Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8394

Search results for: System Requirement Specification

8394 Implementing a Database from a Requirement Specification

Authors: M. Omer, D. Wilson

Abstract:

Creating a database scheme is essentially a manual process. From a requirement specification the information contained within has to be analyzed and reduced into a set of tables, attributes and relationships. This is a time consuming process that has to go through several stages before an acceptable database schema is achieved. The purpose of this paper is to implement a Natural Language Processing (NLP) based tool to produce a relational database from a requirement specification. The Stanford CoreNLP version 3.3.1 and the Java programming were used to implement the proposed model. The outcome of this study indicates that a first draft of a relational database schema can be extracted from a requirement specification by using NLP tools and techniques with minimum user intervention. Therefore this method is a step forward in finding a solution that requires little or no user intervention.

Keywords: Information Extraction, Natural Language Processing, Relation Extraction.

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8393 A Tool for Checking Conformance of UML Specification

Authors: Rosziati Ibrahim, Noraini Ibrahim

Abstract:

Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a standard language for modeling of a system. UML is used to visually specify the structure and behavior of a system. The system requirements are captured and then converted into UML specification. UML specification uses a set of rules and notations, and diagrams to specify the system requirements. In this paper, we present a tool for developing the UML specification. The tool will ease the use of the notations and diagrams for UML specification as well as increase the understanding and familiarity of the UML specification. The tool will also be able to check the conformance of the diagrams against each other for basic compliance of UML specification.

Keywords: Software Engineering, Unified Modeling Language (UML), UML Specification.

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8392 iDENTM Phones Automated Stress Testing

Authors: Wei Hoo Chong

Abstract:

System testing is actually done to the entire system against the Functional Requirement Specification and/or the System Requirement Specification. Moreover, it is an investigatory testing phase, where the focus is to have almost a destructive attitude and test not only the design, but also the behavior and even the believed expectations of the customer. It is also intended to test up to and beyond the bounds defined in the software/hardware requirements specifications. In Motorola®, Automated Testing is one of the testing methodologies uses by GSG-iSGT (Global Software Group - iDEN TM Subcriber Group-Test) to increase the testing volume, productivity and reduce test cycle-time in iDEN TM phones testing. Testing is able to produce more robust products before release to the market. In this paper, iHopper is proposed as a tool to perform stress test on iDEN TM phonse. We will discuss the value that automation has brought to iDEN TM Phone testing such as improving software quality in the iDEN TM phone together with some metrics. We will also look into the advantages of the proposed system and some discussion of the future work as well.

Keywords: Testing, automated testing, stress testing, software quality.

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8391 Optimization Parameters of Rotary Positioner Controller using CDM

Authors: Meemongkol A., Tipsuwanporn V., Numsomran A.

Abstract:

The authors present optimization parameters of rotary positioner controller in hard disk drive servo track writing process using coefficient diagram method; CDM. Due to estimation parameters in PI Positioning Control System by expected ratio method cannot meet the required specification of response effectively, we suggest coefficient diagram method for defining controller parameters under the requirement of the system. Finally, the simulation results show that our proposed method can improve the problem in tuning parameter of rotary positioner controller. It is satisfied specification of performance of control system. Furthermore, it is very convenient as a fast adjustment damping ratio as well as a high speed response.

Keywords: Optimization Parameters, Rotary Positioner, CDM

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8390 Data and Control Flow Analysis of VDMµ Specifications

Authors: Mubina Nazmeen, Iram Rubab

Abstract:

Formal Specification languages are being widely used for system specification and testing. Highly critical systems such as real time systems, avionics, and medical systems are represented using Formal specification languages. Formal specifications based testing is mostly performed using black box testing approaches thus testing only the set of inputs and outputs of the system. The formal specification language such as VDMµ can be used for white box testing as they provide enough constructs as any other high level programming language. In this work, we perform data and control flow analysis of VDMµ class specifications. The proposed work is discussed with an example of SavingAccount.

Keywords: VDM-SL, VDMµ, data flow graph, control flowgraph, testing, formal specification.

