Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4190

Search results for: perceptual present

4190 NewPerceptual Organization within Temporal Displacement

Authors: Michele Sinico

Abstract:

The psychological present has an actual extension. When a sequence of instantaneous stimuli falls in this short interval of time, observers perceive a compresence of events in succession and the temporal order depends on the qualitative relationships between the perceptual properties of the events. Two experiments were carried out to study the influence of perceptual grouping, with and without temporal displacement, on the duration of auditory sequences. The psychophysical method of adjustment was adopted. The first experiment investigated the effect of temporal displacement of a white noise on sequence duration. The second experiment investigated the effect of temporal displacement, along the pitch dimension, on temporal shortening of sequence. The results suggest that the temporal order of sounds, in the case of temporal displacement, is organized along the pitch dimension.

Keywords: Time perception, perceptual present, temporal displacement, gestalt laws of perceptual organization

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4189 From Maskee to Audible Noise in Perceptual Speech Enhancement

Authors: Asmaa Amehraye, Dominique Pastor, Ahmed Tamtaoui, Driss Aboutajdine

Abstract:

A new analysis of perceptual speech enhancement is presented. It focuses on the fact that if only noise above the masking threshold is filtered, then noise below the masking threshold, but above the absolute threshold of hearing, can become audible after the masker filtering. This particular drawback of some perceptual filters, hereafter called the maskee-to-audible-noise (MAN) phenomenon, favours the emergence of isolated tonals that increase musical noise. Two filtering techniques that avoid or correct the MAN phenomenon are proposed to effectively suppress background noise without introducing much distortion. Experimental results, including objective and subjective measurements, show that these techniques improve the enhanced speech quality and the gain they bring emphasizes the importance of the MAN phenomenon.

Keywords: Perceptual speech filtering, maskee to audible noise, distorsion, musical noise.

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4188 High Quality Speech Coding using Combined Parametric and Perceptual Modules

Authors: M. Kulesza, G. Szwoch, A. Czyżewski

Abstract:

A novel approach to speech coding using the hybrid architecture is presented. Advantages of parametric and perceptual coding methods are utilized together in order to create a speech coding algorithm assuring better signal quality than in traditional CELP parametric codec. Two approaches are discussed. One is based on selection of voiced signal components that are encoded using parametric algorithm, unvoiced components that are encoded perceptually and transients that remain unencoded. The second approach uses perceptual encoding of the residual signal in CELP codec. The algorithm applied for precise transient selection is described. Signal quality achieved using the proposed hybrid codec is compared to quality of some standard speech codecs.

Keywords: CELP residual coding, hybrid codec architecture, perceptual speech coding, speech codecs comparison.

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4187 Auteur 3D Filmmaking: From Hitchcock’s Protrusion Technique to Godard’s Immersion Aesthetic

Authors: Delia Enyedi

Abstract:

Throughout film history, the regular return of 3D cinema has been discussed in connection to crises caused by the advent of television or the competition of the Internet. In addition, the three waves of stereoscopic 3D (from 1952 up to 1983) and its current digital version have been blamed for adding a challenging technical distraction to the viewing experience. By discussing the films Dial M for Murder (1954) and Goodbye to Language (2014), the paper aims to analyze the response of recognized auteurs to the use of 3D techniques in filmmaking. For Alfred Hitchcock, the solution to attaining perceptual immersion paradoxically resided in restraining the signature effect of 3D, namely protrusion. In Jean-Luc Godard’s vision, 3D techniques allowed him to explore perceptual absorption by means of depth of field, for which he had long advocated as being central to cinema. Thus, both directors contribute to the foundation of an auteur aesthetic in 3D filmmaking.

Keywords: Alfred Hitchcock, authorship, 3D filmmaking, Jean-Luc Godard, perceptual absorption, perceptual immersion.

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4186 Perceptual and Ultrasound Articulatory Training Effects on English L2 Vowels Production by Italian Learners

Authors: I. Sonia d’Apolito, Bianca Sisinni, Mirko Grimaldi, Barbara Gili Fivela

Abstract:

The American English contrast /ɑ-ʌ/ (cop-cup) is difficult to be produced by Italian learners since they realize L2-/ɑ-ʌ/ as L1-/ɔ-a/ respectively, due to differences in phonetic-phonological systems and also in grapheme-to-phoneme conversion rules. In this paper, we try to answer the following research questions: Can a short training improve the production of English /ɑ-ʌ/ by Italian learners? Is a perceptual training better than an articulatory (ultrasound - US) training? Thus, we compare a perceptual training with an US articulatory one to observe: 1) the effects of short trainings on L2-/ɑ-ʌ/ productions; 2) if the US articulatory training improves the pronunciation better than the perceptual training. In this pilot study, 9 Salento-Italian monolingual adults participated: 3 subjects performed a 1-hour perceptual training (ES-P); 3 subjects performed a 1-hour US training (ES-US); and 3 control subjects did not receive any training (CS). Verbal instructions about the phonetic properties of L2-/ɑ-ʌ/ and L1-/ɔ-a/ and their differences (representation on F1-F2 plane) were provided during both trainings. After these instructions, the ES-P group performed an identification training based on the High Variability Phonetic Training procedure, while the ES-US group performed the articulatory training, by means of US video of tongue gestures in L2-/ɑ-ʌ/ production and dynamic view of their own tongue movements and position using a probe under their chin. The acoustic data were analyzed and the first three formants were calculated. Independent t-tests were run to compare: 1) /ɑ-ʌ/ in pre- vs. post-test respectively; /ɑ-ʌ/ in pre- and post-test vs. L1-/a-ɔ/ respectively. Results show that in the pre-test all speakers realize L2-/ɑ-ʌ/ as L1-/ɔ-a/ respectively. Contrary to CS and ES-P groups, the ES-US group in the post-test differentiates the L2 vowels from those produced in the pre-test as well as from the L1 vowels, although only one ES-US subject produces both L2 vowels accurately. The articulatory training seems more effective than the perceptual one since it favors the production of vowels in the correct direction of L2 vowels and differently from the similar L1 vowels.

Keywords: L2 vowel production, perceptual training, articulatory training, ultrasound.

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4185 A Perceptually Optimized Wavelet Embedded Zero Tree Image Coder

Authors: A. Bajit, M. Nahid, A. Tamtaoui, E. H. Bouyakhf

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a Perceptually Optimized Embedded ZeroTree Image Coder (POEZIC) that introduces a perceptual weighting to wavelet transform coefficients prior to control SPIHT encoding algorithm in order to reach a targeted bit rate with a perceptual quality improvement with respect to the coding quality obtained using the SPIHT algorithm only. The paper also, introduces a new objective quality metric based on a Psychovisual model that integrates the properties of the HVS that plays an important role in our POEZIC quality assessment. Our POEZIC coder is based on a vision model that incorporates various masking effects of human visual system HVS perception. Thus, our coder weights the wavelet coefficients based on that model and attempts to increase the perceptual quality for a given bit rate and observation distance. The perceptual weights for all wavelet subbands are computed based on 1) luminance masking and Contrast masking, 2) the contrast sensitivity function CSF to achieve the perceptual decomposition weighting, 3) the Wavelet Error Sensitivity WES used to reduce the perceptual quantization errors. The new perceptually optimized codec has the same complexity as the original SPIHT techniques. However, the experiments results show that our coder demonstrates very good performance in terms of quality measurement.

Keywords: DWT, linear-phase 9/7 filter, 9/7 Wavelets Error Sensitivity WES, CSF implementation approaches, JND Just Noticeable Difference, Luminance masking, Contrast masking, standard SPIHT, Objective Quality Measure, Probability Score PS.

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4184 A Perceptually Optimized Foveation Based Wavelet Embedded Zero Tree Image Coding

Authors: A. Bajit, M. Nahid, A. Tamtaoui, E. H. Bouyakhf

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a Perceptually Optimized Foveation based Embedded ZeroTree Image Coder (POEFIC) that introduces a perceptual weighting to wavelet coefficients prior to control SPIHT encoding algorithm in order to reach a targeted bit rate with a perceptual quality improvement with respect to a given bit rate a fixation point which determines the region of interest ROI. The paper also, introduces a new objective quality metric based on a Psychovisual model that integrates the properties of the HVS that plays an important role in our POEFIC quality assessment. Our POEFIC coder is based on a vision model that incorporates various masking effects of human visual system HVS perception. Thus, our coder weights the wavelet coefficients based on that model and attempts to increase the perceptual quality for a given bit rate and observation distance. The perceptual weights for all wavelet subbands are computed based on 1) foveation masking to remove or reduce considerable high frequencies from peripheral regions 2) luminance and Contrast masking, 3) the contrast sensitivity function CSF to achieve the perceptual decomposition weighting. The new perceptually optimized codec has the same complexity as the original SPIHT techniques. However, the experiments results show that our coder demonstrates very good performance in terms of quality measurement.

Keywords: DWT, linear-phase 9/7 filter, Foveation Filtering, CSF implementation approaches, 9/7 Wavelet JND Thresholds and Wavelet Error Sensitivity WES, Luminance and Contrast masking, standard SPIHT, Objective Quality Measure, Probability Score PS.

