Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: Background subtraction

17 Hand Gesture Detection via EmguCV Canny Pruning

Authors: N. N. Mosola, S. J. Molete, L. S. Masoebe, M. Letsae

Abstract:

Hand gesture recognition is a technique used to locate, detect, and recognize a hand gesture. Detection and recognition are concepts of Artificial Intelligence (AI). AI concepts are applicable in Human Computer Interaction (HCI), Expert systems (ES), etc. Hand gesture recognition can be used in sign language interpretation. Sign language is a visual communication tool. This tool is used mostly by deaf societies and those with speech disorder. Communication barriers exist when societies with speech disorder interact with others. This research aims to build a hand recognition system for Lesotho’s Sesotho and English language interpretation. The system will help to bridge the communication problems encountered by the mentioned societies. The system has various processing modules. The modules consist of a hand detection engine, image processing engine, feature extraction, and sign recognition. Detection is a process of identifying an object. The proposed system uses Canny pruning Haar and Haarcascade detection algorithms. Canny pruning implements the Canny edge detection. This is an optimal image processing algorithm. It is used to detect edges of an object. The system employs a skin detection algorithm. The skin detection performs background subtraction, computes the convex hull, and the centroid to assist in the detection process. Recognition is a process of gesture classification. Template matching classifies each hand gesture in real-time. The system was tested using various experiments. The results obtained show that time, distance, and light are factors that affect the rate of detection and ultimately recognition. Detection rate is directly proportional to the distance of the hand from the camera. Different lighting conditions were considered. The more the light intensity, the faster the detection rate. Based on the results obtained from this research, the applied methodologies are efficient and provide a plausible solution towards a light-weight, inexpensive system which can be used for sign language interpretation.

Keywords: Canny pruning, hand recognition, machine learning, skin tracking.

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16 Challenges in Video Based Object Detection in Maritime Scenario Using Computer Vision

Authors: Dilip K. Prasad, C. Krishna Prasath, Deepu Rajan, Lily Rachmawati, Eshan Rajabally, Chai Quek

Abstract:

This paper discusses the technical challenges in maritime image processing and machine vision problems for video streams generated by cameras. Even well documented problems of horizon detection and registration of frames in a video are very challenging in maritime scenarios. More advanced problems of background subtraction and object detection in video streams are very challenging. Challenges arising from the dynamic nature of the background, unavailability of static cues, presence of small objects at distant backgrounds, illumination effects, all contribute to the challenges as discussed here.

Keywords: Autonomous maritime vehicle, object detection, situation awareness, tracking.

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15 Design and Implementation of a Counting and Differentiation System for Vehicles through Video Processing

Authors: Derlis Gregor, Kevin Cikel, Mario Arzamendia, Raúl Gregor

Abstract:

This paper presents a self-sustaining mobile system for counting and classification of vehicles through processing video. It proposes a counting and classification algorithm divided in four steps that can be executed multiple times in parallel in a SBC (Single Board Computer), like the Raspberry Pi 2, in such a way that it can be implemented in real time. The first step of the proposed algorithm limits the zone of the image that it will be processed. The second step performs the detection of the mobile objects using a BGS (Background Subtraction) algorithm based on the GMM (Gaussian Mixture Model), as well as a shadow removal algorithm using physical-based features, followed by morphological operations. In the first step the vehicle detection will be performed by using edge detection algorithms and the vehicle following through Kalman filters. The last step of the proposed algorithm registers the vehicle passing and performs their classification according to their areas. An auto-sustainable system is proposed, powered by batteries and photovoltaic solar panels, and the data transmission is done through GPRS (General Packet Radio Service)eliminating the need of using external cable, which will facilitate it deployment and translation to any location where it could operate. The self-sustaining trailer will allow the counting and classification of vehicles in specific zones with difficult access.

Keywords: Intelligent transportation systems, object detection, video processing, road traffic, vehicle counting, vehicle classification.

