Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 503

Search results for: temporal variability

503 Spatial and Temporal Variability of Fog Over the Indo-Gangetic Plains, India

Authors: Sanjay Kumar Srivastava, Anu Rani Sharma, Kamna Sachdeva

Abstract:

The aim of the paper is to analyze the characteristics of winter fog in terms of its trend and spatial-temporal variability over Indo-Gangetic plains. The study reveals that during last four and half decades (1971-2015), an alarming increasing trend in fog frequency has been observed during the winter months of December and January over the study area. The frequency of fog has increased by 118.4% during the peak winter months of December and January. It has also been observed that on an average central part of IGP has 66.29% fog days followed by west IGP with 41.94% fog days. Further, Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) decomposition and Mann-Kendall variation analysis are used to analyze the spatial and temporal patterns of winter fog. The findings have significant implications for the further research of fog over IGP and formulate robust strategies to adapt the fog variability and mitigate its effects. The decision by Delhi Government to implement odd-even scheme to restrict the use of private vehicles in order to reduce pollution and improve quality of air may result in increasing the alarming increasing trend of fog over Delhi and its surrounding areas regions of IGP.

Keywords: Fog, climatology, spatial variability, temporal variability, empirical orthogonal function, visibility, Mann-Kendall test, variation point.

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502 Non-Stationary Stochastic Optimization of an Oscillating Water Column

Authors: María L. Jalón, Feargal Brennan

Abstract:

A non-stationary stochastic optimization methodology is applied to an OWC (oscillating water column) to find the design that maximizes the wave energy extraction. Different temporal cycles are considered to represent the long-term variability of the wave climate at the site in the optimization problem. The results of the non-stationary stochastic optimization problem are compared against those obtained by a stationary stochastic optimization problem. The comparative analysis reveals that the proposed non-stationary optimization provides designs with a better fit to reality. However, the stationarity assumption can be adequate when looking at averaged system response.

Keywords: Non-stationary stochastic optimization, oscillating water column, temporal variability, wave energy.

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501 A Ground Observation Based Climatology of Winter Fog: Study over the Indo-Gangetic Plains, India

Authors: Sanjay Kumar Srivastava, Anu Rani Sharma, Kamna Sachdeva

Abstract:

Every year, fog formation over the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGPs) of Indian region during the winter months of December and January is believed to create numerous hazards, inconvenience, and economic loss to the inhabitants of this densely populated region of Indian subcontinent. The aim of the paper is to analyze the spatial and temporal variability of winter fog over IGPs. Long term ground observations of visibility and other meteorological parameters (1971-2010) have been analyzed to understand the formation of fog phenomena and its relevance during the peak winter months of January and December over IGP of India. In order to examine the temporal variability, time series and trend analysis were carried out by using the Mann-Kendall Statistical test. Trend analysis performed by using the Mann-Kendall test, accepts the alternate hypothesis with 95% confidence level indicating that there exists a trend. Kendall tau’s statistics showed that there exists a positive correlation between time series and fog frequency. Further, the Theil and Sen’s median slope estimate showed that the magnitude of trend is positive. Magnitude is higher during January compared to December for the entire IGP except in December when it is high over the western IGP. Decade wise time series analysis revealed that there has been continuous increase in fog days. The net overall increase of 99 % was observed over IGP in last four decades. Diurnal variability and average daily persistence were computed by using descriptive statistical techniques. Geo-statistical analysis of fog was carried out to understand the spatial variability of fog. Geo-statistical analysis of fog revealed that IGP is a high fog prone zone with fog occurrence frequency of more than 66% days during the study period. Diurnal variability indicates the peak occurrence of fog is between 06:00 and 10:00 local time and average daily fog persistence extends to 5 to 7 hours during the peak winter season. The results would offer a new perspective to take proactive measures in reducing the irreparable damage that could be caused due to changing trends of fog.

Keywords: Fog, climatology, Mann-Kendall test, trend analysis, spatial variability, temporal variability, visibility.

