between the suggested method and existing methods indicate the capability of the suggested method in on-line fault diagnosis of the transformers. In addition, in some cases the existing standards are not able to diagnose the fault. In theses cases, the presented method has the potential of diagnosing the fault. The information of three transformers is used to the show the capability of the suggested method in diagnosing the fault. The results validate the capability of the presented method in fault diagnosis of the transformer.

Keywords: Fault Diagnosis of Transformer, Dissolved Gas, Fuzzy Logic.

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75 Effect of Oxygen on Biochar Yield and Properties

Authors: Ramlan Zailani, Halim Ghafar, Mohamad Sofian So'aib

Abstract:

Air infiltration in mass scale industrial applications of bio char production is inevitable. The presence of oxygen during the carbonization process is detrimental to the production of biochar yield and properties. The experiment was carried out on several wood species in a fixed-bed pyrolyser under various fractions of oxygen ranging from 0% to 11% by varying nitrogen and oxygen composition in the pyrolysing gas mixtures at desired compositions. The bed temperature and holding time were also varied. Process optimization was carried out by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) by employing Central Composite Design (CCD) using Design Expert 6.0 Software. The effect of oxygen ratio and holding time on biochar yield within the range studied were statistically significant. From the analysis result, optimum condition of 15.2% biochar yield of mangrove wood was predicted at pyrolysis temperature of 403 oC, oxygen percentage of 2.3% and holding time of two hours. This prediction agreed well with the experiment finding of 15.1% biochar yield.

Keywords: Mangrove wood, slow pyrolysis, oxygen infiltration.

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74 Oxygen Transfer by Multiple Inclined Plunging Water Jets

Authors: Surinder Deswal

Abstract:

There has been a growing interest in the oxygenation by plunging water jets in the last few years due to their inherent advantages, like energy-efficient, low operation cost, etc. Though a lot of work has been reported on the oxygen-transfer by single plunging water jets but very few studies have been carried out using multiple plunging jets. In this paper, volumetric oxygen-transfer coefficient and oxygen-transfer efficiency has been studied experimentally for multiple inclined plunging jets (having jet plunge angle of 60 0 ) in a pool of water for different configurations, in terms of varying number of jets and jet diameters. This research suggests that the volumetric oxygen-transfer coefficient and oxygentransfer efficiency of the multiple inclined plunging jets for air-water system are significantly higher than those of a single vertical as well as inclined plunging jet for same flow area and other similar conditions. The study also reveals that the oxygen-transfer increase with increase in number of multiple jets under similar conditions, which will be most advantageous and energy-efficient in practical situations when large volumes of wastewaters are to be treated. A relationship between volumetric oxygen-transfer coefficient and jet parameters is also proposed. The suggested relationship predicts the volumetric oxygen-transfer coefficient for multiple inclined plunging jet(s) within a scatter of ±15 percent. The relationship will be quite useful in scale-up and in deciding optimum configuration of multiple inclined plunging jet aeration system.

Keywords: Multiple inclined plunging jets, jet plunge angle, volumetric oxygen-transfer coefficient, oxygen-transfer efficiency.

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73 Oxygen-Interstitials and Group-V Element Doping for p-Type ZnO

Authors: A. M. Gsiea, J. P. Goss, P. R. Briddon, K. M. Etmimi

Abstract:

In realizing devices using ZnO, a key challenge is the production of p-type material. Substitution of oxygen by a group-V impurity is thought to result in deep acceptor levels, but a candidate made up from a complex of a group-V impurity (P, As, Sb) on a Zn site coupled with two vacant Zn sites is widely viewed as a candidate. We show using density-functional simulations that in contrast to such a view, complexes involving oxygen interstitials are energetically more favorable, resulting in group-V impurities coordinated with four, five or six oxygen atoms.

Keywords: DFT, Oxygen, p-Type, ZnO.