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14 Multi-Layer Multi-Feature Background Subtraction Using Codebook Model Framework

Authors: Yun-Tao Zhang, Jong-Yeop Bae, Whoi-Yul Kim

Abstract:

Background modeling and subtraction in video analysis has been widely used as an effective method for moving objects detection in many computer vision applications. Recently, a large number of approaches have been developed to tackle different types of challenges in this field. However, the dynamic background and illumination variations are the most frequently occurred problems in the practical situation. This paper presents a favorable two-layer model based on codebook algorithm incorporated with local binary pattern (LBP) texture measure, targeted for handling dynamic background and illumination variation problems. More specifically, the first layer is designed by block-based codebook combining with LBP histogram and mean value of each RGB color channel. Because of the invariance of the LBP features with respect to monotonic gray-scale changes, this layer can produce block wise detection results with considerable tolerance of illumination variations. The pixel-based codebook is employed to reinforce the precision from the output of the first layer which is to eliminate false positives further. As a result, the proposed approach can greatly promote the accuracy under the circumstances of dynamic background and illumination changes. Experimental results on several popular background subtraction datasets demonstrate very competitive performance compared to previous models.

Keywords: Background subtraction, codebook model, local binary pattern, dynamic background, illumination changes.

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13 Human Action Recognition System Based on Silhouette

Authors: S. Maheswari, P. Arockia Jansi Rani

Abstract:

Human action is recognized directly from the video sequences. The objective of this work is to recognize various human actions like run, jump, walk etc. Human action recognition requires some prior knowledge about actions namely, the motion estimation, foreground and background estimation. Region of interest (ROI) is extracted to identify the human in the frame. Then, optical flow technique is used to extract the motion vectors. Using the extracted features similarity measure based classification is done to recognize the action. From experimentations upon the Weizmann database, it is found that the proposed method offers a high accuracy.

Keywords: Background subtraction, human silhouette, optical flow, classification.

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12 A Background Subtraction Based Moving Object Detection around the Host Vehicle

Authors: Hyojin Lim, Cuong Nguyen Khac, Ho-Youl Jung

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose moving object detection method which is helpful for driver to safely take his/her car out of parking lot. When moving objects such as motorbikes, pedestrians, the other cars and some obstacles are detected at the rear-side of host vehicle, the proposed algorithm can provide to driver warning. We assume that the host vehicle is just before departure. Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) based background subtraction is basically applied. Pre-processing such as smoothing and post-processing as morphological filtering are added. We examine “which color space has better performance for detection of moving objects?” Three color spaces including RGB, YCbCr, and Y are applied and compared, in terms of detection rate. Through simulation, we prove that RGB space is more suitable for moving object detection based on background subtraction.

Keywords: Gaussian mixture model, background subtraction, Moving object detection, color space, morphological filtering.

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11 Dynamic Background Updating for Lightweight Moving Object Detection

Authors: Kelemewerk Destalem, Jungjae Cho, Jaeseong Lee, Ju H. Park, Joonhyuk Yoo

Abstract:

Background subtraction and temporal difference are often used for moving object detection in video. Both approaches are computationally simple and easy to be deployed in real-time image processing. However, while the background subtraction is highly sensitive to dynamic background and illumination changes, the temporal difference approach is poor at extracting relevant pixels of the moving object and at detecting the stopped or slowly moving objects in the scene. In this paper, we propose a simple moving object detection scheme based on adaptive background subtraction and temporal difference exploiting dynamic background updates. The proposed technique consists of histogram equalization, a linear combination of background and temporal difference, followed by the novel frame-based and pixel-based background updating techniques. Finally, morphological operations are applied to the output images. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can solve the drawbacks of both background subtraction and temporal difference methods and can provide better performance than that of each method.

Keywords: Background subtraction, background updating, real time and lightweight algorithm, temporal difference.

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10 Automatic Motion Trajectory Analysis for Dual Human Interaction Using Video Sequences

Authors: Yuan-Hsiang Chang, Pin-Chi Lin, Li-Der Jeng

Abstract:

Advance in techniques of image and video processing has enabled the development of intelligent video surveillance systems. This study was aimed to automatically detect moving human objects and to analyze events of dual human interaction in a surveillance scene. Our system was developed in four major steps: image preprocessing, human object detection, human object tracking, and motion trajectory analysis. The adaptive background subtraction and image processing techniques were used to detect and track moving human objects. To solve the occlusion problem during the interaction, the Kalman filter was used to retain a complete trajectory for each human object. Finally, the motion trajectory analysis was developed to distinguish between the interaction and non-interaction events based on derivatives of trajectories related to the speed of the moving objects. Using a database of 60 video sequences, our system could achieve the classification accuracy of 80% in interaction events and 95% in non-interaction events, respectively. In summary, we have explored the idea to investigate a system for the automatic classification of events for interaction and non-interaction events using surveillance cameras. Ultimately, this system could be incorporated in an intelligent surveillance system for the detection and/or classification of abnormal or criminal events (e.g., theft, snatch, fighting, etc.). 