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500 NewPerceptual Organization within Temporal Displacement

Authors: Michele Sinico

Abstract:

The psychological present has an actual extension. When a sequence of instantaneous stimuli falls in this short interval of time, observers perceive a compresence of events in succession and the temporal order depends on the qualitative relationships between the perceptual properties of the events. Two experiments were carried out to study the influence of perceptual grouping, with and without temporal displacement, on the duration of auditory sequences. The psychophysical method of adjustment was adopted. The first experiment investigated the effect of temporal displacement of a white noise on sequence duration. The second experiment investigated the effect of temporal displacement, along the pitch dimension, on temporal shortening of sequence. The results suggest that the temporal order of sounds, in the case of temporal displacement, is organized along the pitch dimension.

Keywords: Time perception, perceptual present, temporal displacement, gestalt laws of perceptual organization

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499 Analyzing the Impact of Spatio-Temporal Climate Variations on the Rice Crop Calendar in Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Imran, Iqra Basit, Mobushir Riaz Khan, Sajid Rasheed Ahmad

Abstract:

The present study investigates the space-time impact of climate change on the rice crop calendar in tropical Gujranwala, Pakistan. The climate change impact was quantified through the climatic variables, whereas the existing calendar of the rice crop was compared with the phonological stages of the crop, depicted through the time series of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from Landsat data for the decade 2005-2015. Local maxima were applied on the time series of NDVI to compute the rice phonological stages. Panel models with fixed and cross-section fixed effects were used to establish the relation between the climatic parameters and the time-series of NDVI across villages and across rice growing periods. Results show that the climatic parameters have significant impact on the rice crop calendar. Moreover, the fixed effect model is a significant improvement over cross-sectional fixed effect models (R-squared equal to 0.673 vs. 0.0338). We conclude that high inter-annual variability of climatic variables cause high variability of NDVI, and thus, a shift in the rice crop calendar. Moreover, inter-annual (temporal) variability of the rice crop calendar is high compared to the inter-village (spatial) variability. We suggest the local rice farmers to adapt this change in the rice crop calendar.

Keywords: Landsat NDVI, panel models, temperature, rainfall.

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498 Poincaré Plot for Heart Rate Variability

Authors: Mazhar B. Tayel, Eslam I. AlSaba

Abstract:

Heart is the most important part in the body of living organisms. It affects and is affected by any factor in the body. Therefore, it is a good detector for all conditions in the body. Heart signal is a non-stationary signal; thus, it is utmost important to study the variability of heart signal. The Heart Rate Variability (HRV) has attracted considerable attention in psychology, medicine and has become important dependent measure in psychophysiology and behavioral medicine. The standards of measurements, physiological interpretation and clinical use for HRV that are most often used were described in many researcher papers, however, remain complex issues are fraught with pitfalls. This paper presents one of the nonlinear techniques to analyze HRV. It discusses many points like, what Poincaré plot is and how Poincaré plot works; also, Poincaré plot's merits especially in HRV. Besides, it discusses the limitation of Poincaré cause of standard deviation SD1, SD2 and how to overcome this limitation by using complex correlation measure (CCM). The CCM is most sensitive to changes in temporal structure of the Poincaré plot as compared toSD1 and SD2.

Keywords: Heart rate variability, chaotic system, Poincaré, variance, standard deviation, complex correlation measure.

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497 Analysis of Trend and Variability of Rainfall in the Mid-Mahanadi River Basin of Eastern India

Authors: Rabindra K. Panda, Gurjeet Singh

Abstract:

