Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2556

Search results for: oscillating water column

2556 Non-Stationary Stochastic Optimization of an Oscillating Water Column

Authors: María L. Jalón, Feargal Brennan

Abstract:

A non-stationary stochastic optimization methodology is applied to an OWC (oscillating water column) to find the design that maximizes the wave energy extraction. Different temporal cycles are considered to represent the long-term variability of the wave climate at the site in the optimization problem. The results of the non-stationary stochastic optimization problem are compared against those obtained by a stationary stochastic optimization problem. The comparative analysis reveals that the proposed non-stationary optimization provides designs with a better fit to reality. However, the stationarity assumption can be adequate when looking at averaged system response.

Keywords: Non-stationary stochastic optimization, oscillating water column, temporal variability, wave energy.

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2555 Advancement of Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Technologies through Integrated Applications and Alternative Systems

Authors: S. Doyle, G. A. Aggidis

Abstract:

Wave energy converter technologies continue to show good progress in worldwide research. One of the most researched technologies, the Oscillating Water Column (OWC), is arguably one of the most popular categories within the converter technologies due to its robustness, simplicity and versatility. However, the versatility of the OWC is still largely untapped with most deployments following similar trends with respect to applications and operating systems. As the competitiveness of the energy market continues to increase, the demand for wave energy technologies to be innovative also increases. For existing wave energy technologies, this requires identifying areas to diversify for lower costs of energy with respect to applications and synergies or integrated systems. This paper provides a review of all OWCs systems integrated into alternative applications in the past and present. The aspects and variation in their design, deployment and system operation are discussed. Particular focus is given to the Multi-OWCs (M-OWCs) and their great potential to increase capture on a larger scale, especially in synergy applications. It is made clear that these steps need to be taken in order to make wave energy a competitive and viable option in the renewable energy mix as progression to date shows that stand alone single function devices are not economical. Findings reveal that the trend of development is moving toward these integrated applications in order to reduce the Levelised Cost of Energy (LCOE) and will ultimately continue in this direction in efforts to make wave energy a competitive option in the renewable energy mix.

Keywords: Ocean energy, wave energy, oscillating water column, renewable energy, review.

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2554 Multi-Criteria Selection and Improvement of Effective Design for Generating Power from Sea Waves

Authors: Khaled M. Khader, Mamdouh I. Elimy, Omayma A. Nada

Abstract:

Sustainable development is the nominal goal of most countries at present. In general, fossil fuels are the development mainstay of most world countries. Regrettably, the fossil fuel consumption rate is very high, and the world is facing the problem of conventional fuels depletion soon. In addition, there are many problems of environmental pollution resulting from the emission of harmful gases and vapors during fuel burning. Thus, clean, renewable energy became the main concern of most countries for filling the gap between available energy resources and their growing needs. There are many renewable energy sources such as wind, solar and wave energy. Energy can be obtained from the motion of sea waves almost all the time. However, power generation from solar or wind energy is highly restricted to sunny periods or the availability of suitable wind speeds. Moreover, energy produced from sea wave motion is one of the cheapest types of clean energy. In addition, renewable energy usage of sea waves guarantees safe environmental conditions. Cheap electricity can be generated from wave energy using different systems such as oscillating bodies' system, pendulum gate system, ocean wave dragon system and oscillating water column device. In this paper, a multi-criteria model has been developed using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to support the decision of selecting the most effective system for generating power from sea waves. This paper provides a widespread overview of the different design alternatives for sea wave energy converter systems. The considered design alternatives have been evaluated using the developed AHP model. The multi-criteria assessment reveals that the off-shore Oscillating Water Column (OWC) system is the most appropriate system for generating power from sea waves. The OWC system consists of a suitable hollow chamber at the shore which is completely closed except at its base which has an open area for gathering moving sea waves. Sea wave's motion pushes the air up and down passing through a suitable well turbine for generating power. Improving the power generation capability of the OWC system is one of the main objectives of this research. After investigating the effect of some design modifications, it has been concluded that selecting the appropriate settings of some effective design parameters such as the number of layers of Wells turbine fans and the intermediate distance between the fans can result in significant improvements. Moreover, simple dynamic analysis of the Wells turbine is introduced. Furthermore, this paper strives for comparing the theoretical and experimental results of the built experimental prototype.