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8389 Combining the Description Features of UMLRT and CSP+T Specifications Applied to a Complete Design of Real-Time Systems

Authors: Kawtar Benghazi Akhlaki, Manuel I. Capel-Tuñón

Abstract:

UML is a collection of notations for capturing a software system specification. These notations have a specific syntax defined by the Object Management Group (OMG), but many of their constructs only present informal semantics. They are primarily graphical, with textual annotation. The inadequacies of standard UML as a vehicle for complete specification and implementation of real-time embedded systems has led to a variety of competing and complementary proposals. The Real-time UML profile (UML-RT), developed and standardized by OMG, defines a unified framework to express the time, scheduling and performance aspects of a system. We present in this paper a framework approach aimed at deriving a complete specification of a real-time system. Therefore, we combine two methods, a semiformal one, UML-RT, which allows the visual modeling of a realtime system and a formal one, CSP+T, which is a design language including the specification of real-time requirements. As to show the applicability of the approach, a correct design of a real-time system with hard real time constraints by applying a set of mapping rules is obtained.

Keywords: CSP+T, formal software specification, process algebras, real-time systems, unified modeling language.

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8388 A Temporal QoS Ontology for ERTMS/ETCS

Authors: Marc Sango, Olimpia Hoinaru, Christophe Gransart, Laurence Duchien

Abstract:

Ontologies offer a means for representing and sharing information in many domains, particularly in complex domains. For example, it can be used for representing and sharing information of System Requirement Specification (SRS) of complex systems like the SRS of ERTMS/ETCS written in natural language. Since this system is a real-time and critical system, generic ontologies, such as OWL and generic ERTMS ontologies provide minimal support for modeling temporal information omnipresent in these SRS documents. To support the modeling of temporal information, one of the challenges is to enable representation of dynamic features evolving in time within a generic ontology with a minimal redesign of it. The separation of temporal information from other information can help to predict system runtime operation and to properly design and implement them. In addition, it is helpful to provide a reasoning and querying techniques to reason and query temporal information represented in the ontology in order to detect potential temporal inconsistencies. To address this challenge, we propose a lightweight 3-layer temporal Quality of Service (QoS) ontology for representing, reasoning and querying over temporal and non-temporal information in a complex domain ontology. Representing QoS entities in separated layers can clarify the distinction between the non QoS entities and the QoS entities in an ontology. The upper generic layer of the proposed ontology provides an intuitive knowledge of domain components, specially ERTMS/ETCS components. The separation of the intermediate QoS layer from the lower QoS layer allows us to focus on specific QoS Characteristics, such as temporal or integrity characteristics. In this paper, we focus on temporal information that can be used to predict system runtime operation. To evaluate our approach, an example of the proposed domain ontology for handover operation, as well as a reasoning rule over temporal relations in this domain-specific ontology, are presented.

Keywords: System Requirement Specification, ERTMS/ETCS, Temporal Ontologies, Domain Ontologies.

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8387 A New Framework to Model a Secure E-Commerce System

Authors: A. Youseef, F. Liu

Abstract:

The existing information system (IS) developments methods are not met the requirements to resolve the security related IS problems and they fail to provide a successful integration of security and systems engineering during all development process stages. Hence, the security should be considered during the whole software development process and identified with the requirements specification. This paper aims to propose an integrated security and IS engineering approach in all software development process stages by using i* language. This proposed framework categorizes into three separate parts: modelling business environment part, modelling information technology system part and modelling IS security part. The results show that considering security IS goals in the whole system development process can have a positive influence on system implementation and better meet business expectations.

Keywords: Business Process Modelling (BPM), Information System Security, Software Development Process, Requirement Engineering.