The major objective of this study was to analyze the trend and variability of rainfall in the middle Mahandi river basin located in eastern India. The trend of variation of extreme rainfall events has predominant effect on agricultural water management and extreme hydrological events such as floods and droughts. Mahanadi river basin is one of the major river basins of India having an area of 1,41,589 km2 and divided into three regions: Upper, middle and delta region. The middle region of Mahanadi river basin has an area of 48,700 km2 and it is mostly dominated by agricultural land, where agriculture is mostly rainfed. The study region has five Agro-climatic zones namely: East and South Eastern Coastal Plain, North Eastern Ghat, Western Undulating Zone, Western Central Table Land and Mid Central Table Land, which were numbered as zones 1 to 5 respectively for convenience in reporting. In the present study, analysis of variability and trends of annual, seasonal, and monthly rainfall was carried out, using the daily rainfall data collected from the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) for 35 years (1979-2013) for the 5 agro-climatic zones. The long term variability of rainfall was investigated by evaluating the mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variation. The long term trend of rainfall was analyzed using the Mann-Kendall test on monthly, seasonal and annual time scales. It was found that there is a decreasing trend in the rainfall during the winter and pre monsoon seasons for zones 2, 3 and 4; whereas in the monsoon (rainy) season there is an increasing trend for zones 1, 4 and 5 with a level of significance ranging between 90-95%. On the other hand, the mean annual rainfall has an increasing trend at 99% significance level. The estimated seasonality index showed that the rainfall distribution is asymmetric and distributed over 3-4 months period. The study will help to understand the spatio-temporal variation of rainfall and to determine the correlation between the current rainfall trend and climate change scenario of the study region for multifarious use.

Keywords: Eastern India, long-term variability and trends, Mann-Kendall test, seasonality index, spatio-temporal variation.

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496 Temporal Case-Based Reasoning System for Automatic Parking Complex

Authors: Alexander P. Eremeev, Ivan E. Kurilenko, Pavel R. Varshavskiy

Abstract:

In this paper the problem of the application of temporal reasoning and case-based reasoning in intelligent decision support systems is considered. The method of case-based reasoning with temporal dependences for the solution of problems of real-time diagnostics and forecasting in intelligent decision support systems is described. This paper demonstrates how the temporal case-based reasoning system can be used in intelligent decision support systems of the car access control. This work was supported by RFBR.

Keywords: Analogous reasoning, case-based reasoning, intelligent decision support systems, temporal reasoning.

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495 Multivariate Analytical Insights into Spatial and Temporal Variation in Water Quality of a Major Drinking Water Reservoir

Authors: Azadeh Golshan, Craig Evans, Phillip Geary, Abigail Morrow, Zoe Rogers, Marcel Maeder

Abstract:

22 physicochemical variables have been determined in water samples collected weekly from January to December in 2013 from three sampling stations located within a major drinking water reservoir. Classical Multivariate Curve Resolution Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) analysis was used to investigate the environmental factors associated with the physico-chemical variability of the water samples at each of the sampling stations. Matrix augmentation MCR-ALS (MA-MCR-ALS) was also applied, and the two sets of results were compared for interpretative clarity. Links between these factors, reservoir inflows and catchment land-uses were investigated and interpreted in relation to chemical composition of the water and their resolved geographical distribution profiles. The results suggested that the major factors affecting reservoir water quality were those associated with agricultural runoff, with evidence of influence on algal photosynthesis within the water column. Water quality variability within the reservoir was also found to be strongly linked to physical parameters such as water temperature and the occurrence of thermal stratification. The two methods applied (MCR-ALS and MA-MCR-ALS) led to similar conclusions; however, MA-MCR-ALS appeared to provide results more amenable to interpretation of temporal and geological variation than those obtained through classical MCR-ALS.

Keywords: Catchment management, drinking water reservoir, multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares, thermal stratification, water quality.

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494 Long Term Variability of Temperature in Armenia in the Context of Climate Change

Authors: Hrachuhi Galstyan, Lucian Sfîcă, Pavel Ichim

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to analyze the temporal and spatial variability of thermal conditions in the Republic of Armenia. The paper describes annual fluctuations in air temperature. Research has been focused on case study region of Armenia and surrounding areas, where long–term measurements and observations of weather conditions have been performed within the National Meteorological Service of Armenia and its surrounding areas. The study contains yearly air temperature data recorded between 1961- 2012. Mann-Kendal test and the autocorrelation function were applied to detect the change trend of annual mean temperature, as well as other parametric and non-parametric tests searching to find the presence of some breaks in the long term evolution of temperature. The analysis of all records reveals a tendency mostly towards warmer years, with increased temperatures especially in valleys and inner basins. The maximum temperature increase is up to 1,5°C. Negative results have not been observed in Armenia. The patterns of temperature change have been observed since the 1990’s over much of the Armenian territory. The climate in Armenia was influenced by global change in the last 2 decades, as results from the methods employed within the study.