Keywords: Renewable energy, oscillating water column, multi-criteria selection, wells turbine.

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2553 Investigation of Heat Loss in Ethanol-Water Distillation Column with Direct Vapour Recompression Heat Pump

Authors: Christopher C. Enweremadu, Hilary L. Rutto

Abstract:

Vapour recompression system has been used to enhance reduction in energy consumption and improvement in energy effectiveness of distillation columns. However, the effects of certain parameters have not been taken into consideration. One of such parameters is the column heat loss which has either been assumed to be a certain percent of reboiler heat transfer or negligible. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the heat loss from an ethanol-water vapour recompression distillation column with pressure increase across the compressor (VRCAS) and compare the results obtained and its effect on some parameters in similar system (VRCCS) where the column heat loss has been assumed or neglected. Results show that the heat loss evaluated was higher when compared with that obtained for the column VRCCS. The results also showed that increase in heat loss could have significant effect on the total energy consumption, reboiler heat transfer, the number of trays and energy effectiveness of the column.

Keywords: Compressor, distillation column, heat loss, vapourrecompression.

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2552 On the Numerical Approach for Simulating Thermal Hydraulics under Seismic Condition

Authors: Tadashi Watanabe

Abstract:

The two-phase flow field and the motion of the free surface in an oscillating channel are simulated numerically to assess the methodology for simulating nuclear reacotr thermal hydraulics under seismic conditions. Two numerical methods are compared: one is to model the oscillating channel directly using the moving grid of the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method, and the other is to simulate the effect of channel motion using the oscillating acceleration acting on the fluid in the stationary channel. The two-phase flow field in the oscillating channel is simulated using the level set method in both cases. The calculated results using the oscillating acceleration are found to coinside with those using the moving grid, and the theoretical back ground and the limitation of oscillating acceleration are discussed. It is shown that the change in the interfacial area between liquid and gas phases under seismic conditions is important for nuclear reactor thermal hydraulics.

Keywords: Two-phase flow, simulation, seismic condition, moving grid, oscillating acceleration, interfacial area

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2551 Entropy Analysis in a Bubble Column Based on Ultrafast X-Ray Tomography Data

Authors: Stoyan Nedeltchev, Markus Schubert

Abstract:

By means of the ultrafast X-ray tomography facility, data were obtained at different superficial gas velocities UG in a bubble column (0.1 m in ID) operated with an air-deionized water system at ambient conditions. Raw reconstructed images were treated by both the information entropy (IE) and the reconstruction entropy (RE) algorithms in order to identify the main transition velocities in a bubble column. The IE values exhibited two well-pronounced minima at UG=0.025 m/s and UG=0.085 m/s identifying the boundaries of the homogeneous, transition and heterogeneous regimes. The RE extracted from the central region of the column’s cross-section exhibited only one characteristic peak at UG=0.03 m/s, which was attributed to the transition from the homogeneous to the heterogeneous flow regime. This result implies that the transition regime is non-existent in the core of the column.

Keywords: Bubble column, ultrafast X-ray tomography, information entropy, reconstruction entropy.

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2550 Controlling Water Temperature during the Electrocoagulation Process Using an Innovative Flow Column-Electrocoagulation Reactor

Authors: Khalid S. Hashim, Andy Shaw, Rafid Alkhaddar, Montserrat Ortoneda Pedrola

Abstract:

A flow column has been innovatively used in the design of a new electrocoagulation reactor (ECR1) that will reduce the temperature of water being treated; where the flow columns work as a radiator for the water being treated. In order to investigate the performance of ECR1 and compare it to that of traditional reactors; 600 mL water samples with an initial temperature of 350C were pumped continuously through these reactors for 30 min at current density of 1 mA/cm2. The temperature of water being treated was measured at 5 minutes intervals over a 30 minutes period using a thermometer. Additional experiments were commenced to investigate the effects of initial temperature (15-350C), water conductivity (0.15 – 1.2 S) and current density (0.5 -3 mA/cm2) on the performance of ECR1. The results obtained demonstrated that the ECR1, at a current density of 1 mA/cm2 and continuous flow model, reduced water temperature from 350C to the vicinity of 280C during the first 15 minutes and kept the same level till the end of the treatment time. While, the temperature increased from 28.1 to 29.80C and from 29.8 to 31.90C in the batch and the traditional continuous flow models respectively. In term of initial temperature, ECR1 maintained the temperature of water being treated within the range of 22 to 280C without the need for external cooling system even when the initial temperatures varied over a wide range (15 to 350C). The influent water conductivity was found to be a significant variable that affect the temperature. The desirable value of water conductivity is 0.6 S. However, it was found that the water temperature increased rapidly with a higher current density.

Keywords: Water temperature, flow column, electrocoagulation.

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2549 Two Kinds of Self-Oscillating Circuits Mechanically Demonstrated

Authors: Shiang-Hwua Yu, Po-Hsun Wu

Abstract:

This study introduces two types of self-oscillating circuits that are frequently found in power electronics applications. Special effort is made to relate the circuits to the analogous mechanical systems of some important scientific inventions: Galileo’s pendulum clock and Coulomb’s friction model. A little touch of related history and philosophy of science will hopefully encourage curiosity, advance the understanding of self-oscillating systems and satisfy the aspiration of some students for scientific literacy. Finally, the two self-oscillating circuits are applied to design a simple class-D audio amplifier.

Keywords: Self-oscillation, sigma-delta modulator, pendulum clock, Coulomb friction, class-D amplifier.

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2548 Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Structures of Oscillating Pipe Flows

Authors: Yan Su, Jane H. Davidson, F. A. Kulacki

Abstract:

The RANS method with Saffman-s turbulence model was employed to solve the time-dependent turbulent Navier-Stokes and energy equations for oscillating pipe flows. The method of partial sums of the Fourier series is used to analyze the harmonic velocity and temperature results. The complete structures of the oscillating pipe flows and the averaged Nusselt numbers on the tube wall are provided by numerical simulation over wide ranges of ReA and ReR. Present numerical code is validated by comparing the laminar flow results to analytic solutions and turbulence flow results to published experimental data at lower and higher Reynolds numbers respectively. The effects of ReA and ReR on the velocity, temperature and Nusselt number distributions have been di scussed. The enhancement of the heat transfer due to oscillating flows has also been presented. By the way of analyzing the overall Nusselt number over wide ranges of the Reynolds number Re and Keulegan- Carpenter number KC, the optimal ratio of the tube diameter over the oscillation amplitude is obtained based on the existence of a nearly constant optimal KC number. The potential application of the present results in sea water cooling has also been discussed.

Keywords: Keulegan-Carpenter number, Nusselt number, Oscillating pipe flows, Reynolds number

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2547 A Preliminary Study of Drug Perfusion Enhancement by Microstreaming Induced by an Oscillating Microbubble

Authors: Jin Sun Oh, Kyung Ho Lee, S ang Gug Chung, Kyehan Rhee

Abstract:

Microbubbbles incorporating ultrasound have been used to increase the efficacy of targeted drug delivery, because microstreaming induced by cavitating bubbles affects the drug perfusion into the target cells and tissues. In order to clarify the physical effects of microstreaming on drug perfusion into tissues, a preliminary experimental study of perfusion enhancement by a stably oscillating microbubble was performed. Microstreaming was induced by an oscillating bubble at 15 kHz, and perfusion of dye into an agar phantom was optically measured by histology on agar phantom. Surface color intensity and the penetration length of dye in the agar phantom were increased more than 70% and 30%, respectively, due to the microstreaming induced by an oscillating bubble. The mass of dye perfused into a tissue phantom for 30 s was increased about 80% in the phantom with an oscillating bubble. This preliminary experiment shows the physical effects of steady streaming by an oscillating bubble can enhance the drug perfusion into the tissues while minimizing the biological effects.