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8386 Specification of Attributes of a Multimedia Presentation for Presentation Manager

Authors: Veli Hakkoymaz, Alpaslan Altunköprü

Abstract:

A multimedia presentation system refers to the integration of a multimedia database with a presentation manager which has the functionality of content selection, organization and playout of multimedia presentations. It requires high performance of involved system components. Starting from multimedia information capture until the presentation delivery, high performance tools are required for accessing, manipulating, storing and retrieving these segments, for transferring and delivering them in a presentation terminal according to a playout order. The organization of presentations is a complex task in that the display order of presentation contents (in time and space) must be specified. A multimedia presentation contains audio, video, images and text media types. The critical decisions for presentation construction include what the contents are, how the contents are organized, and once the decision is made on the organization of the contents of the presentation, it must be conveyed to the end user in the correct organizational order and in a timely fashion. This paper introduces a framework for specification of multimedia presentations and describes the design of sample presentations using this framework from a multimedia database.

Keywords: Multimedia presentation, temporal specification, SMIL, spatial specification.

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8385 Specification Requirements for a Combined Dehumidifier/Cooling Panel: A Global Scale Analysis

Authors: Damien Gondre, Hatem Ben Maad, Abdelkrim Trabelsi, Frédéric Kuznik, Joseph Virgone

Abstract:

The use of a radiant cooling solution would enable to lower cooling needs which is of great interest when the demand is initially high (hot climate). But, radiant systems are not naturally compatibles with humid climates since a low-temperature surface leads to condensation risks as soon as the surface temperature is close to or lower than the dew point temperature. A radiant cooling system combined to a dehumidification system would enable to remove humidity for the space, thereby lowering the dew point temperature. The humidity removal needs to be especially effective near the cooled surface. This requirement could be fulfilled by a system using a single desiccant fluid for the removal of both excessive heat and moisture. This task aims at providing an estimation of the specification requirements of such system in terms of cooling power and dehumidification rate required to fulfill comfort issues and to prevent any condensation risk on the cool panel surface. The present paper develops a preliminary study on the specification requirements, performances and behavior of a combined dehumidifier/cooling ceiling panel for different operating conditions. This study has been carried using the TRNSYS software which allows nodal calculations of thermal systems. It consists of the dynamic modeling of heat and vapor balances of a 5m x 3m x 2.7m office space. In a first design estimation, this room is equipped with an ideal heating, cooling, humidification and dehumidification system so that the room temperature is always maintained in between 21C and 25C with a relative humidity in between 40% and 60%. The room is also equipped with a ventilation system that includes a heat recovery heat exchanger and another heat exchanger connected to a heat sink. Main results show that the system should be designed to meet a cooling power of 42W.m−2 and a desiccant rate of 45 gH2O.h−1. In a second time, a parametric study of comfort issues and system performances has been achieved on a more realistic system (that includes a chilled ceiling) under different operating conditions. It enables an estimation of an acceptable range of operating conditions. This preliminary study is intended to provide useful information for the system design.

Keywords: Dehumidification, nodal calculation, radiant cooling panel, system sizing.

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8384 Research on the Survivability of Embedded Real-time System

Authors: YongXian, JIN

Abstract:

Introducing survivability into embedded real-time system (ERTS) can improve the survivability power of the system. This paper mainly discusses about the survivability of ERTS. The first is the survivability origin of ERTS. The second is survivability analysis. According to the definition of survivability based on survivability specification and division of the entire survivability analysis process for ERTS, a survivability analysis profile is presented. The quantitative analysis model of this profile is emphasized and illuminated in detail, the quantifying analysis of system was showed helpful to evaluate system survivability more accurate. The third is platform design of survivability analysis. In terms of the profile, the analysis process is encapsulated and assembled into one platform, on which quantification, standardization and simplification of survivability analysis are all achieved. The fourth is survivability design. According to character of ERTS, strengthened design method is selected to realize system survivability design. Through the analysis of embedded mobile video-on-demand system, intrusion tolerant technology is introduced in whole survivability design.

Keywords: ERTS (embedded real-time system), survivability, quantitative analysis, survivability specification, intrusion tolerant

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8383 Wavelet Based Identification of Second Order Linear System

Authors: Sudipta Majumdar, Harish Parthasarathy

Abstract:

In this paper, a wavelet based method is proposed to identify the constant coefficients of a second order linear system and is compared with the least squares method. The proposed method shows improved accuracy of parameter estimation as compared to the least squares method. Additionally, it has the advantage of smaller data requirement and storage requirement as compared to the least squares method.