Keywords: Air temperature, long-term variability, trend, climate change.

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493 Variability of Hydrological Modeling of the Blue Nile

Authors: Abeer Samy, Oliver C. Saavedra Valeriano, Abdelazim Negm

Abstract:

The Blue Nile Basin is the most important tributary of the Nile River. Egypt and Sudan are almost dependent on water originated from the Blue Nile. This multi-dependency creates conflicts among the three countries Egypt, Sudan, and Ethiopia making the management of these conflicts as an international issue. Good assessment of the water resources of the Blue Nile is an important to help in managing such conflicts. Hydrological models are good tool for such assessment. This paper presents a critical review of the nature and variability of the climate and hydrology of the Blue Nile Basin as a first step of using hydrological modeling to assess the water resources of the Blue Nile. Many several attempts are done to develop basin-scale hydrological modeling on the Blue Nile. Lumped and semi distributed models used averages of meteorological inputs and watershed characteristics in hydrological simulation, to analyze runoff for flood control and water resource management. Distributed models include the temporal and spatial variability of catchment conditions and meteorological inputs to allow better representation of the hydrological process. The main challenge of all used models was to assess the water resources of the basin is the shortage of the data needed for models calibration and validation. It is recommended to use distributed model for their higher accuracy to cope with the great variability and complexity of the Blue Nile basin and to collect sufficient data to have more sophisticated and accurate hydrological modeling.

Keywords: Blue Nile Basin, Climate Change, Hydrological Modeling, Watershed.

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492 A Visualized Framework for Representing Uncertain and Incomplete Temporal Knowledge

Authors: Yue Wang, Jixin Ma, Brian Knight

Abstract:

This paper presents a visualized computer aided case tool for non-expert, called Visual Time, for representing and reasoning about incomplete and uncertain temporal information. It is both expressive and versatile, allowing logical conjunctions and disjunctions of both absolute and relative temporal relations, such as “Before”, “Meets”, “Overlaps”, “Starts”, “During”, and “Finishes”, etc. In terms of a visualized framework, Visual Time provides a user-friendly environment for describing scenarios with rich temporal structure in natural language, which can be formatted as structured temporal phrases and modeled in terms of Temporal Relationship Diagrams (TRD). A TRD can be automatically and visually transformed into a corresponding Time Graph, supported by automatic consistency checker that derives a verdict to confirm if a given scenario is temporally consistent or inconsistent.

Keywords: Time Visualization, Uncertainty, Incompleteness, Consistency Checking.

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491 Gender Based Variability Time Series Complexity Analysis

Authors: Ramesh K. Sunkaria, Puneeta Marwaha

Abstract:

Non linear methods of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis are becoming more popular. It has been observed that complexity measures quantify the regularity and uncertainty of cardiovascular RR-interval time series. In the present work, SampEn has been evaluated in healthy normal sinus rhythm (NSR) male and female subjects for different data lengths and tolerance level r. It is demonstrated that SampEn is small for higher values of tolerance r. Also SampEn value of healthy female group is higher than that of healthy male group for short data length and with increase in data length both groups overlap each other and it is difficult to distinguish them. The SampEn gives inaccurate results by assigning higher value to female group, because male subject have more complex HRV pattern than that of female subjects. Therefore, this traditional algorithm exhibits higher complexity for healthy female subjects than for healthy male subjects, which is misleading observation. This may be due to the fact that SampEn do not account for multiple time scales inherent in the physiologic time series and the hidden spatial and temporal fluctuations remains unexplored.

Keywords: Heart rate variability, normal sinus rhythm group, RR interval time series, sample entropy.

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490 A Temporal Synchronization Model for Heterogeneous Data in Distributed Systems

Authors: Jorge Estudillo Ramirez, Saul E. Pomares Hernandez

Abstract:

Multimedia distributed systems deal with heterogeneous data, such as texts, images, graphics, video and audio. The specification of temporal relations among different data types and distributed sources is an open research area. This paper proposes a fully distributed synchronization model to be used in multimedia systems. One original aspect of the model is that it avoids the use of a common reference (e.g. wall clock and shared memory). To achieve this, all possible multimedia temporal relations are specified according to their causal dependencies.

