Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 833

Search results for: gestalt laws of perceptual organization

833 NewPerceptual Organization within Temporal Displacement

Authors: Michele Sinico

Abstract:

The psychological present has an actual extension. When a sequence of instantaneous stimuli falls in this short interval of time, observers perceive a compresence of events in succession and the temporal order depends on the qualitative relationships between the perceptual properties of the events. Two experiments were carried out to study the influence of perceptual grouping, with and without temporal displacement, on the duration of auditory sequences. The psychophysical method of adjustment was adopted. The first experiment investigated the effect of temporal displacement of a white noise on sequence duration. The second experiment investigated the effect of temporal displacement, along the pitch dimension, on temporal shortening of sequence. The results suggest that the temporal order of sounds, in the case of temporal displacement, is organized along the pitch dimension.

Keywords: Time perception, perceptual present, temporal displacement, gestalt laws of perceptual organization

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832 Investigating Aesthetics According to Gestalt's Theories and Principles of Architectural Design

Authors: D. Moussazadeh, A. Aytug

Abstract:

In this study, aesthetics, which is architecture-dependent, covers the interpretable, debatable, and mathematical features. The purpose of this study is to provide a different perspective on the values of formal aesthetics and to analyze architectural forms to examine the factors that are related to the form of architectural works. In this study, the formal factors of aesthetics have been objectively studied and analyzed.

Keywords: Architecture design, Gestalt, architectural principle, museum.

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831 Research on Laws and Regulations of Sustainable Construction in China

Authors: Wei Zhang, Jing Dong

Abstract:

This paper introduced the status quo of laws and regulations of sustainable construction in China and investigated the existing problems of current laws and regulations through person-interviews in Beijing, Shanghai, Chongqing and Shenzhen in China. The problems include incomplete legal system, lack of guidance of higher-level laws, backward in some laws and regulations, unclear legal liability and poor law enforcement. Aimed at these problems, this paper also put forward some improvement approaches, such as filling the legal gap, revising laws and regulations, establishing incentive system and keeping pace with level of development.

Keywords: Improvement, laws and regulations, status quo, sustainable construction

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830 From Maskee to Audible Noise in Perceptual Speech Enhancement

Authors: Asmaa Amehraye, Dominique Pastor, Ahmed Tamtaoui, Driss Aboutajdine

Abstract:

A new analysis of perceptual speech enhancement is presented. It focuses on the fact that if only noise above the masking threshold is filtered, then noise below the masking threshold, but above the absolute threshold of hearing, can become audible after the masker filtering. This particular drawback of some perceptual filters, hereafter called the maskee-to-audible-noise (MAN) phenomenon, favours the emergence of isolated tonals that increase musical noise. Two filtering techniques that avoid or correct the MAN phenomenon are proposed to effectively suppress background noise without introducing much distortion. Experimental results, including objective and subjective measurements, show that these techniques improve the enhanced speech quality and the gain they bring emphasizes the importance of the MAN phenomenon.

Keywords: Perceptual speech filtering, maskee to audible noise, distorsion, musical noise.

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829 High Quality Speech Coding using Combined Parametric and Perceptual Modules

Authors: M. Kulesza, G. Szwoch, A. Czyżewski

Abstract:

A novel approach to speech coding using the hybrid architecture is presented. Advantages of parametric and perceptual coding methods are utilized together in order to create a speech coding algorithm assuring better signal quality than in traditional CELP parametric codec. Two approaches are discussed. One is based on selection of voiced signal components that are encoded using parametric algorithm, unvoiced components that are encoded perceptually and transients that remain unencoded. The second approach uses perceptual encoding of the residual signal in CELP codec. The algorithm applied for precise transient selection is described. Signal quality achieved using the proposed hybrid codec is compared to quality of some standard speech codecs.

Keywords: CELP residual coding, hybrid codec architecture, perceptual speech coding, speech codecs comparison.