Keywords: Least squares method, linear system, system identification, wavelet transform.

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8382 Early Requirement Engineering for Design of Learner Centric Dynamic LMS

Authors: Kausik Halder, Nabendu Chaki, Ranjan Dasgupta

Abstract:

We present a modeling framework that supports the engineering of early requirements specifications for design of learner centric dynamic Learning Management System. The framework is based on i* modeling tool and Means End Analysis, that adopts primitive concepts for modeling early requirements (such as actor, goal, and strategic dependency). We show how pedagogical and computational requirements for designing a learner centric Learning Management system can be adapted for the automatic early requirement engineering specifications. Finally, we presented a model on a Learner Quanta based adaptive Courseware. Our early requirement analysis shows that how means end analysis reveals gaps and inconsistencies in early requirements specifications that are by no means trivial to discover without the help of formal analysis tool.

Keywords: Adaptive Courseware, Early Requirement Engineering, Means End Analysis, Organizational Modeling, Requirement Modeling.

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8381 How Prior Knowledge Affects User's Understanding of System Requirements?

Authors: Balsam Mustafa, Safaai Deris

Abstract:

Requirements are critical to system validation as they guide all subsequent stages of systems development. Inadequately specified requirements generate systems that require major revisions or cause system failure entirely. Use Cases have become the main vehicle for requirements capture in many current Object Oriented (OO) development methodologies, and a means for developers to communicate with different stakeholders. In this paper we present the results of a laboratory experiment that explored whether different types of use case format are equally effective in facilitating high knowledge user-s understanding. Results showed that the provision of diagrams along with the textual use case descriptions significantly improved user comprehension of system requirements in both familiar and unfamiliar application domains. However, when comparing groups that received models of textual description accompanied with diagrams of different level of details (simple and detailed) we found no significant difference in performance.

Keywords: Prior knowledge, requirement specification, usecase format, user understanding.

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8380 E-Learning Management Systems General Framework

Authors: Hamed Fawareh

Abstract:

The recent development in learning technologies leads to emerge many learning management systems (LMS). In this study, we concentrate on the specifications and characteristics of LMSs. Furthermore, this paper emphasizes on the feature of e-learning management systems. The features take on the account main indicators to assist and evaluate the quality of e-learning systems. The proposed indicators based of ten dimensions.

Keywords: E-Learning, System Requirement, Social Requirement, Learning Management System.

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8379 Multi-threshold Approach for License Plate Recognition System

Authors: Siti Norul Huda Sheikh Abdullah, Farshid Pirahan Siah, Nor Hanisah Haji Zainal Abidin, Shahnorbanun Sahran

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to propose an adaptive multi threshold for image segmentation precisely in object detection. Due to the different types of license plates being used, the requirement of an automatic LPR is rather different for each country. The proposed technique is applied on Malaysian LPR application. It is based on Multi Layer Perceptron trained by back propagation. The proposed adaptive threshold is introduced to find the optimum threshold values. The technique relies on the peak value from the graph of the number object versus specific range of threshold values. The proposed approach has improved the overall performance compared to current optimal threshold techniques. Further improvement on this method is in progress to accommodate real time system specification.

Keywords: Multi-threshold approach, license plate recognition system.

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8378 Survey to Assess the Feasibility of Executing the Web-Based Collaboration Process Using WBCS

Authors: Mohamed A. Sullabi

Abstract:

The importance of the formal specification in the software life cycle is barely concealing to anyone. Formal specifications use mathematical notation to describe the properties of information system precisely, without unduly constraining the way in how these properties are achieved. Having a correct and quality software specification is not easy task. This study concerns with how a group of rectifiers can communicate with each other and work to prepare and produce a correct formal software specification. WBCS has been implemented based mainly in the proposed supported cooperative work model and a survey conducted on the existing Webbased collaborative writing tools. This paper aims to assess the feasibility of executing the web-based collaboration process using WBCS. The purpose of conducting this test is to test the system as a whole for functionality and fitness for use based on the evaluation test plan.

Keywords: Formal methods, Formal specifications, collaborative writing, Usability testing.