Keywords: Bubble, Mass Transfer, Microstreaming, Drug Delivery, Acoustic Wave.

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2546 A New Correlation for Overall Sherwood Number in Packed Liquid-Liquid Extraction Column

Authors: S. GhaffariTooran, H. Abolghasemi, H. Bahmanyar, M. Esmaeili, A. Safari

Abstract:

Using plug flow model in conjunction with experimental solute concentration profiles, overall volumetric mass transfer coefficient based on continuous phase (Koca), in a packed liquid-liquid extraction column has been optimized. Number of 12 experiments has been done using standard system of water/acid acetic/toluene in a 6 cm diameter, 120 cm height column. Thorough consideration of influencing parameters we intended to correlate dimensionless parameters in term of overall Sherwood number which has an acceptable average error of about 15.8%.

Keywords: Packed column, mass transfer coefficient, solvent extraction, Sherwood number.

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2545 Experimental Investigation with Different Inclination Angles on Copper Oscillating Heat Pipes Performance Using Fe2O3/Kerosene under Magnetic Field

Authors: H. R. Goshayeshi, M. Mansori, M. Ahmady, M. Khaloyi

Abstract:

This paper presents the result of an experimental investigation regarding the use of Fe2O3 nanoparticles added to kerosene as a working fluid, under magnetic field for Copper Oscillating Heat pipe with inclination angle of 0°(horizontal), 15°, 30°,45°, 60°,75° and 90° (vertical). The following were examined; measure the temperature distribution and heat transfer rate on Oscillating Heat Pipe (OHP), with magnetic field under different angles. Results showed that the addition of Fe2O3 nanoparticles under magnetic field improved thermal performance of OHP especially in 75°.

Keywords: Copper oscillating heat pipe, Fe2O3, magnetic field, inclination angles.

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2544 A Transform-Free HOC Scheme for Incompressible Viscous Flow past a Rotationally Oscillating Circular Cylinder

Authors: Rajendra K. Ray, H. V. R. Mittal

Abstract:

A numerical study is made of laminar, unsteady flow behind a rotationally oscillating circular cylinder using a recently developed higher order compact (HOC) scheme. The stream function vorticity formulation of Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations in cylindrical polar coordinates are considered as the governing equations. The temporal behaviour of vortex formation and relevant streamline patterns of the flow are scrutinized over broad ranges of two externally specified parameters namely dimensionless forced oscillating frequency Sf and dimensionless peak rotation rate αm for the Reynolds-s number Re = 200. Excellent agreements are found both qualitatively and quantitatively with the existing experimental and standard numerical results.

Keywords: HOC, Navier-Stokes, non-uniform polar grids, rotationally oscillating cylinder.

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2543 Wastewater Treatment with Ammonia Recovery System

Authors: M. Örvös, T. Balázs, K. F. Both

Abstract:

From environmental aspect purification of ammonia containing wastewater is expected. High efficiency ammonia desorption can be done from the water by air on proper temperature. After the desorption process, ammonia can be recovered and used in another technology. The calculation method described below give some methods to find either the minimum column height or ammonia rich solution of the effluent.

Keywords: Absorber, desorber, packed column.

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2542 Hexavalent Chromium Pollution Abatement by use of Scrap Iron

Authors: Marius Gheju, Laura Cocheci

Abstract:

In this study, the reduction of Cr(VI) by use of scrap iron, a cheap and locally available industrial waste, was investigated in continuous system. The greater scrap iron efficiency observed for the first two sections of the column filling indicate that most of the reduction process was carried out in the bottom half of the column filling. This was ascribed to a constant decrease of Cr(VI) concentration inside the filling, as the water front passes from the bottom to the top end of the column. While the bottom section of the column filling was heavily passivated with secondary mineral phases, the top section was less affected by the passivation process; therefore the column filling would likely ensure the reduction of Cr(VI) for time periods longer than 216 hours. The experimental results indicate that fixed beds columns packed with scrap iron could be successfully used for the first step of Cr(VI) polluted wastewater treatment. However, the mass of scrap iron filling should be carefully estimated since it significantly affects the Cr(VI) reduction efficiency.