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828 Auteur 3D Filmmaking: From Hitchcock’s Protrusion Technique to Godard’s Immersion Aesthetic

Authors: Delia Enyedi

Abstract:

Throughout film history, the regular return of 3D cinema has been discussed in connection to crises caused by the advent of television or the competition of the Internet. In addition, the three waves of stereoscopic 3D (from 1952 up to 1983) and its current digital version have been blamed for adding a challenging technical distraction to the viewing experience. By discussing the films Dial M for Murder (1954) and Goodbye to Language (2014), the paper aims to analyze the response of recognized auteurs to the use of 3D techniques in filmmaking. For Alfred Hitchcock, the solution to attaining perceptual immersion paradoxically resided in restraining the signature effect of 3D, namely protrusion. In Jean-Luc Godard’s vision, 3D techniques allowed him to explore perceptual absorption by means of depth of field, for which he had long advocated as being central to cinema. Thus, both directors contribute to the foundation of an auteur aesthetic in 3D filmmaking.

Keywords: Alfred Hitchcock, authorship, 3D filmmaking, Jean-Luc Godard, perceptual absorption, perceptual immersion.

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827 Symmetries, Conservation Laws and Reduction of Wave and Gordon-type Equations on Riemannian Manifolds

Authors: Sameerah Jamal, Abdul Hamid Kara, Ashfaque H. Bokhari

Abstract:

Equations on curved manifolds display interesting properties in a number of ways. In particular, the symmetries and, therefore, the conservation laws reduce depending on how curved the manifold is. Of particular interest are the wave and Gordon-type equations; we study the symmetry properties and conservation laws of these equations on the Milne and Bianchi type III metrics. Properties of reduction procedures via symmetries, variational structures and conservation laws are more involved than on the well known flat (Minkowski) manifold.

Keywords: Bianchi metric, conservation laws, Milne metric, symmetries.

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826 Perceptual and Ultrasound Articulatory Training Effects on English L2 Vowels Production by Italian Learners

Authors: I. Sonia d’Apolito, Bianca Sisinni, Mirko Grimaldi, Barbara Gili Fivela

Abstract:

The American English contrast /ɑ-ʌ/ (cop-cup) is difficult to be produced by Italian learners since they realize L2-/ɑ-ʌ/ as L1-/ɔ-a/ respectively, due to differences in phonetic-phonological systems and also in grapheme-to-phoneme conversion rules. In this paper, we try to answer the following research questions: Can a short training improve the production of English /ɑ-ʌ/ by Italian learners? Is a perceptual training better than an articulatory (ultrasound - US) training? Thus, we compare a perceptual training with an US articulatory one to observe: 1) the effects of short trainings on L2-/ɑ-ʌ/ productions; 2) if the US articulatory training improves the pronunciation better than the perceptual training. In this pilot study, 9 Salento-Italian monolingual adults participated: 3 subjects performed a 1-hour perceptual training (ES-P); 3 subjects performed a 1-hour US training (ES-US); and 3 control subjects did not receive any training (CS). Verbal instructions about the phonetic properties of L2-/ɑ-ʌ/ and L1-/ɔ-a/ and their differences (representation on F1-F2 plane) were provided during both trainings. After these instructions, the ES-P group performed an identification training based on the High Variability Phonetic Training procedure, while the ES-US group performed the articulatory training, by means of US video of tongue gestures in L2-/ɑ-ʌ/ production and dynamic view of their own tongue movements and position using a probe under their chin. The acoustic data were analyzed and the first three formants were calculated. Independent t-tests were run to compare: 1) /ɑ-ʌ/ in pre- vs. post-test respectively; /ɑ-ʌ/ in pre- and post-test vs. L1-/a-ɔ/ respectively. Results show that in the pre-test all speakers realize L2-/ɑ-ʌ/ as L1-/ɔ-a/ respectively. Contrary to CS and ES-P groups, the ES-US group in the post-test differentiates the L2 vowels from those produced in the pre-test as well as from the L1 vowels, although only one ES-US subject produces both L2 vowels accurately. The articulatory training seems more effective than the perceptual one since it favors the production of vowels in the correct direction of L2 vowels and differently from the similar L1 vowels.

Keywords: L2 vowel production, perceptual training, articulatory training, ultrasound.