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72 Determine of Constant Coefficients to RelateTotal Dissolved Solids to Electrical Conductivity

Authors: M. Siosemarde, F. Kave, E. Pazira, H. Sedghi, S. J. Ghaderi

Abstract:

Salinity is a measure of the amount of salts in the water. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) as salinity parameter are often determined using laborious and time consuming laboratory tests, but it may be more appropriate and economical to develop a method which uses a more simple soil salinity index. Because dissolved ions increase salinity as well as conductivity, the two measures are related. The aim of this research was determine of constant coefficients for predicting of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) based on Electrical Conductivity (EC) with Statistics of Correlation coefficient, Root mean square error, Maximum error, Mean Bias error, Mean absolute error, Relative error and Coefficient of residual mass. For this purpose, two experimental areas (S1, S2) of Khuzestan province-IRAN were selected and four treatments with three replications by series of double rings were applied. The treatments were included 25cm, 50cm, 75cm and 100cm water application. The results showed the values 16.3 & 12.4 were the best constant coefficients for predicting of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) based on EC in Pilot S1 and S2 with correlation coefficient 0.977 & 0.997 and 191.1 & 106.1 Root mean square errors (RMSE) respectively.

Keywords: constant coefficients, electrical conductivity, Khuzestan plain and total dissolved solids.

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71 Synthesis and Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Sulphonic Acid-Doped Polyaniline When Exposed to Oxygen Gas

Authors: S.F.S. Draman, R. Daik, A. Musa

Abstract:

Three sulphonic acid-doped polyanilines were synthesized through chemical oxidation at low temperature (0-5 oC) and potential of these polymers as sensing agent for O2 gas detection in terms of fluorescence quenching was studied. Sulphuric acid, dodecylbenzene sulphonic acid (DBSA) and camphor sulphonic acid (CSA) were used as doping agents. All polymers obtained were dark green powder. Polymers obtained were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, thermogravimetry analysis, elemental analysis, differential scanning calorimeter and gel permeation chromatography. Characterizations carried out showed that polymers were successfully synthesized with mass recovery for sulphuric aciddoped polyaniline (SPAN), DBSA-doped polyaniline (DBSA-doped PANI) and CSA-doped polyaniline (CSA-doped PANI) of 71.40%, 75.00% and 39.96%, respectively. Doping level of SPAN, DBSAdoped PANI and CSA-doped PANI were 32.86%, 33.13% and 53.96%, respectively as determined based on elemental analysis. Sensing test was carried out on polymer sample in the form of solution and film by using fluorescence spectrophotometer. Samples of polymer solution and polymer film showed positive response towards O2 exposure. All polymer solutions and films were fully regenerated by using N2 gas within 1 hour period. Photostability study showed that all samples of polymer solutions and films were stable towards light when continuously exposed to xenon lamp for 9 hours. The relative standard deviation (RSD) values for SPAN solution, DBSA-doped PANI solution and CSA-doped PANI solution for repeatability were 0.23%, 0.64% and 0.76%, respectively. Meanwhile RSD values for reproducibility were 2.36%, 6.98% and 1.27%, respectively. Results for SPAN film, DBSAdoped PANI film and CSA-doped PANI film showed the same pattern with RSD values for repeatability of 0.52%, 4.05% and 0.90%, respectively. Meanwhile RSD values for reproducibility were 2.91%, 10.05% and 7.42%, respectively. The study on effect of the flow rate on response time was carried out using 3 different rates which were 0.25 mL/s, 1.00 mL/s and 2.00 mL/s. Results obtained showed that the higher the flow rate, the shorter the response time.

Keywords: conjugated polymer, doping, fluorescence quenching, oxygen gas.

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70 The Effects of Biomass Parameters on the Dissolved Organic Carbon Removal in a Sponge Submerged Membrane Bioreactor

Authors: M. F. R. Zuthi, H. H. Ngo, W. S. Guo, T. T. Nguyen

Abstract:

A novel sponge submerged membrane bioreactor (SSMBR) was developed to effectively remove organics and nutrients from wastewater. Sponge is introduced within the SSMBR as a medium for the attached growth of biomass. This paper evaluates the effects of new and acclimatized sponges for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal from wastewater at different mixed liquor suspended solids- (MLSS) concentration of the sludge. It was observed in a series of experimental studies that the acclimatized sponge performed better than the new sponge whilst the optimum DOC removal could be achieved at 10g/L of MLSS with the acclimatized sponge. Moreover, the paper analyses the relationships between the MLSSsponge/MLSSsludge and the DOC removal efficiency of SSMBR. The results showed a non-linear relationship between the biomass parameters of the sponge and the sludge, and the DOC removal efficiency of SSMBR. A second-order polynomial function could reasonably represent these relationships.

Keywords: Acclimatization, Dissolved organic carbon, Mathematical model, Sponge submerged membrane bioreactor.