Keywords: Motion detection, motion tracking, trajectory analysis, video surveillance.

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9 Toward Indoor and Outdoor Surveillance Using an Improved Fast Background Subtraction Algorithm

Authors: A. El Harraj, N. Raissouni

Abstract:

The detection of moving objects from a video image sequences is very important for object tracking, activity recognition, and behavior understanding in video surveillance. The most used approach for moving objects detection / tracking is background subtraction algorithms. Many approaches have been suggested for background subtraction. But, these are illumination change sensitive and the solutions proposed to bypass this problem are time consuming. In this paper, we propose a robust yet computationally efficient background subtraction approach and, mainly, focus on the ability to detect moving objects on dynamic scenes, for possible applications in complex and restricted access areas monitoring, where moving and motionless persons must be reliably detected. It consists of three main phases, establishing illumination changes invariance, background/foreground modeling and morphological analysis for noise removing. We handle illumination changes using Contrast Limited Histogram Equalization (CLAHE), which limits the intensity of each pixel to user determined maximum. Thus, it mitigates the degradation due to scene illumination changes and improves the visibility of the video signal. Initially, the background and foreground images are extracted from the video sequence. Then, the background and foreground images are separately enhanced by applying CLAHE. In order to form multi-modal backgrounds we model each channel of a pixel as a mixture of K Gaussians (K=5) using Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). Finally, we post process the resulting binary foreground mask using morphological erosion and dilation transformations to remove possible noise. For experimental test, we used a standard dataset to challenge the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method on a diverse set of dynamic scenes.

Keywords: Video surveillance, background subtraction, Contrast Limited Histogram Equalization, illumination invariance, object tracking, object detection, behavior understanding, dynamic scenes.

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8 Enhanced Approaches to Rectify the Noise, Illumination and Shadow Artifacts

Authors: M. Sankari, C. Meena

Abstract:

Enhancing the quality of two dimensional signals is one of the most important factors in the fields of video surveillance and computer vision. Usually in real-life video surveillance, false detection occurs due to the presence of random noise, illumination and shadow artifacts. The detection methods based on background subtraction faces several problems in accurately detecting objects in realistic environments: In this paper, we propose a noise removal algorithm using neighborhood comparison method with thresholding. The illumination variations correction is done in the detected foreground objects by using an amalgamation of techniques like homomorphic decomposition, curvelet transformation and gamma adjustment operator. Shadow is removed using chromaticity estimator with local relation estimator. Results are compared with the existing methods and prove as high robustness in the video surveillance.

Keywords: Chromaticity Estimator, Curvelet Transformation, Denoising, Gamma correction, Homomorphic, Neighborhood Assessment.

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7 Smart Surveillance using PDA

Authors: Basem Mustafa Abd. Amer , Syed Abdul Rahman Al-Attas

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to develop a fast and reliable surveillance system based on a personal digital assistant (PDA) device. This is to extend the capability of the device to detect moving objects which is already available in personal computers. Secondly, to compare the performance between Background subtraction (BS) and Temporal Frame Differencing (TFD) techniques for PDA platform as to which is more suitable. In order to reduce noise and to prepare frames for the moving object detection part, each frame is first converted to a gray-scale representation and then smoothed using a Gaussian low pass filter. Two moving object detection schemes i.e., BS and TFD have been analyzed. The background frame is updated by using Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) filter so that the background frame is adapted to the varying illuminate conditions and geometry settings. In order to reduce the effect of noise pixels resulting from frame differencing morphological filters erosion and dilation are applied. In this research, it has been found that TFD technique is more suitable for motion detection purpose than the BS in term of speed. On average TFD is approximately 170 ms faster than the BS technique

Keywords: Surveillance, PDA, Motion Detection, ImageProcessing , Background Subtraction.

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6 Real Time Detection, Tracking and Recognition of Medication Intake

Authors: H. H. Huynh, J. Meunier, J.Sequeira, M.Daniel

Abstract:

In this paper, the detection and tracking of face, mouth, hands and medication bottles in the context of medication intake monitoring with a camera is presented. This is aimed at recognizing medication intake for elderly in their home setting to avoid an inappropriate use. Background subtraction is used to isolate moving objects, and then, skin and bottle segmentations are done in the RGB normalized color space. We use a minimum displacement distance criterion to track skin color regions and the R/G ratio to detect the mouth. The color-labeled medication bottles are simply tracked based on the color space distance to their mean color vector. For the recognition of medication intake, we propose a three-level hierarchal approach, which uses activity-patterns to recognize the normal medication intake activity. The proposed method was tested with three persons, with different medication intake scenarios, and gave an overall precision of over 98%.