Keywords: hexavalent chromium, heavy metals, scrap iron, reduction capacity, wastewater treatment

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2541 A Study on Leaching Behavior of Na, Ca and K Using Column Leach Test

Authors: Barman P.J, Kartha S A, Gupta S, Pradhan B.

Abstract:

Column leach test has been performed to examine the behavior of leaching of sodium, calcium and potassium in landfills. In the column leach apparatus, two different layers of contaminated and uncontaminated soils of different height ratios (ratio of depth of contaminated soil to the depth of uncontaminated soil) are taken. Water is poured from an overhead tank at a particular flowrate to the inlet of the soil column for a certain ponding depth over the contaminated soil. Subsequent infiltration causes leaching and the leachates are collected from the bottom of the column. The concentrations of Na, Ca and K in the leachate are measured using flame photometry. The experiments are further extended by changing the rates of flow from the overhead tank to the inlet of the column in achieving the same ponding depth. The experiments are performed for different scenarios in which the height ratios are altered and the variations of concentrations of Na, Ca, and K are observed. The study brings an estimation of leaching in landfill sites for different heights and precipitation intensity where a ponding depth is maintained over the landfill. It has been observed that the leaching behavior of Na, Ca, and K are not similar. Calcium exhibits highest amount of leaching compared to Sodium and Potassium under similar experimental conditions.

Keywords: Column leaching, flow rate, uncontaminated soil, contaminated soil, concentration, height ratio.

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2540 Heat and Mass Transfer of an Oscillating Flow in a Porous Channel with Chemical Reaction

Authors: Z. Neffah, H. Kahalerras

Abstract:

A numerical study is made in a parallel-plate porous channel subjected to an oscillating flow and an exothermic chemical reaction on its walls. The flow field in the porous region is modeled by the Darcy–Brinkman–Forchheimer model and the finite volume method is used to solve the governing equations. The effects of the modified Frank-Kamenetskii (FKm) and Damköhler (Dm) numbers, the amplitude of oscillation (A), and the Strouhal number (St) are examined. The main results show an increase of heat and mass transfer rates with A and St, and their decrease with FKm and Dm.

Keywords: Chemical reaction, heat transfer, mass transfer, oscillating flow, porous channel.

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2539 Analytical Investigation of the Effects of a Standing Ocean Wave in a Wave-Power Device OWC

Authors: E.G. Bautista, F. Méndez, O. Bautista, J.C. Arcos

Abstract:

In this work we study analytically and numerically the performance of the mean heave motion of an OWC coupled with the governing equation of the spreading ocean waves due to the wide variation in an open parabolic channel with constant depth. This paper considers that the ocean wave propagation is under the assumption of a shallow flow condition. In order to verify the effect of the waves in the OWC firstly we establish the analytical model in a non-dimensional form based on the energy equation. The proposed wave-power system has to aims: one is to perturb the ocean waves as a consequence of the channel shape in order to concentrate the maximum ocean wave amplitude in the neighborhood of the OWC and the second is to determine the pressure and volume oscillation of air inside the compression chamber.

Keywords: Oscillating water column, Shallow flow, Waveenergy.

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2538 Simulation of Sloshing behavior using Moving Grid and Body Force Methods

Authors: Tadashi Watanabe

Abstract:

The flow field and the motion of the free surface in an oscillating container are simulated numerically to assess the numerical approach for studying two-phase flows under oscillating conditions. Two numerical methods are compared: one is to model the oscillating container directly using the moving grid of the ALE method, and the other is to simulate the effect of container motion using the oscillating body force acting on the fluid in the stationary container. The two-phase flow field in the container is simulated using the level set method in both cases. It is found that the calculated results by the body force method coinsides with those by the moving grid method and the sloshing behavior is predicted well by both the methods. Theoretical back ground and limitation of the body force method are discussed, and the effects of oscillation amplitude and frequency are shown.