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825 A Perceptually Optimized Wavelet Embedded Zero Tree Image Coder

Authors: A. Bajit, M. Nahid, A. Tamtaoui, E. H. Bouyakhf

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a Perceptually Optimized Embedded ZeroTree Image Coder (POEZIC) that introduces a perceptual weighting to wavelet transform coefficients prior to control SPIHT encoding algorithm in order to reach a targeted bit rate with a perceptual quality improvement with respect to the coding quality obtained using the SPIHT algorithm only. The paper also, introduces a new objective quality metric based on a Psychovisual model that integrates the properties of the HVS that plays an important role in our POEZIC quality assessment. Our POEZIC coder is based on a vision model that incorporates various masking effects of human visual system HVS perception. Thus, our coder weights the wavelet coefficients based on that model and attempts to increase the perceptual quality for a given bit rate and observation distance. The perceptual weights for all wavelet subbands are computed based on 1) luminance masking and Contrast masking, 2) the contrast sensitivity function CSF to achieve the perceptual decomposition weighting, 3) the Wavelet Error Sensitivity WES used to reduce the perceptual quantization errors. The new perceptually optimized codec has the same complexity as the original SPIHT techniques. However, the experiments results show that our coder demonstrates very good performance in terms of quality measurement.

Keywords: DWT, linear-phase 9/7 filter, 9/7 Wavelets Error Sensitivity WES, CSF implementation approaches, JND Just Noticeable Difference, Luminance masking, Contrast masking, standard SPIHT, Objective Quality Measure, Probability Score PS.

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824 Obstacle and Collision Avoidance Control Laws of a Swarm of Boids

Authors: Bibhya Sharma, Jito Vanualailai, Jai Raj

Abstract:

This paper proposes a new obstacle and collision avoidance control laws for a three-dimensional swarm of boids. The swarm exhibit collective emergent behaviors whilst avoiding the obstacles in the workspace. While flocking, animals group up in order to do various tasks and even a greater chance of evading predators. A generalized algorithms for attraction to the centroid, inter-individual swarm avoidance and obstacle avoidance is designed in this paper. We present a set of new continuous time-invariant velocity control laws is presented which is formulated via the Lyapunov-based control scheme. The control laws proposed in this paper also ensures practical stability of the system. The effectiveness of the proposed control laws is demonstrated via computer simulations

 

Keywords: Lyapunov-based Control Scheme, Motion planning, Practical stability, Swarm.

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823 Aesthetics and Robotics: Which Form to give to the Human-Like Robot?

Authors: B. Tondu, N. Bardou

Abstract:

The recent development of humanoid robots has led robot designers to imagine a great variety of anthropomorphic forms for human-like machine. Which form is the best ? We try to answer this question from a double meaning of the anthropomorphism : a positive anthropomorphism corresponing to the realization of an effective anthropomorphic form object and a negative one corresponding to our natural tendency in certain circumstances to give human attributes to non-human beings. We postulate that any humanoid robot is concerned by both these two anthropomorphism kinds. We propose to use gestalt theory and Heider-s balance theory in order to analyze how negative anthropomorphism can influence our perception of human-like robots. From our theoretical approach we conclude that an “even shape" as defined by gestalt theory is not a sufficient condition for a good integration of future humanoid robots into a human community. Aesthetic perception of the robot cannot be splitted from a social perception : a humanoid robot, any how the efforts made for improving its appearance, could be rejected if it is devoted to a task with too high affective implications.

Keywords: Robot appearance, humanoid robot, uncanny valley, human-robot-interaction.

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822 A Perceptually Optimized Foveation Based Wavelet Embedded Zero Tree Image Coding

Authors: A. Bajit, M. Nahid, A. Tamtaoui, E. H. Bouyakhf

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a Perceptually Optimized Foveation based Embedded ZeroTree Image Coder (POEFIC) that introduces a perceptual weighting to wavelet coefficients prior to control SPIHT encoding algorithm in order to reach a targeted bit rate with a perceptual quality improvement with respect to a given bit rate a fixation point which determines the region of interest ROI. The paper also, introduces a new objective quality metric based on a Psychovisual model that integrates the properties of the HVS that plays an important role in our POEFIC quality assessment. Our POEFIC coder is based on a vision model that incorporates various masking effects of human visual system HVS perception. Thus, our coder weights the wavelet coefficients based on that model and attempts to increase the perceptual quality for a given bit rate and observation distance. The perceptual weights for all wavelet subbands are computed based on 1) foveation masking to remove or reduce considerable high frequencies from peripheral regions 2) luminance and Contrast masking, 3) the contrast sensitivity function CSF to achieve the perceptual decomposition weighting. The new perceptually optimized codec has the same complexity as the original SPIHT techniques. However, the experiments results show that our coder demonstrates very good performance in terms of quality measurement.