Keywords: Multimedia, Distributed Systems, Partial Ordering, Temporal Synchronization

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489 Variability of Soil Strength Parameters and its Effect on the Slope Stability of the Želazny Most Tailing Dam

Authors: Stella A. Arnaouti, Demos C. Angelides, Theodoros N. Chatzigogos, Witold M. Pytel

Abstract:

The Želazny Most tailing pond is one of the largest facilities worldwide for waste disposal from the copper mines located in South-West Poland. A potential failure of the dam would allow more than 10 million cubic meters of contaminated slurry to flow to the valley, causing immense environmental problems to the surrounding area. Thus, the determination of the strength properties of the dam's soils and their variability is of utmost importance. An extensive site investigation consisting of more than 480 cone penetration tests (CPTs) with or without pore water pressure measurements were conducted within a period of 13 years to study the mechanical properties of the tailings body. The present work investigates the point variability of the soil strength parameters (effective friction angle

Keywords: Soil strength variability, friction angle spatial variability, Želazny Most tailing dam.

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488 A Temporal QoS Ontology for ERTMS/ETCS

Authors: Marc Sango, Olimpia Hoinaru, Christophe Gransart, Laurence Duchien

Abstract:

Ontologies offer a means for representing and sharing information in many domains, particularly in complex domains. For example, it can be used for representing and sharing information of System Requirement Specification (SRS) of complex systems like the SRS of ERTMS/ETCS written in natural language. Since this system is a real-time and critical system, generic ontologies, such as OWL and generic ERTMS ontologies provide minimal support for modeling temporal information omnipresent in these SRS documents. To support the modeling of temporal information, one of the challenges is to enable representation of dynamic features evolving in time within a generic ontology with a minimal redesign of it. The separation of temporal information from other information can help to predict system runtime operation and to properly design and implement them. In addition, it is helpful to provide a reasoning and querying techniques to reason and query temporal information represented in the ontology in order to detect potential temporal inconsistencies. To address this challenge, we propose a lightweight 3-layer temporal Quality of Service (QoS) ontology for representing, reasoning and querying over temporal and non-temporal information in a complex domain ontology. Representing QoS entities in separated layers can clarify the distinction between the non QoS entities and the QoS entities in an ontology. The upper generic layer of the proposed ontology provides an intuitive knowledge of domain components, specially ERTMS/ETCS components. The separation of the intermediate QoS layer from the lower QoS layer allows us to focus on specific QoS Characteristics, such as temporal or integrity characteristics. In this paper, we focus on temporal information that can be used to predict system runtime operation. To evaluate our approach, an example of the proposed domain ontology for handover operation, as well as a reasoning rule over temporal relations in this domain-specific ontology, are presented.

Keywords: System Requirement Specification, ERTMS/ETCS, Temporal Ontologies, Domain Ontologies.

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487 Video Super-Resolution Using Classification ANN

Authors: Ming-Hui Cheng, Jyh-Horng Jeng

Abstract:

In this study, a classification-based video super-resolution method using artificial neural network (ANN) is proposed to enhance low-resolution (LR) to high-resolution (HR) frames. The proposed method consists of four main steps: classification, motion-trace volume collection, temporal adjustment, and ANN prediction. A classifier is designed based on the edge properties of a pixel in the LR frame to identify the spatial information. To exploit the spatio-temporal information, a motion-trace volume is collected using motion estimation, which can eliminate unfathomable object motion in the LR frames. In addition, temporal lateral process is employed for volume adjustment to reduce unnecessary temporal features. Finally, ANN is applied to each class to learn the complicated spatio-temporal relationship between LR and HR frames. Simulation results show that the proposed method successfully improves both peak signal-to-noise ratio and perceptual quality.

Keywords: Super-resolution, classification, spatio-temporal information, artificial neural network.