Keywords: Two-phase flow, simulation, oscillation, moving grid, body force

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2537 Simulating Flow Transients in Conveying Pipeline Systems by Rigid Column and Full Elastic Methods: Pump Combined with Air Chamber

Authors: I. Abuiziah, A. Oulhaj, K. Sebari, D. Ouazar, A. A. Saber

Abstract:

In water pipeline systems, the flow control is an integrated part of the operation, for instance, opening and closing the valves, starting and stopping the pumps, when these operations very quickly performed, they shall cause the hydraulic transient phenomena, which may cause pump and, valve failures and catastrophic pipe ruptures. Fluid transient analysis is one of the more challenging and complicated flow problems in the design and the operation of water pipeline systems. Transient control has become an essential requirement for ensuring safe operation of water pipeline systems. An accurate analysis and suitable protection devices should be used to protect water pipeline systems. The fourth-order Runge-Kutta method has been used to solve the dynamic and continuity equations in the rigid column method, while the characteristics method used to solve these equations in the full elastic methods. This paper presents the problem of modeling and simulating of transient phenomena in conveying pipeline systems based on the rigid column and full elastic methods. Also, it provides the influence of using the protection devices to protect the pipeline systems from damaging due to the gain pressure which occur in the transient state. The results obtained provide that the model is an efficient tool for flow transient analysis and provide approximately identical results by using these two methods. Moreover; using the closed surge tank reduces the unfavorable effects of transients.

Keywords: Flow transient, Pipeline, Air chamber, Numerical model, Protection devices, Elastic method, Rigid column method.

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2536 Optimization of Partially Filled Column Subjected to Oblique Loading

Authors: M. S. Salwani, B. B. Sahari, Aidy Ali, A. A. Nuraini

Abstract:

In this study, optimization is carried out to find the optimized design of a foam-filled column for the best Specific Energy Absorption (SEA) and Crush Force Efficiency (CFE). In order to maximize SEA, the optimization gives the value of 2.3 for column thickness and 151.7 for foam length. On the other hand to maximize CFE, the optimization gives the value of 1.1 for column thickness and 200 for foam length. Finite Element simulation is run by using this value and the SEA and CFE obtained 1237.76 J/kg and 0.92.

Keywords: Crash, foam, oblique loading.

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2535 Natural Gas Sweetening by Wetted-Wire Column

Authors: Sarah Taheri, Shahram Ghanbari Pakdehi, Arash Rezaei

Abstract:

Natural gas usually includes H2S component which is very toxic, hazardous and corrosive to environment, human being and process equipments, respectively. Therefore, sweetening of the gas (separation of H2S) is inevitable. To achieve this purpose, using packed-bed columns with liquid absorbents such as MEA or DEA is very common. Due to some problems of usual packed columns especially high pressure drop of gas phase, a novel kind of them called wetted-wire column (WWC) has been invented. The column decreases the pressure drop significantly and improves the absorption efficiency. The packings are very thin rods (like wire) and as long as column. The column has 100 wires with a triangular arrangement and counter current flows of gas and liquid phases. The observation showed that at the same conditions, the absorption performance was quite comparable to conventional packed-bed towers and a very low pressure drop.

Keywords: H2S, Natural gas, separation, wetted-wire column (WWC).