Keywords: Activity recognition, background subtraction, tracking, medication intake, video surveillance

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5 Extracting Human Body based on Background Estimation in Modified HLS Color Space

Authors: Jang-Hee Yoo, Doosung Hwang, Jong-Wook Han, Ki-Young Moon

Abstract:

The ability to recognize humans and their activities by computer vision is a very important task, with many potential application. Study of human motion analysis is related to several research areas of computer vision such as the motion capture, detection, tracking and segmentation of people. In this paper, we describe a segmentation method for extracting human body contour in modified HLS color space. To estimate a background, the modified HLS color space is proposed, and the background features are estimated by using the HLS color components. Here, the large amount of human dataset, which was collected from DV cameras, is pre-processed. The human body and its contour is successfully extracted from the image sequences.

Keywords: Background Subtraction, Human Silhouette Extraction, HLS Color Space, and Object Segmentation

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4 An Images Monitoring System based on Multi-Format Streaming Grid Architecture

Authors: Yi-Haur Shiau, Sun-In Lin, Shi-Wei Lo, Hsiu-Mei Chou, Yi-Hsuan Chen

Abstract:

This paper proposes a novel multi-format stream grid architecture for real-time image monitoring system. The system, based on a three-tier architecture, includes stream receiving unit, stream processor unit, and presentation unit. It is a distributed computing and a loose coupling architecture. The benefit is the amount of required servers can be adjusted depending on the loading of the image monitoring system. The stream receive unit supports multi capture source devices and multi-format stream compress encoder. Stream processor unit includes three modules; they are stream clipping module, image processing module and image management module. Presentation unit can display image data on several different platforms. We verified the proposed grid architecture with an actual test of image monitoring. We used a fast image matching method with the adjustable parameters for different monitoring situations. Background subtraction method is also implemented in the system. Experimental results showed that the proposed architecture is robust, adaptive, and powerful in the image monitoring system.

Keywords: Motion detection, grid architecture, image monitoring system, and background subtraction.

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3 Moving Vehicles Detection Using Automatic Background Extraction

Authors: Saad M. Al-Garni, Adel A. Abdennour

Abstract:

Vehicle detection is the critical step for highway monitoring. In this paper we propose background subtraction and edge detection technique for vehicle detection. This technique uses the advantages of both approaches. The practical applications approved the effectiveness of this method. This method consists of two procedures: First, automatic background extraction procedure, in which the background is extracted automatically from the successive frames; Second vehicles detection procedure, which depend on edge detection and background subtraction. Experimental results show the effective application of this algorithm. Vehicles detection rate was higher than 91%.

Keywords: Image processing, Automatic background extraction, Moving vehicle detection.

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2 Human Verification in a Video Surveillance System Using Statistical Features

Authors: Sanpachai Huvanandana

Abstract:

A human verification system is presented in this paper. The system consists of several steps: background subtraction, thresholding, line connection, region growing, morphlogy, star skelatonization, feature extraction, feature matching, and decision making. The proposed system combines an advantage of star skeletonization and simple statistic features. A correlation matching and probability voting have been used for verification, followed by a logical operation in a decision making stage. The proposed system uses small number of features and the system reliability is convincing.

Keywords: Human verification, object recognition, videounderstanding, segmentation.

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1 Human Pose Estimation using Active Shape Models

Authors: Changhyuk Jang, Keechul Jung

Abstract:

Human pose estimation can be executed using Active Shape Models. The existing techniques for applying to human-body research using Active Shape Models, such as human detection, primarily take the form of silhouette of human body. This technique is not able to estimate accurately for human pose to concern two arms and legs, as the silhouette of human body represents the shape as out of round. To solve this problem, we applied the human body model as stick-figure, “skeleton". The skeleton model of human body can give consideration to various shapes of human pose. To obtain effective estimation result, we applied background subtraction and deformed matching algorithm of primary Active Shape Models in the fitting process. The images which were used to make the model were 600 human bodies, and the model has 17 landmark points which indicate body junction and key features of human pose. The maximum iteration for the fitting process was 30 times and the execution time was less than .03 sec.

Keywords: Active shape models, skeleton, pose estimation.

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