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69 Numerical Study on CO2 Pollution in an Ignition Chamber by Oxygen Enrichment

Authors: Zohreh Orshesh

Abstract:

In this study, a 3D combustion chamber was simulated using FLUENT 6.32. Aims to obtain accurate information about the profile of the combustion in the furnace and also check the effect of oxygen enrichment on the combustion process. Oxygen enrichment is an effective way to reduce combustion pollutant. The flow rate of air to fuel ratio is varied as 1.3, 3.2 and 5.1 and the oxygen enriched flow rates are 28, 54 and 68 lit/min. Combustion simulations typically involve the solution of the turbulent flows with heat transfer, species transport and chemical reactions. It is common to use the Reynolds-averaged form of the governing equation in conjunction with a suitable turbulence model. The 3D Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations with standard k-ε turbulence model are solved together by Fluent 6.3 software. First order upwind scheme is used to model governing equations and the SIMPLE algorithm is used as pressure velocity coupling. Species mass fractions at the wall are assumed to have zero normal gradients.Results show that minimum mole fraction of CO2 happens when the flow rate ratio of air to fuel is 5.1. Additionally, in a fixed oxygen enrichment condition, increasing the air to fuel ratio will increase the temperature peak. As a result, oxygen-enrichment can reduce the CO2 emission at this kind of furnace in high air to fuel rates.

Keywords: Combustion chamber, Oxygen enrichment, Reynolds Averaged Navier- Stokes, CO2 emission

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68 Mechanical Behaviour and Electrical Conductivity of Oxygen Separation Membrane under Uniaxial Compressive Loading

Authors: Wakako Araki, Jürgen Malzbender

Abstract:

The mechanical deformation and the electrical conductivity of lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite oxide under uniaxial compression were investigated at various temperatures up to 1073 K. The material reveals a rather complex mechanical behaviour related to its ferroelasticity and completely different stress-strain curves are obtained during the 1st and 2nd loading cycles. A distinctive ferroelastic creep was observed at 293 K whilst typical ferroelastic stress-strain curve were obtained in the temperature range from 473 K to 873 K. At 1073 K, on the other hand, high-temperature creep deformation was observed instead of ferroelastic deformation. The conductivity increases with increasing compressive stress at all the temperatures. The increase in conductivity is related to both geometrical and piezoelectric effects. From 293 K to 873 K, where the material exhibits ferroelastic behaviour, the variation in the total conductivity decreases with increasing temperature. The contribution of the piezoelectric effect to the total conductivity variation also decreases with increasing temperature and the maximum in piezoconductivity has a value of about 0.75 % at 293 K for a compressive stress of 100 MPa. There is no effect of domain switching on conductivity except for the geometric effect. At 1073 K, the conductivity is simply proportional to the compressive strain.

Keywords: Ferroelasticity, Piezoconductivity, oxygen separation membrane, perovskite.

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67 Study on the Atomic-Oxygen-Protection Film Preparation of Organic Silicon and Its Properties

Authors: Zheng-Kuohai, Yang-Shengsheng, Li-Zhonghua, Zhao-Lin

Abstract:

Materials used on exterior spacecraft surfaces are subjected to many environmental threats which can cause degradation, atomic oxygen is one of the most threats. We prepared organic silicon atomic-oxygen-protection film using method of polymerization. This paper presented the effects on the film structure and its durability of the preparation processing, and analyzed the polymerization theory, the film structure and composition of the film. At last, we tested the film in our ground based atomic oxygen simulator, and indicated that the film worked well.

Keywords: Atomic oxygen, siloxane, protection, plasma, polymerization.

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66 Miocene Warm Tropical Climate: Evidence Based on Oxygen Isotope in Central Java, Indonesia

Authors: Akmaluddin, Koichiro Watanabe, Akihiro Kano, Wartono Rahardjo

Abstract:

Oxygen and carbon isotopes records of multi-species planktonic, benthic foraminifera and bulk carbonate sample from Central Java Indonesia demonstrate that warm sea surface temperature occurred during the Miocene. Planktonic δ18O values from this study consistently lighter (-4 to -3 ‰PDB) than previous studies that indicate sea surface temperature during Miocene in this area was warm than tropical/equatorial localities. A surprising decrease of oxygen isotopic composition was recorded at ±14 Ma where the maximum of δ18O values is -4.87 ‰PDB for Orbulina universa, -5.02 ‰PDB for Globigerinoides sacculifer and -4.30 ‰PDB for Globoquadrina dehiscens, this event we predict as Middle Miocene Optimum. Warming of sea surface temperature we interpret as related to the development of Western Pacific Warm Pool where warm water from Pacific Ocean through the Indonesian seaway appears to remain during Miocene. Our result also show increasing suddenly of oxygen isotope values of planktic, benthic and bulk carbonate sample from ± 12 Ma, the increasing cooled surface water relatively high degree with Late Miocene global cooling climate or we predict that due to closing of Indonesian Gateway.