Keywords: DWT, linear-phase 9/7 filter, Foveation Filtering, CSF implementation approaches, 9/7 Wavelet JND Thresholds and Wavelet Error Sensitivity WES, Luminance and Contrast masking, standard SPIHT, Objective Quality Measure, Probability Score PS.

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821 Organization’s Ethics, Job Performance Satisfaction and Effects on Employees’ Engagement and Commitment

Authors: Anunya Thanasrisuebwong

Abstract:

This research paper aimed to find out how was the ethical climate in an organization and job performance satisfaction of employees affected employees’ engagement and commitment by using the case study of PTT Exploration and Production Public Company Limited, Thailand. The population of this research was 4,383 Thai employees of PTTEP, Thailand. From a total of 420 questionnaires sent out, 345 respondents replied. The statistics utilized was mean score and Multiple Regression Analysis. The findings revealed that the respondents had opinion towards ethical climate of their organization, job performance satisfaction and organization engagement and commitment at a high level. The test of hypothesis disclosed the determinant attributes of job performance satisfaction that affected the respondents’ overall level of organization engagement and commitment. The set of these determinant attributes consisted of employees’ responsibilities for duties, organization’s policies and practice, relationship with organization’s commanders, work security and stability, job description, career path and relationship with colleagues. These variables were able to predict the employees’ organization engagement and commitment at 50.6 percent.

Keywords: Ethical Climate in Organization, Job Performance Satisfaction, Organization Engagement and Commitment.

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820 Adaptive Digital Watermarking Integrating Fuzzy Inference HVS Perceptual Model

Authors: Sherin M. Youssef, Ahmed Abouelfarag, Noha M. Ghatwary

Abstract:

An adaptive Fuzzy Inference Perceptual model has been proposed for watermarking of digital images. The model depends on the human visual characteristics of image sub-regions in the frequency multi-resolution wavelet domain. In the proposed model, a multi-variable fuzzy based architecture has been designed to produce a perceptual membership degree for both candidate embedding sub-regions and strength watermark embedding factor. Different sizes of benchmark images with different sizes of watermarks have been applied on the model. Several experimental attacks have been applied such as JPEG compression, noises and rotation, to ensure the robustness of the scheme. In addition, the model has been compared with different watermarking schemes. The proposed model showed its robustness to attacks and at the same time achieved a high level of imperceptibility.

Keywords: Watermarking, The human visual system (HVS), Fuzzy Inference System (FIS), Local Binary Pattern (LBP), Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT).

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819 Advantages and Disadvantages of Business Continuity Management

Authors: K. Venclova, H. Urbancova, H. Vostra Vydrova

Abstract:

In current global economics the application of Business Continuity Management is the prerequisite for sustainable competitive advantage in an organization. Business Continuity Management is a managerial which identifies the potential impact of losses in an organization. The aim of this paper is to identify and critically evaluate the relative advantages and disadvantages of deploying Business Continuity Management in an organization on the basis of seven criteria. The strongest advantage of Business Continuity Management is in its capacity to identify a crisis situation and help the organization to flexibly and also to keep the critical knowledge within the organization. By contrast the main disadvantage is that establishing Business Continuity Management in an organization is time-consuming and its implementation as an integral part of the organizational culture present significant difficulties.

Keywords: Business continuity management, criteria, advantages, disadvantages, organisations, survey.

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818 Design of a DCT-based Image Compression with Efficient Enhancement Filter

Authors: Yen-Yu Chen, Pao-Ching Chu, Ya-Ling Tsai

Abstract:

The algorithm represents the DCT coefficients to concentrate signal energy and proposes combination and dictator to eliminate the correlation in the same level subband for encoding the DCT-based images. This work adopts DCT and modifies the SPIHT algorithm to encode DCT coefficients. The proposed algorithm also provides the enhancement function in low bit rate in order to improve the perceptual quality. Experimental results indicate that the proposed technique improves the quality of the reconstructed image in terms of both PSNR and the perceptual results close to JPEG2000 at the same bit rate.