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2534 Dispersion Rate of Spilled Oil in Water Column under Non-Breaking Water Waves

Authors: Hanifeh Imanian, Morteza Kolahdoozan

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to present a mathematical phrase for calculating the dispersion rate of spilled oil in water column under non-breaking waves. In this regard, a multiphase numerical model is applied for which waves and oil phase were computed concurrently, and accuracy of its hydraulic calculations have been proven. More than 200 various scenarios of oil spilling in wave waters were simulated using the multiphase numerical model and its outcome were collected in a database. The recorded results were investigated to identify the major parameters affected vertical oil dispersion and finally 6 parameters were identified as main independent factors. Furthermore, some statistical tests were conducted to identify any relationship between the dependent variable (dispersed oil mass in the water column) and independent variables (water wave specifications containing height, length and wave period and spilled oil characteristics including density, viscosity and spilled oil mass). Finally, a mathematical-statistical relationship is proposed to predict dispersed oil in marine waters. To verify the proposed relationship, a laboratory example available in the literature was selected. Oil mass rate penetrated in water body computed by statistical regression was in accordance with experimental data was predicted. On this occasion, it was necessary to verify the proposed mathematical phrase. In a selected laboratory case available in the literature, mass oil rate penetrated in water body computed by suggested regression. Results showed good agreement with experimental data. The validated mathematical-statistical phrase is a useful tool for oil dispersion prediction in oil spill events in marine areas.

Keywords: Dispersion, marine environment, mathematical-statistical relationship, oil spill.

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2533 Retrofitting of Beam-Column Joint Using CFRP and Steel Plate

Authors: N. H. Hamid, N. D. Hadi, K. D. Ghani

Abstract:

This paper presents the retrofitting of beam-column joint using CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer) and steel plate. This specimen was tested until failure up to 1.0% drift. This joint suffered severe damages and diagonal cracks at upper crack at upper column before retrofitted. CFRP were wrapped at corbel, bottom and top of the column. Steel plates with bonding were attached to the two beams and the jointing system. This retrofitted specimen is tested again under lateral cyclic loading up 1.75% drift. Visual observations show that the cracks started at joint when 0.5% drift applied at top of column. Damage of retrofitted beam-column joint occurred inside the CFRP and it cannot be seen from outside. Analysis of elastic stiffness, lateral strength, ductility, hysteresis loops and equivalent viscous damping shows that these values are higher than before retrofitting. Therefore, it is recommended to use this type of retrofitting method for beam-column joint with corbel which suffers severe damage after the earthquake.

Keywords: Beam-Column joint, ductility, stiffness, retrofitting.

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2532 Comparative Study on Status and Development of Transient Flow Analysis Including Simple Surge Tank

Authors: I. Abuiziah, A. Oulhaj, K. Sebari, D. Ouazar

Abstract:

This paper presents the problem of modeling and simulating of transient phenomena in conveying pipeline systems based on the rigid column and full elastic methods. Transient analysis is important and one of the more challenging and complicated flow problem in the design and the operation of water pipeline systems. Transient can produce large pressure forces and rapid fluid acceleration into a water pipeline system, these disturbances may result in device failures, system fatigue or pipe ruptures, and even the dirty water intrusion. Several methods have been introduced and used to analyze transient flow, an accurate analysis and suitable protection devices should be used to protect water pipeline systems. The fourth-order Runge-Kutta method has been used to solve the dynamic and continuity equations in the rigid column method, while the characteristics method used to solve these equations in the full elastic method. The results obtained provide that the model is an efficient tool for flow transient analysis and provide approximately identical results by using these two methods. Moreover; using the simple surge tank ”open surge tank” reduces the unfavorable effects of transients.

Keywords: Elastic method, Flow transient, Open surge tank, Pipeline, Protection devices, Numerical model, Rigid column method.

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2531 Numerical Investigation of the Jacketing Method of Reinforced Concrete Column

Authors: S. Boukais, A. Nekmouche, N. Khelil, A. Kezmane

Abstract:

The first intent of this study is to develop a finite element model that can predict correctly the behavior of the reinforced concrete column. Second aim is to use the finite element model to investigate and evaluate the effect of the strengthening method by jacketing of the reinforced concrete column, by considering different interface contact between the old and the new concrete. Four models were evaluated, one by considering perfect contact, the other three models by using friction coefficient of 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5. The simulation was carried out by using Abaqus software. The obtained results show that the jacketing reinforcement led to significant increase of the global performance of the behavior of the simulated reinforced concrete column.