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8377 Requirements Engineering for Enterprise Applications Development: Seven Challenges in Higher Education Environment

Authors: Jamaludin Sallim

Abstract:

This paper describes the challenges on the requirements engineering for developing an enterprise applications in higher education environment. The development activities include software implementation, maintenance, and enhancement and support for online transaction processing and overnight batch processing. Generally, an enterprise application for higher education environment may include Student Information System (SIS), HR/Payroll system, Financial Systems etc. By the way, there are so many challenges in requirement engineering phases in order to provide two distinctive services that are production processing support and systems development.

Keywords: enterprise applications development, enterprise information systems, business process, requirement engineering, requirement standards, software development activities, software requirement reviews.

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8376 A Comprehensive and Integrated Framework for Formal Specification of Concurrent Systems

Authors: Sara Sharifi Rad, Hassan Haghighi

Abstract:

Due to important issues, such as deadlock, starvation, communication, non-deterministic behavior and synchronization, concurrent systems are very complex, sensitive, and error-prone. Thus ensuring reliability and accuracy of these systems is very essential. Therefore, there has been a big interest in the formal specification of concurrent programs in recent years. Nevertheless, some features of concurrent systems, such as dynamic process creation, scheduling and starvation have not been specified formally yet. Also, some other features have been specified partially and/or have been described using a combination of several different formalisms and methods whose integration needs too much effort. In other words, a comprehensive and integrated specification that could cover all aspects of concurrent systems has not been provided yet. Thus, this paper makes two major contributions: firstly, it provides a comprehensive formal framework to specify all well-known features of concurrent systems. Secondly, it provides an integrated specification of these features by using just a single formal notation, i.e., the Z language.

Keywords: Concurrent systems, Formal methods, Formal specification, Z language

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8375 A Formal Implementation of Database Security

Authors: Yun Bai

Abstract:

This paper is to investigate the impplementation of security mechanism in object oriented database system. Formal methods plays an essential role in computer security due to its powerful expressiveness and concise syntax and semantics. In this paper, both issues of specification and implementation in database security environment will be considered; and the database security is achieved through the development of an efficient implementation of the specification without compromising its originality and expressiveness.

Keywords: database security, authorization policy, logic basedspecification

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8374 Construction of Intersection of Nondeterministic Finite Automata using Z Notation

Authors: Nazir Ahmad Zafar, Nabeel Sabir, Amir Ali

Abstract:

Functionalities and control behavior are both primary requirements in design of a complex system. Automata theory plays an important role in modeling behavior of a system. Z is an ideal notation which is used for describing state space of a system and then defining operations over it. Consequently, an integration of automata and Z will be an effective tool for increasing modeling power for a complex system. Further, nondeterministic finite automata (NFA) may have different implementations and therefore it is needed to verify the transformation from diagrams to a code. If we describe formal specification of an NFA before implementing it, then confidence over transformation can be increased. In this paper, we have given a procedure for integrating NFA and Z. Complement of a special type of NFA is defined. Then union of two NFAs is formalized after defining their complements. Finally, formal construction of intersection of NFAs is described. The specification of this relationship is analyzed and validated using Z/EVES tool.

Keywords: Modeling, Nondeterministic finite automata, Znotation, Integration of approaches, Validation.

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8373 An Algorithm of Finite Capacity Material Requirement Planning System for Multi-stage Assembly Flow Shop

Authors: T. Wuttipornpun, U. Wangrakdiskul, W. Songserm

Abstract:

This paper aims to develop an algorithm of finite capacity material requirement planning (FCMRP) system for a multistage assembly flow shop. The developed FCMRP system has two main stages. The first stage is to allocate operations to the first and second priority work centers and also determine the sequence of the operations on each work center. The second stage is to determine the optimal start time of each operation by using a linear programming model. Real data from a factory is used to analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed FCMRP system and also to guarantee a practical solution to the user. There are five performance measures, namely, the total tardiness, the number of tardy orders, the total earliness, the number of early orders, and the average flow-time. The proposed FCMRP system offers an adjustable solution which is a compromised solution among the conflicting performance measures. The user can adjust the weight of each performance measure to obtain the desired performance. The result shows that the combination of FCMRP NP3 and EDD outperforms other combinations in term of overall performance index. The calculation time for the proposed FCMRP system is about 10 minutes which is practical for the planners of the factory.