Keywords: JPEG 2000, enhancement filter

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817 The Role of Education (Tarbiyyah) in the Religio-Political Organization

Authors: Muhaimin Bin Sulam, Abdul Mutalib Embong, Azelin Mohamed Noor

Abstract:

This paper presents the reinvention of the role of education (tarbiyyah) in the social influence of organizations focusing on the sustainability of a specific religio-political organization. The objective of the paper is to describe how the position secured by education could transform the organization while maintaining its objective and vision. The study employed the qualitative approach that involves data from conducted interviews. An analysis on the role political leaders play in educating the organization in the context of ideological struggle is also analyzed. The process description also evaluates how education could intellectualize its followers and members which inspires them to submit to their leaders and the organization. This extensive cultivation of religio-political doctrine could offer a new interpretation on politics.

Keywords: Religio-political organization. Malaysia, education (tarbiyyah), followers, political movement.

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816 Analysis of Patterns in TV Commercials that Recognize NGO Image

Authors: J. Areerut, F. Samuel

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to analyze the pattern of television commercials and how they encourage non-governmental organizations to build their image in Thailand. It realizes how public relations can impact an organization's image. It is a truth that bad public relations management can cause hurt a reputation. On the other hand, a very small amount of work in public relations helps your organization to be recognized broadly and eventually accepted even wider. The main idea in this paper is to study and analyze patterns of television commercials that could impact non-governmental organization's images in a greater way. This research uses questionnaires and content analysis to summarize results. The findings show the aspects of how patterns of television commercials that are suited to non-governmental organization work in Thailand. It will be useful for any non-governmental organization that wishes to build their image through television commercials and also for further work based on this research.

Keywords: Television Commercial (TVC), Organization Image, Non-Governmental Organization: NGO, Public Relation.

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815 Role of ICT and Wage Inequality in Organization

Authors: Shoji Katagiri

Abstract:

This study deals with wage inequality in organization and shows the relationship between ICT and wage in organization. To do so, we incorporate ICT’s factors in organization into our model. ICT’s factors are efficiencies of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), Computer Assisted Design/Computer Assisted Manufacturing (CAD/CAM), and NETWORK. The improvement of ICT’s factors decrease the learning cost to solve problem pertaining to the hierarchy in organization. The improvement of NETWORK increases the wage inequality within workers and decreases within managers and entrepreneurs. The improvements of CAD/CAM and ERP increases the wage inequality within all agent, and partially increase it between the agents in hierarchy.

Keywords: Endogenous economic growth, ICT, inequality, capital accumulation, technology.

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814 The Importance of Sustainable Urban Development and Its Impacts on Turkey’s Urban Environmental Laws

Authors: Azadeh Rezafar, Sevkiye Sence Turk

Abstract:

Rapid population growth in urban areas and extinction danger of natural resources in order to meet the food needs of these population, has revealed the need for sustainability. It did not last long that city planners realized the importance of an equal access to natural resources with protecting and managing them in cities, in accordance with the concept of sustainable development. Like in other countries The Turkish Government is aware of the importance of the sustainable development in their cities. The government issued new laws for protection of environmental assets and so that the preservation of natural ecology. The main objective of this article is to emphasis the importance of the sustainable development in the context of the developing world by giving special information about the method of the Turkish Government for protecting nature with approval of difference laws in this area.

Keywords: Population Growth, Sustainable Development, Turkey, Turkish Urban Environmental Laws.

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813 Legal Problems with the Thai Political Party Establishment

Authors: Paiboon Chuwatthanakij

Abstract:

Each of the countries around the world has different ways of management and many of them depend on people to administrate their country. Thailand, for example, empowers the sovereignty of Thai people under constitution; however, our Thai voting system is not able to flow fast enough under the current Political management system. The sovereignty of Thai people is addressing this problem through representatives during current elections, in order to set a new policy for the countries ideology to change in the House and the Cabinet. This is particularly important in a democracy to be developed under our current political institution. The Organic Act on Political Parties 2007 is the establishment we have today that is causing confrontations within the establishment. There are many political parties that will soon be abolished. Many political parties have already been subsidized. This research study is to analyze the legal problems with the political party establishment under the Organic Act on Political Parties 2007. This will focus on the freedom of each political establishment compared to an effective political operation. Textbooks and academic papers will be referenced from studies home and abroad. The study revealed that Organic Act on Political Parties 2007 has strict provisions on the political structure over the number of members and the number of branches involved within political parties system. Such operations shall be completed within one year; but under the existing laws the small parties are not able to participate with the bigger parties. The cities are capable of fulfilling small political party requirements but fail to become coalesced because the current laws won't allow them to be united as one. It is important to allow all independent political parties to join our current political structure. Board members can’t help the smaller parties to become a large organization under the existing Thai laws. Creating a new establishment that functions efficiently throughout all branches would be one solution to these legal problems between all political parties. With this new operation, individual political parties can participate with the bigger parties during elections. Until current political institutions change their system to accommodate public opinion, these current Thai laws will continue to be a problem with all political parties in Thailand.