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486 Iterative Clustering Algorithm for Analyzing Temporal Patterns of Gene Expression

Authors: Seo Young Kim, Jae Won Lee, Jong Sung Bae

Abstract:

Microarray experiments are information rich; however, extensive data mining is required to identify the patterns that characterize the underlying mechanisms of action. For biologists, a key aim when analyzing microarray data is to group genes based on the temporal patterns of their expression levels. In this paper, we used an iterative clustering method to find temporal patterns of gene expression. We evaluated the performance of this method by applying it to real sporulation data and simulated data. The patterns obtained using the iterative clustering were found to be superior to those obtained using existing clustering algorithms.

Keywords: Clustering, microarray experiment, temporal pattern of gene expression data.

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485 Extraction of Temporal Relation by the Creation of Historical Natural Disaster Archive

Authors: Suguru Yoshioka, Seiichi Tani, Seinosuke Toda

Abstract:

In historical science and social science, the influence of natural disaster upon society is a matter of great interest. In recent years, some archives are made through many hands for natural disasters, however it is inefficiency and waste. So, we suppose a computer system to create a historical natural disaster archive. As the target of this analysis, we consider newspaper articles. The news articles are considered to be typical examples that prescribe the temporal relations of affairs for natural disaster. In order to do this analysis, we identify the occurrences in newspaper articles by some index entries, considering the affairs which are specific to natural disasters, and show the temporal relation between natural disasters. We designed and implemented the automatic system of “extraction of the occurrences of natural disaster" and “temporal relation table for natural disaster."

Keywords: Database, digital library, corpus, historical natural disaster, temporal relation

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484 Dynamic Background Updating for Lightweight Moving Object Detection

Authors: Kelemewerk Destalem, Jungjae Cho, Jaeseong Lee, Ju H. Park, Joonhyuk Yoo

Abstract:

Background subtraction and temporal difference are often used for moving object detection in video. Both approaches are computationally simple and easy to be deployed in real-time image processing. However, while the background subtraction is highly sensitive to dynamic background and illumination changes, the temporal difference approach is poor at extracting relevant pixels of the moving object and at detecting the stopped or slowly moving objects in the scene. In this paper, we propose a simple moving object detection scheme based on adaptive background subtraction and temporal difference exploiting dynamic background updates. The proposed technique consists of histogram equalization, a linear combination of background and temporal difference, followed by the novel frame-based and pixel-based background updating techniques. Finally, morphological operations are applied to the output images. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can solve the drawbacks of both background subtraction and temporal difference methods and can provide better performance than that of each method.

Keywords: Background subtraction, background updating, real time and lightweight algorithm, temporal difference.

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483 Specifying Strict Serializability of Iterated Transactions in Propositional Temporal Logic

Authors: Walter Hussak

Abstract:

We present an operator for a propositional linear temporal logic over infinite schedules of iterated transactions, which, when applied to a formula, asserts that any schedule satisfying the formula is serializable. The resulting logic is suitable for specifying and verifying consistency properties of concurrent transaction management systems, that can be defined in terms of serializability, as well as other general safety and liveness properties. A strict form of serializability is used requiring that, whenever the read and write steps of a transaction occurrence precede the read and write steps of another transaction occurrence in a schedule, the first transaction must precede the second transaction in an equivalent serial schedule. This work improves on previous work in providing a propositional temporal logic with a serializability operator that is of the same PSPACE complete computational complexity as standard propositional linear temporal logic without a serializability operator.

Keywords: Temporal logic, iterated transactions, serializability.

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482 A Codebook-based Redundancy Suppression Mechanism with Lifetime Prediction in Cluster-based WSN