Keywords: Material requirement planning, Finite capacity, Linear programming, Permutation, Application in industry.

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8372 Comparison of Current Chinese and Japanese Design Specification for Bridge Pile in Liquefied Ground

Authors: Baydaa H. Maula, Ling Zhang, Tang Liang, Gao Xia, Xu Peng-Ju, Zhang Yong-Qiang, Kang Jie, Su Lei

Abstract:

Firstly, this study briefly presents the current situation that there exists a vast gap between current Chinese and Japanese seismic design specification for bridge pile foundation in liquefiable and liquefaction-induced lateral spreading ground; The Chinese and Japanese seismic design method and technical detail for bridge pile foundation in liquefying and lateral spreading ground are described and compared systematically and comprehensively, the methods of determining coefficient of subgrade reaction and its reduction factor as well as the computing mode of the applied force on pile foundation due to liquefaction-induced lateral spreading soil in Japanese design specification are especially introduced. Subsequently, the comparison indicates that the content of Chinese seismic design specification for bridge pile foundation in liquefiable and liquefaction-induced lateral spreading ground, just presenting some qualitative items, is too general and lacks systematicness and maneuverability. Finally, some defects of seismic design specification in China are summarized, so the improvement and revision of specification in the field turns out to be imperative for China, some key problems of current Chinese specifications are generalized and the corresponding improvement suggestions are proposed.

Keywords: liquefying soil, laterally spreading ground, seismic design specification for bridge pile foundation.

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8371 Logic Program for Authorizations

Authors: Yun Bai

Abstract:

As a security mechanism, authorization is to provide access control to the system resources according to the polices and rules specified by the security strategies. Either by update or in the initial specification, conflicts in authorization is an issue needs to be solved. In this paper, we propose a new approach to solve conflict by using prioritized logic programs and discuss the uniqueness of its answer set. Addressing conflict resolution from logic programming viewpoint and the uniqueness analysis of the answer set provide a novel, efficient approach for authorization conflict resolution.

Keywords: authorization, formal specification, conflict resolution, prioritized logic program.

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8370 Modelling Multiagent Systems

Authors: Gilbert Ndjatou

Abstract:

We propose a formal framework for the specification of the behavior of a system of agents, as well as those of the constituting agents. This framework allows us to model each agent-s effectoric capability including its interactions with the other agents. We also provide an algorithm based on Milner-s "observation equivalence" to derive an agent-s perception of its task domain situations from its effectoric capability, and use "system computations" to model the coordinated efforts of the agents in the system . Formal definitions of the concept of "behavior equivalence" of two agents and that of system computations equivalence for an agent are also provided.

Keywords: Multiagent system, object system, observation equivalence, reactive systems.

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8369 Functionality of Negotiation Agent on Value-based Design Decision

Authors: Arazi Idrus, Christiono Utomo

Abstract:

This paper presents functionality of negotiation agent on value-based design decision. The functionality is based on the characteristics of the system and goal specification. A Prometheus Design Tool model was used for developing the system. Group functionality will be the attribute for negotiation agents, which comprises a coordinator agent and decision- maker agent. The results of the testing of the system to a building system selection on valuebased decision environment are also presented.

Keywords: Functionality, negotiation agent, value-baseddecision

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8368 Managing User Expectations in Information Systems Development

Authors: Linda, Sau-ling Lai

Abstract:

This paper provides new ways to explore the old problem of failure of information systems development in an organisation. Based on the theory of cognitive dissonance, information systems (IS) failure is defined as a gap between what the users expect from an information system and how well these expectations are met by the perceived performance of the delivered system. Bridging the expectation-perception gap requires that IS professionals make a radical change from being the proprietor of information systems and products to being service providers. In order to deliver systems and services that IS users perceive as valuable, IS people must become expert in determining and assessing users- expectations and perceptions. It is also suggested that the IS community, in general, has given relatively little attention to the front-end process of requirements specification for IS development. There is a simplistic belief that requirements are obtainable from users, they are then translatable into a formal specification. The process of information needs analysis is problematic and worthy of investigation.