Keywords: Oxygen isotope, Foraminifera, Miocene, Paleoclimate, Indonesian.

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65 Immunomodulatory Effects of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells on T-Cell Populations at Tissue-Related Oxygen Level

Authors: A. N. Gornostaeva, P. I. Bobyleva, E. R. Andreeva, L. B. Buravkova

Abstract:

Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) possess immunomodulatory properties. The effect of MSCs on the crucial cellular immunity compartment – T-cells is of a special interest. It is known that MSC tissue niche and expected milieu of their interaction with T- cells are characterized by low oxygen concentration, whereas the in vitro experiments usually are carried out at a much higher ambient oxygen (20%). We firstly evaluated immunomodulatory effects of MSCs on T-cells at tissue-related oxygen (5%) after interaction implied cell-to-cell contacts and paracrine factors only. It turned out that MSCs under reduced oxygen can effectively suppress the activation and proliferation of PHAstimulated T-cells and can provoke decrease in the production of proinflammatory and increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines. In hypoxia some effects were amplified (inhibition of proliferation, antiinflammatory cytokine profile shift). This impact was more evident after direct cell-to-cell interaction; lack of intercellular contacts could revoke the potentiating effect of hypoxia.

Keywords: Cell-to-cell interaction, low oxygen, MSC immunosuppression, T-cells.

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64 Experimental and Numerical Study on the Effects of Oxygen Methane Flames with Water Dilution for Different Pressures

Authors: J. P. Chica Cano, G. Cabot, S. de Persis, F. Foucher

Abstract:

Among all possibilities to combat global warming, CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) is presented as a great alternative to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. Several strategies for CCS from industrial and power plants are being considered. The concept of combined oxy-fuel combustion has been the most alternative solution. Nevertheless, due to the high cost of pure O2 production, additional ways recently emerged. In this paper, an innovative combustion process for a gas turbine cycle was studied: it was composed of methane combustion with oxygen enhanced air (OEA), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and H2O issuing from STIG (Steam Injection Gas Turbine), and the CO2 capture was realized by membrane separator. The effect on this combustion process was emphasized, and it was shown that a study of the influence of H2O dilution on the combustion parameters by experimental and numerical approaches had to be carried out. As a consequence, the laminar burning velocities measurements were performed in a stainless steel spherical combustion from atmospheric pressure to high pressure (up to 0.5 MPa), at 473 K for an equivalence ratio at 1. These experimental results were satisfactorily compared with Chemical Workbench v.4.1 package in conjunction with GRIMech 3.0 reaction mechanism. The good correlations so obtained between experimental and calculated flame speed velocities showed the validity of the GRIMech 3.0 mechanism in this domain of combustion: high H2O dilution, low N2, medium pressure. Finally, good estimations of flame speed and pollutant emissions were determined in other conditions compatible with real gas turbine. In particular, mixtures (composed of CH4/O2/N2/H2O/ or CO2) leading to the same adiabatic temperature were investigated. Influences of oxygen enrichment and H2O dilution (compared to CO2) were disused.

Keywords: CO2 capture, oxygen enrichment, water dilution, laminar burning velocity, pollutants emissions.

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63 Numerical Study of Oxygen Enrichment on NO Pollution Spread in a Combustion Chamber

Authors: Zohreh Orshesh

Abstract:

In this study, a 3D combustion chamber was simulated using FLUENT 6.32. Aim to obtain detailed information on combustion characteristics and _ nitrogen oxides in the furnace and the effect of oxygen enrichment in a combustion process. Oxygenenriched combustion is an effective way to reduce emissions. This paper analyzes NO emission, including thermal NO and prompt NO. Flow rate ratio of air to fuel is varied as 1.3, 3.2 and 5.1 and the oxygen enriched flow rates are 28, 54 and 68 lit/min. The 3D Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations with standard k-ε turbulence model are solved together by Fluent 6.32 software. First order upwind scheme is used to model governing equations and the SIMPLE algorithm is used as pressure velocity coupling. Results show that for AF=1.3, increase the oxygen flow rate of oxygen reduction in NO emissions is Lance. Moreover, in a fixed oxygen enrichment condition, increasing the air to fuel ratio will increase the temperature peak, but not the NO emission rate. As a result, oxygen enrichment can reduce the NO emission at this kind of furnace in low air to fuel rates.