Authors: Huan Chen, Bo-Chao Cheng, Chih-Chuan Cheng, Yi-Geng Chen, Yu Ling Chou

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) comprises of sensor nodes which are designed to sense the environment, transmit sensed data back to the base station via multi-hop routing to reconstruct physical phenomena. Since physical phenomena exists significant overlaps between temporal redundancy and spatial redundancy, it is necessary to use Redundancy Suppression Algorithms (RSA) for sensor node to lower energy consumption by reducing the transmission of redundancy. A conventional algorithm of RSAs is threshold-based RSA, which sets threshold to suppress redundant data. Although many temporal and spatial RSAs are proposed, temporal-spatial RSA are seldom to be proposed because it is difficult to determine when to utilize temporal or spatial RSAs. In this paper, we proposed a novel temporal-spatial redundancy suppression algorithm, Codebookbase Redundancy Suppression Mechanism (CRSM). CRSM adopts vector quantization to generate a codebook, which is easily used to implement temporal-spatial RSA. CRSM not only achieves power saving and reliability for WSN, but also provides the predictability of network lifetime. Simulation result shows that the network lifetime of CRSM outperforms at least 23% of that of other RSAs.

Keywords: Redundancy Suppression Algorithm (RSA), Threshold-based RSA, Temporal RSA, Spatial RSA and Codebookbase Redundancy Suppression Mechanism (CRSM)

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481 Self-Organization of Radiation Defects: Temporal Dissipative Structures

Authors: Pavlo Selyshchev

Abstract:

A theoretical approach to radiation damage evolution is developed. Stable temporal behavior taking place in solids under irradiation are examined as phenomena of self-organization in nonequilibrium systems. Experimental effects of temporal self-organization in solids under irradiation are reviewed. Their essential common properties and features are highlighted and analyzed. Dynamical model to describe development of self-oscillation of density of point defects under stationary irradiation is proposed. The emphasis is the nonlinear couplings between rate of annealing and density of defects that determine the kind and parameters of an arising self-oscillation. The field of parameters (defect generation rate and environment temperature) at which self-oscillations develop is found. Bifurcation curve and self-oscillation period near it is obtained.

Keywords: Irradiation, Point Defects, Solids, Temporal Selforganization.

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480 Spatio-Temporal Analysis and Mapping of Malaria in Thailand

Authors: Krisada Lekdee, Sunee Sammatat, Nittaya Boonsit

Abstract:

This paper proposes a GLMM with spatial and temporal effects for malaria data in Thailand. A Bayesian method is used for parameter estimation via Gibbs sampling MCMC. A conditional autoregressive (CAR) model is assumed to present the spatial effects. The temporal correlation is presented through the covariance matrix of the random effects. The malaria quarterly data have been extracted from the Bureau of Epidemiology, Ministry of Public Health of Thailand. The factors considered are rainfall and temperature. The result shows that rainfall and temperature are positively related to the malaria morbidity rate. The posterior means of the estimated morbidity rates are used to construct the malaria maps. The top 5 highest morbidity rates (per 100,000 population) are in Trat (Q3, 111.70), Chiang Mai (Q3, 104.70), Narathiwat (Q4, 97.69), Chiang Mai (Q2, 88.51), and Chanthaburi (Q3, 86.82). According to the DIC criterion, the proposed model has a better performance than the GLMM with spatial effects but without temporal terms.

Keywords: Bayesian method, generalized linear mixed model (GLMM), malaria, spatial effects, temporal correlation.

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479 A Recognition Method for Spatio-Temporal Background in Korean Historical Novels

Authors: Seo-Hee Kim, Kee-Won Kim, Seung-Hoon Kim

Abstract:

The most important elements of a novel are the characters, events and background. The background represents the time, place and situation that character appears, and conveys event and atmosphere more realistically. If readers have the proper knowledge about background of novels, it may be helpful for understanding the atmosphere of a novel and choosing a novel that readers want to read. In this paper, we are targeting Korean historical novels because spatio-temporal background especially performs an important role in historical novels among the genre of Korean novels. To the best of our knowledge, we could not find previous study that was aimed at Korean novels. In this paper, we build a Korean historical national dictionary. Our dictionary has historical places and temple names of kings over many generations as well as currently existing spatial words or temporal words in Korean history. We also present a method for recognizing spatio-temporal background based on patterns of phrasal words in Korean sentences. Our rules utilize postposition for spatial background recognition and temple names for temporal background recognition. The knowledge of the recognized background can help readers to understand the flow of events and atmosphere, and can use to visualize the elements of novels.

Keywords: Data mining, Korean historical novels, Korean linguistic feature, spatio-temporal background.