Keywords: Information Systems Development, Cognitive Dissonance, Expectation-Perception Gap, Requirements Analysis.

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8367 A Specification-Based Approach for Retrieval of Reusable Business Component for Software Reuse

Authors: Meng Fanchao, Zhan Dechen, Xu Xiaofei

Abstract:

Software reuse can be considered as the most realistic and promising way to improve software engineering productivity and quality. Automated assistance for software reuse involves the representation, classification, retrieval and adaptation of components. The representation and retrieval of components are important to software reuse in Component-Based on Software Development (CBSD). However, current industrial component models mainly focus on the implement techniques and ignore the semantic information about component, so it is difficult to retrieve the components that satisfy user-s requirements. This paper presents a method of business component retrieval based on specification matching to solve the software reuse of enterprise information system. First, a business component model oriented reuse is proposed. In our model, the business data type is represented as sign data type based on XML, which can express the variable business data type that can describe the variety of business operations. Based on this model, we propose specification match relationships in two levels: business operation level and business component level. In business operation level, we use input business data types, output business data types and the taxonomy of business operations evaluate the similarity between business operations. In the business component level, we propose five specification matches between business components. To retrieval reusable business components, we propose the measure of similarity degrees to calculate the similarities between business components. Finally, a business component retrieval command like SQL is proposed to help user to retrieve approximate business components from component repository.

Keywords: Business component, business operation, business data type, specification matching.

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8366 Measuring the Comprehensibility of a UML-B Model and a B Model

Authors: Rozilawati Razali, Paul W. Garratt

Abstract:

Software maintenance, which involves making enhancements, modifications and corrections to existing software systems, consumes more than half of developer time. Specification comprehensibility plays an important role in software maintenance as it permits the understanding of the system properties more easily and quickly. The use of formal notation such as B increases a specification-s precision and consistency. However, the notation is regarded as being difficult to comprehend. Semi-formal notation such as the Unified Modelling Language (UML) is perceived as more accessible but it lacks formality. Perhaps by combining both notations could produce a specification that is not only accurate and consistent but also accessible to users. This paper presents an experiment conducted on a model that integrates the use of both UML and B notations, namely UML-B, versus a B model alone. The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the comprehensibility of a UML-B model compared to a traditional B model. The measurement used in the experiment focused on the efficiency in performing the comprehension tasks. The experiment employed a cross-over design and was conducted on forty-one subjects, including undergraduate and masters students. The results show that the notation used in the UML-B model is more comprehensible than the B model.

Keywords: Model comprehensibility, formal and semi-formal notation, empirical assessment.

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8365 Novel Trends in Manufacturing Systems with View on Implementation Possibilities of Intelligent Automation

Authors: Roman Ružarovský, Radovan Holubek, Peter Košťál

Abstract:

The current trend of increasing quality and demands of the final product is affected by time analysis of the entire manufacturing process. The primary requirement of manufacturing is to produce as many products as soon as possible, at the lowest possible cost, but of course with the highest quality. Such requirements may be satisfied only if all the elements entering and affecting the production cycle are in a fully functional condition. These elements consist of sensory equipment and intelligent control elements that are essential for building intelligent manufacturing systems. The intelligent manufacturing paradigm includes a new approach to production system structure design. Intelligent behaviors are based on the monitoring of important parameters of system and its environment. The flexible reaction to changes. The realization and utilization of this design paradigm as an "intelligent manufacturing system" enables the flexible system reaction to production requirement as soon as environmental changes too. Results of these flexible reactions are a smaller layout space, be decreasing of production and investment costs and be increasing of productivity. Intelligent manufacturing system itself should be a system that can flexibly respond to changes in entering and exiting the process in interaction with the surroundings.

Keywords: Sensory equipment, intelligent manufacturing systems, manufacturing process, control system, smart automation.

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