Keywords: Strengthening, jacketing, reinforced concrete column, 3D simulation, Abaqus.

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2530 Design and Fabrication of a Column-Climber Robot (Koala Robot)

Authors: Maziar Sadeghi, Amir Moradi

Abstract:

This paper proposes a robot able to climb Columns. This robot is not dependent on the diameter and material of the columns. Some climbing robots have been designed up to now but Koala robot was designed and fabricated for climbing columns exclusively. Simple kinematics of climbing in the nature inspired us to design this robot. We used two linear mechanisms to grip the column. The gripper consists of a DC motor and a power screw mechanism with a linear bushing as a guide. This mechanism provides enough force to grip the column. In addition we needed an actuator for climbing the column; hence, two pneumatic jacks were used. All the mechanical parts were designed according to the exerted forces and operational condition. The prototype can be simply installed and controlled on the column by an inexperienced operator. This robot is intended for inspection and surveillance of pipes in oil industries and power poles in electric industries.

Keywords: Robot, Column-climber, Gripping mechanism, Koala.

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2529 Effect of Tube Thickness on the Face Bending for Blind-Bolted Connection to Concrete Filled Tubular Structures

Authors: Mohammed Mahmood, Walid Tizani, Carlo Sansour

Abstract:

In this paper, experimental testing and numerical analysis were used to investigate the effect of tube thickness on the face bending for concrete filled hollow sections connected to other structural members using Extended Hollobolts. Six samples were tested experimentally by applying pull-out load on the bolts. These samples were designed to fail by column face bending. The main variable in all tests is the column face thickness. Finite element analyses were also performed using ABAQUS 6.11 to extend the experimental results and to quantify the effect of column face thickness. Results show that, the column face thickness has a clear impact on the connection strength and stiffness. However, the amount of improvement in the connection stiffness by changing the column face thickness from 5mm to 6.3mm seems to be higher than that when increasing it from 6.3mm to 8mm. The displacement at which the bolts start pulling-out from their holes increased with the use of thinner column face due to the high flexibility of the section. At the ultimate strength, the yielding of the column face propagated to the column corner and there was no yielding in its walls. After the ultimate resistance is reached, the propagation of the yielding was mainly in the column face with a miner yielding in the walls.

Keywords: Anchored bolted connection, Extended Hollobolt, Column faces bending and concrete filled hollow sections.

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2528 Column Size for R.C. Frames with High Drift

Authors: Sunil S. Mayengbam, S. Choudhury

Abstract:

A method to predict the column size for displacement based design of reinforced concrete frame buildings with higher target inter storey drift is reported here. The column depth derived from empirical relation as a function of given beam section, target inter-story drift, building plan features and common displacement based design parameters is used. Regarding the high drift requirement, a minimum column-beam moment capacity ratio is maintained during capacity design. The method is used in designing four, eight and twelve story frame buildings with displacement based design for three percent target inter storey drift. Non linear time history analysis of the designed buildings are performed under five artificial ground motions to show that the columns are found elastic enough to avoid column sway mechanism assuring that for the design the column size can be used with or without minor changes.

Keywords: Column size, point of contra flexure, displacement based design, capacity design.

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2527 Numerical Investigation on the Progressive Collapse Resistance of an RC Building with Brick Infills under Column Loss

Authors: Meng-Hao Tsai, Tsuei-Chiang Huang

Abstract:

Interior brick-infill partitions are usually considered as non-structural components and only their weight is accounted for in practical structural design. In this study, their effect on the progressive collapse resistance of an RC building subjected to sudden column loss is investigated. Three notional column loss conditions with four different brick-infill locations are considered. Column-loss response analyses of the RC building with and without brick infills are carried out. Analysis results indicate that the collapse resistance is only slightly influenced by the brick infills due to their brittle failure characteristic. Even so, they may help to reduce the inelastic displacement response under column loss. For practical engineering, it is reasonably conservative to only consider the weight of brick-infill partitions in the structural analysis.

Keywords: Progressive collapse, column loss, brick-infill partition, compression strut.

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