Keywords: Coalesced, Political Party, Sovereignty.

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812 Increase of Organization in Complex Systems

Authors: Georgi Yordanov Georgiev, Michael Daly, Erin Gombos, Amrit Vinod, Gajinder Hoonjan

Abstract:

Measures of complexity and entropy have not converged to a single quantitative description of levels of organization of complex systems. The need for such a measure is increasingly necessary in all disciplines studying complex systems. To address this problem, starting from the most fundamental principle in Physics, here a new measure for quantity of organization and rate of self-organization in complex systems based on the principle of least (stationary) action is applied to a model system - the central processing unit (CPU) of computers. The quantity of organization for several generations of CPUs shows a double exponential rate of change of organization with time. The exact functional dependence has a fine, S-shaped structure, revealing some of the mechanisms of self-organization. The principle of least action helps to explain the mechanism of increase of organization through quantity accumulation and constraint and curvature minimization with an attractor, the least average sum of actions of all elements and for all motions. This approach can help describe, quantify, measure, manage, design and predict future behavior of complex systems to achieve the highest rates of self organization to improve their quality. It can be applied to other complex systems from Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Ecology, Economics, Cities, network theory and others where complex systems are present.

Keywords: Organization, self-organization, complex system, complexification, quantitative measure, principle of least action, principle of stationary action, attractor, progressive development, acceleration, stochastic.

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811 Understanding the Silence: When Courts Don-t Speak About Religion

Authors: Kalindi Kokal

Abstract:

India recognizes the personal laws of the various religious communities that reside in the country. At the same time all the institutions of the state in India are committed to the value of secularism. This paper has been developed on the basis of a case study that indicates the dynamics of religion in the working of the lower judiciary in India. Majority of the commentary on religion and the judiciary has focused on debates surrounding the existence and application of personal laws. This paper, through a case study in the lower judiciary, makes an attempt to examine whether the interface between religion and the judiciary goes beyond personal laws. The first part of this paper explains the history and application of personal laws in social, political and legal contexts in India. The second part examines the case study located in two courts of first instance, following into the third part which provides an analysis of the empirical evidence. The fourth part focuses on preliminary observations about why there is a hesitancy to speak about religion in relation to the working of the judicial system.

Keywords: Lower Courts, India, Legal Pluralism, Personal Law.

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810 Self-Organization of Clusters having Locally Distributed Patterns for Synchronized Inputs

Authors: Toshio Akimitsu, Yoichi Okabe, Akira Hirose

Abstract:

Many experimental results suggest that more precise spike timing is significant in neural information processing. We construct a self-organization model using the spatiotemporal patterns, where Spike-Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP) tunes the conduction delays between neurons. We show that the fluctuation of conduction delays causes globally continuous and locally distributed firing patterns through the self-organization.

Keywords: Self-organization, synfire-chain, Spike-Timing Dependent Plasticity, distributed information representation

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809 Self-Organization of Clusters Having Locally Distributed Patterns for Highly Synchronized Inputs

Authors: Toshio Akimitsu, Yoichi Okabe, Akira Hirose

Abstract:

Many experimental results suggest that more precise spike timing is significant in neural information processing. We construct a self-organization model using the spatiotemporal pat-terns, where Spike-Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP) tunes the conduction delays between neurons. We show that, for highly syn-chronized inputs, the fluctuation of conduction delays causes globally continuous and locally distributed firing patterns through the self-organization.

Keywords: Self-organization, synfire-chain, Spike-Timing DependentPlasticity, distributed information representation.