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478 Dual-Network Memory Model for Temporal Sequences

Authors: Motonobu Hattori, Rina Suzuki

Abstract:

In neural networks, when new patters are learned by a network, they radically interfere with previously stored patterns. This drawback is called catastrophic forgetting. We have already proposed a biologically inspired dual-network memory model which can much reduce this forgetting for static patterns. In this model, information is first stored in the hippocampal network, and thereafter, it is transferred to the neocortical network using pseudopatterns. Because temporal sequence learning is more important than static pattern learning in the real world, in this study, we improve our conventional  dual-network memory model so that it can deal with temporal sequences without catastrophic forgetting. The computer simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed dual-network memory model.  

Keywords: Catastrophic forgetting, dual-network, temporal sequences.

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477 Language Processing of Seniors with Alzheimer’s Disease: From the Perspective of Temporal Parameters

Authors: Lai Yi-Hsiu

Abstract:

The present paper aims to examine the language processing of Chinese-speaking seniors with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) from the perspective of temporal cues. Twenty healthy adults, 17 healthy seniors, and 13 seniors with AD in Taiwan participated in this study to tell stories based on two sets of pictures. Nine temporal cues were fetched and analyzed. Oral productions in Mandarin Chinese were compared and discussed to examine to what extent and in what way these three groups of participants performed with significant differences. Results indicated that the age effects were significant in filled pauses. The dementia effects were significant in mean duration of pauses, empty pauses, filled pauses, lexical pauses, normalized mean duration of filled pauses and lexical pauses. The findings reported in the current paper help characterize the nature of language processing in seniors with or without AD, and contribute to the interactions between the AD neural mechanism and their temporal parameters.

Keywords: Language processing, Alzheimer’s disease, Mandarin Chinese, temporal cues.

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476 The Cognitive Neuroscience of Vigilance – A Test of Temporal Decrement in the Attention Networks Test (ANT)

Authors: M. K. Zholdassova, G. Matthews, A. M. Kustubayeva, S. M. Jakupov

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to test whether the Attention Networks Test (ANT) showed temporal decrements in performance. Vigilance tasks typically show such decrements, which may reflect impairments in executive control resulting from cognitive fatigue. The ANT assesses executive control, as well as alerting and orienting. Thus, it was hypothesized that ANT executive control would deteriorate over time. Manipulations including task condition (trial composition) and masking were included in the experimental design in an attempt to increase performance decrements. However, results showed that there is no temporal decrement on the ANT. The roles of task demands, cognitive fatigue and participant motivation in producing this result are discussed. The ANT may not be an effective tool for investigating temporal decrement in attention.

Keywords: ANT, executive control, task engagement, vigilancedecrement

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475 Specifying a Timestamp-based Protocol For Multi-step Transactions Using LTL

Authors: Rafat Alshorman, Walter Hussak

Abstract:

Most of the concurrent transactional protocols consider serializability as a correctness criterion of the transactions execution. Usually, the proof of the serializability relies on mathematical proofs for a fixed finite number of transactions. In this paper, we introduce a protocol to deal with an infinite number of transactions which are iterated infinitely often. We specify serializability of the transactions and the protocol using a specification language based on temporal logics. It is worthwhile using temporal logics such as LTL (Lineartime Temporal Logic) to specify transactions, to gain full automatic verification by using model checkers.

Keywords: Multi-step transactions, LTL specifications, Model Checking.

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474 Ontology-Based Approach for Temporal Semantic Modeling of Social Networks

Authors: Souâad Boudebza, Omar Nouali, Faiçal Azouaou

Abstract:

Social networks have recently gained a growing interest on the web. Traditional formalisms for representing social networks are static and suffer from the lack of semantics. In this paper, we will show how semantic web technologies can be used to model social data. The SemTemp ontology aligns and extends existing ontologies such as FOAF, SIOC, SKOS and OWL-Time to provide a temporal and semantically rich description of social data. We also present a modeling scenario to illustrate how our ontology can be used to model social networks.

Keywords: Ontology, semantic web, social network, temporal modeling.

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