Keywords: Combustion chamber, Oxygen enrichment, Reynolds Averaged Navier- Stokes, NO emission

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62 Study of a Four-Bed Pressure Swing Adsorption for Oxygen Separation from Air

Authors: Moghadazadeh Zahra, Towfighi Jafar, Mofarahi Masoud

Abstract:

This article is presented an experimental and modeling study of a four-bed pressure swing adsorption process using zeolite13X to provide oxygen-enriched air. The binary mixture N2/O2 (79/21 vol %) was used as a feed stream. The effects of purge/feed ratio (P/F), adsorption pressure, cyclic time and product flow rate on product purity and recovery under nonisothermal condition were studied. The adsorption dynamics of process were determined using a mathematical model incorporated mass and energy balances. A Mathlab code using finite difference method was developed to solve the set of coupled differential-algebraic equations, and the simulation results are agreed well with experimental results.

Keywords: Pressure swing adsorption (PSA), Oxygen, Zeolite 13X.

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61 Performance Evaluation and Modeling of a Conical Plunging Jet Aerator

Authors: Surinder Deswal, D. V. S. Verma

Abstract:

Aeration by a plunging water jet is an energetically attractive way to effect oxygen-transfer than conventional oxygenation systems. In the present study, a new type of conical shaped plunging aeration device is fabricated to generate hollow inclined ined plunging jets (jet plunge angle of π/3 ) to investigate its oxygen transfer capacity. The results suggest that the volumetric oxygen-transfer coefficient and oxygen-transfer efficiency of the conical plunging jet aerator are competitive with other types of aeration systems. Relationships of volumetric oxygen-transfer coefficient with jet power per unit volume and jet parameters are also proposed. The suggested relationships predict the volumetric oxygentransfer coefficient within a scatter of ± 15% . Further, the application of Support Vector Machines on the experimental data revealed its utility in the prediction of volumetric oxygen-transfer coefficient and development of conical plunging jet aerators.

Keywords: Conical plunging jet, oxygen-transfer efficiency, support vector machines, volumetric oxygen-transfer coefficient.

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60 Porous Carbon Nanoparticles Co-Doped with Nitrogen and Iron as an Efficient Catalyst for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

Authors: Bita Bayatsarmadi, Shi-Zhang Qiao

Abstract:

Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) performance of iron and nitrogen co-doped porous carbon nanoparticles (Fe-NPC) with various physical and (electro) chemical properties have been investigated. Fe-NPC nanoparticles are synthesized via a facile soft-templating procedure by using Iron (III) chloride hexa-hydrate as iron precursor and aminophenol-formaldehyde resin as both carbon and nitrogen precursor. Fe-NPC nanoparticles shows high surface area (443.83 m2g-1), high pore volume (0.52 m3g-1), narrow mesopore size distribution (ca. 3.8 nm), high conductivity (IG/ID=1.04), high kinetic limiting current (11.71 mAcm-2) and more positive onset potential (-0.106 V) compared to metal-free NPC nanoparticles (-0.295V) which make it high efficient ORR metal-free catalysts in alkaline solution. This study may pave the way of feasibly designing iron and nitrogen containing carbon materials (Fe-N-C) for highly efficient oxygen reduction electro-catalysis.

Keywords: Electro-catalyst, mesopore structure, oxygen reduction reaction, soft-template.