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808 Combating Money Laundering in the Banking Industry: Malaysian Experience

Authors: Aspalella A. Rahman

Abstract:

Money laundering has been described by many as the lifeblood of crime and is a major threat to the economic and social well-being of societies. It has been recognized that the banking system has long been the central element of money laundering. This is in part due to the complexity and confidentiality of the banking system itself. It is generally accepted that effective anti-money laundering (AML) measures adopted by banks will make it tougher for criminals to get their "dirty money" into the financial system. In fact, for law enforcement agencies, banks are considered to be an important source of valuable information for the detection of money laundering. However, from the banks- perspective, the main reason for their existence is to make as much profits as possible. Hence their cultural and commercial interests are totally distinct from that of the law enforcement authorities. Undoubtedly, AML laws create a major dilemma for banks as they produce a significant shift in the way banks interact with their customers. Furthermore, the implementation of the laws not only creates significant compliance problems for banks, but also has the potential to adversely affect the operations of banks. As such, it is legitimate to ask whether these laws are effective in preventing money launderers from using banks, or whether they simply put an unreasonable burden on banks and their customers. This paper attempts to address these issues and analyze them against the background of the Malaysian AML laws. It must be said that effective coordination between AML regulator and the banking industry is vital to minimize problems faced by the banks and thereby to ensure effective implementation of the laws in combating money laundering.

Keywords: Banking Industry, Bank Negara Money, Laundering, Malaysia.

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807 A Perceptual Image Coding method of High Compression Rate

Authors: Fahmi Kammoun, Mohamed Salim Bouhlel

Abstract:

In the framework of the image compression by Wavelet Transforms, we propose a perceptual method by incorporating Human Visual System (HVS) characteristics in the quantization stage. Indeed, human eyes haven-t an equal sensitivity across the frequency bandwidth. Therefore, the clarity of the reconstructed images can be improved by weighting the quantization according to the Contrast Sensitivity Function (CSF). The visual artifact at low bit rate is minimized. To evaluate our method, we use the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and a new evaluating criteria witch takes into account visual criteria. The experimental results illustrate that our technique shows improvement on image quality at the same compression ratio.

Keywords: Contrast Sensitivity Function, Human Visual System, Image compression, Wavelet transforms.

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806 Watermark Bit Rate in Diverse Signal Domains

Authors: Nedeljko Cvejic, Tapio Sepp

Abstract:

A study of the obtainable watermark data rate for information hiding algorithms is presented in this paper. As the perceptual entropy for wideband monophonic audio signals is in the range of four to five bits per sample, a significant amount of additional information can be inserted into signal without causing any perceptual distortion. Experimental results showed that transform domain watermark embedding outperforms considerably watermark embedding in time domain and that signal decompositions with a high gain of transform coding, like the wavelet transform, are the most suitable for high data rate information hiding. Keywords?Digital watermarking, information hiding, audio watermarking, watermark data rate.

Keywords: Digital watermarking, information hiding, audio watermarking, watermark data rate.

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805 The Process of Crisis: Model of Its Development in the Organization

Authors: M. Mikušová

Abstract:

The main aim of this paper is to present a clear and comprehensive picture of the process of a crisis in the organization which will help to better understand its possible developments. For a description of the sequence of individual steps and an indication of their causation and possible variants of the developments, a detailed flow diagram with verbal comment is applied. For simplicity, the process of the crisis is observed in four basic phases called: symptoms of the crisis, diagnosis, action and prevention. The model highlights the complexity of the phenomenon of the crisis and that the various phases of the crisis are interweaving.

Keywords: Crisis, management, model, organization.

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804 Scrum as the Method Supporting the Implementation of Knowledge Management in an Organization

Authors: Andrej Miklošík, Eva Hvizdová, Štefan Žák

Abstract:

Many companies have switched their processes to project-oriented in the last years. This brings new possibilities and effectiveness not only in the field of external processes connected with the product delivery but also the internal processes as well. However centralized project organization which is based on the role of project manager in the team has proved insufficient in some cases. Agile methods of project organization are trying to solve this problem by bringing new view on the project organization, roles, processes and competences. Scrum is one of these methods which builds on the principles of knowledge management to drive the project to effectiveness from all view angles. Using this method to organize internal and delivery projects helps the organization to create and share knowledge throughout the company. It also supports forming unique competences of individuals and project teams and drives innovations in the company.

Keywords: agile software development, knowledge management, knowledge dissemination, project management, SCRUM

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