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59 Comparative Analysis of Ranunculus muricatus and Typha latifolia as Wetland Plants Applied for Domestic Wastewater Treatment in a Mesocosm Scale Study

Authors: S. Aziz, M. Ali, S. Asghar, S. Ahmed

Abstract:

Comparing other methods of waste water treatment, constructed wetlands are one of the most fascinating practices because being a natural process they are eco-friendly have low construction and maintenance cost and have considerable capability of wastewater treatment. The current research was focused mainly on comparison of Ranunculus muricatus and Typha latifolia as wetland plants for domestic wastewater treatment by designing and constructing efficient pilot scale horizontal subsurface flow mesocosms. Parameters like chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand, phosphates, sulphates, nitrites, nitrates, and pathogenic indicator microbes were studied continuously with successive treatments. Treatment efficiency of the system increases with passage of time and with increase in temperature. Efficiency of T. latifolia planted setups in open environment was fairly good for parameters like COD and BOD5 which was showing reduction up to 82.5% for COD and 82.6% for BOD5 while DO was increased up to 125%. Efficiency of R. muricatus vegetated setup was also good but lowers than that of T. latifolia planted showing 80.95% removal of COD and BOD5. Ranunculus muricatus was found effective in reducing bacterial count in wastewater. Both macrophytes were found promising in wastewater treatment.

Keywords: Biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, horizontal subsurface flow, Total suspended solids, Wetland.

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58 Comparison of ANFIS and ANN for Estimation of Biochemical Oxygen Demand Parameter in Surface Water

Authors: S. Areerachakul

Abstract:

Nowadays, several techniques such as; Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) and Neural Network (NN) are employed for developing of the predictive models to estimate parameters of water quality. The main objective of this study is to compare between the predictive ability of the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) model and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model to estimate the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) on data from 11 sampling sites of Saen Saep canal in Bangkok, Thailand. The data is obtained from the Department of Drainage and Sewerage, Bangkok Metropolitan Administration, during 2004-2011. The five parameters of water quality namely Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Ammonia Nitrogen (NH3N), Nitrate Nitrogen (NO3N), and Total Coliform bacteria (T-coliform) are used as the input of the models. These water quality indices affect the biochemical oxygen demand. The experimental results indicate that the ANN model provides a higher correlation coefficient (R=0.73) and a lower root mean square error (RMSE=4.53) than the corresponding ANFIS model.

Keywords: adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system, artificial neural network, biochemical oxygen demand, surface water.

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57 Development of Mathematical Model for Overall Oxygen Transfer Coefficient of an Aerator and Comparison with CFD Modeling

Authors: Shashank.B. Thakre, L.B. Bhuyar, Samir.J. Deshmukh

Abstract:

The value of overall oxygen transfer Coefficient (KLa), which is the best measure of oxygen transfer in water through aeration, is obtained by a simple approach, which sufficiently explains the utility of the method to eliminate the discrepancies due to inaccurate assumption of saturation dissolved oxygen concentration. The rate of oxygen transfer depends on number of factors like intensity of turbulence, which in turns depends on the speed of rotation, size, and number of blades, diameter and immersion depth of the rotor, and size and shape of aeration tank, as well as on physical, chemical, and biological characteristic of water. An attempt is made in this paper to correlate the overall oxygen transfer Coefficient (KLa), as an independent parameter with other influencing parameters mentioned above. It has been estimated that the simulation equation developed predicts the values of KLa and power with an average standard error of estimation of 0.0164 and 7.66 respectively and with R2 values of 0.979 and 0.989 respectively, when compared with experimentally determined values. The comparison of this model is done with the model generated using Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and both the models were found to be in good agreement with each other.

Keywords: CFD Model, Overall oxygen transfer coefficient, Power, Mathematical Model, Validation.

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56 Development of Soft-Core System for Heart Rate and Oxygen Saturation

Authors: Caje F. Pinto, Jivan S. Parab, Gourish M. Naik

Abstract:

This paper is about the development of non-invasive heart rate and oxygen saturation in human blood using Altera NIOS II soft-core processor system. In today's world, monitoring oxygen saturation and heart rate is very important in hospitals to keep track of low oxygen levels in blood. We have designed an Embedded System On Peripheral Chip (SOPC) reconfigurable system by interfacing two LED’s of different wavelengths (660 nm/940 nm) with a single photo-detector to measure the absorptions of hemoglobin species at different wavelengths. The implementation of the interface with Finger Probe and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) was carried out using NIOS II soft-core system running on Altera NANO DE0 board having target as Cyclone IVE. This designed system is used to monitor oxygen saturation in blood and heart rate for different test subjects. The designed NIOS II processor based non-invasive heart rate and oxygen saturation was verified with another Operon Pulse oximeter for 50 measurements on 10 different subjects. It was found that the readings taken were very close to the Operon Pulse oximeter.

Keywords: Heart rate, NIOS II, Oxygen Saturation, photoplethysmography, soft-core, SOPC.

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