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4183 Adaptive Digital Watermarking Integrating Fuzzy Inference HVS Perceptual Model

Authors: Sherin M. Youssef, Ahmed Abouelfarag, Noha M. Ghatwary

Abstract:

An adaptive Fuzzy Inference Perceptual model has been proposed for watermarking of digital images. The model depends on the human visual characteristics of image sub-regions in the frequency multi-resolution wavelet domain. In the proposed model, a multi-variable fuzzy based architecture has been designed to produce a perceptual membership degree for both candidate embedding sub-regions and strength watermark embedding factor. Different sizes of benchmark images with different sizes of watermarks have been applied on the model. Several experimental attacks have been applied such as JPEG compression, noises and rotation, to ensure the robustness of the scheme. In addition, the model has been compared with different watermarking schemes. The proposed model showed its robustness to attacks and at the same time achieved a high level of imperceptibility.

Keywords: Watermarking, The human visual system (HVS), Fuzzy Inference System (FIS), Local Binary Pattern (LBP), Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT).

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4182 Design of a DCT-based Image Compression with Efficient Enhancement Filter

Authors: Yen-Yu Chen, Pao-Ching Chu, Ya-Ling Tsai

Abstract:

The algorithm represents the DCT coefficients to concentrate signal energy and proposes combination and dictator to eliminate the correlation in the same level subband for encoding the DCT-based images. This work adopts DCT and modifies the SPIHT algorithm to encode DCT coefficients. The proposed algorithm also provides the enhancement function in low bit rate in order to improve the perceptual quality. Experimental results indicate that the proposed technique improves the quality of the reconstructed image in terms of both PSNR and the perceptual results close to JPEG2000 at the same bit rate.

Keywords: JPEG 2000, enhancement filter

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4181 A Perceptual Image Coding method of High Compression Rate

Authors: Fahmi Kammoun, Mohamed Salim Bouhlel

Abstract:

In the framework of the image compression by Wavelet Transforms, we propose a perceptual method by incorporating Human Visual System (HVS) characteristics in the quantization stage. Indeed, human eyes haven-t an equal sensitivity across the frequency bandwidth. Therefore, the clarity of the reconstructed images can be improved by weighting the quantization according to the Contrast Sensitivity Function (CSF). The visual artifact at low bit rate is minimized. To evaluate our method, we use the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and a new evaluating criteria witch takes into account visual criteria. The experimental results illustrate that our technique shows improvement on image quality at the same compression ratio.

Keywords: Contrast Sensitivity Function, Human Visual System, Image compression, Wavelet transforms.

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4180 Watermark Bit Rate in Diverse Signal Domains

Authors: Nedeljko Cvejic, Tapio Sepp

Abstract:

A study of the obtainable watermark data rate for information hiding algorithms is presented in this paper. As the perceptual entropy for wideband monophonic audio signals is in the range of four to five bits per sample, a significant amount of additional information can be inserted into signal without causing any perceptual distortion. Experimental results showed that transform domain watermark embedding outperforms considerably watermark embedding in time domain and that signal decompositions with a high gain of transform coding, like the wavelet transform, are the most suitable for high data rate information hiding. Keywords?Digital watermarking, information hiding, audio watermarking, watermark data rate.

Keywords: Digital watermarking, information hiding, audio watermarking, watermark data rate.

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4179 Entropy Based Data Hiding for Document Images

Authors: Swetha Kurup, Sridhar G., Sridhar V.

Abstract:

In this paper we present a novel technique for data hiding in binary document images. We use the concept of entropy in order to identify document specific least distortive areas throughout the binary document image. The document image is treated as any other image and the proposed method utilizes the standard document characteristics for the embedding process. Proposed method minimizes perceptual distortion due to embedding and allows watermark extraction without the requirement of any side information at the decoder end.

Keywords: Entropy, Steganography, Watermarking.

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4178 A New Image Encryption Approach using Combinational Permutation Techniques

Authors: A. Mitra, Y. V. Subba Rao, S. R. M. Prasanna

Abstract:

This paper proposes a new approach for image encryption using a combination of different permutation techniques. The main idea behind the present work is that an image can be viewed as an arrangement of bits, pixels and blocks. The intelligible information present in an image is due to the correlations among the bits, pixels and blocks in a given arrangement. This perceivable information can be reduced by decreasing the correlation among the bits, pixels and blocks using certain permutation techniques. This paper presents an approach for a random combination of the aforementioned permutations for image encryption. From the results, it is observed that the permutation of bits is effective in significantly reducing the correlation thereby decreasing the perceptual information, whereas the permutation of pixels and blocks are good at producing higher level security compared to bit permutation. A random combination method employing all the three techniques thus is observed to be useful for tactical security applications, where protection is needed only against a casual observer.

Keywords: Encryption, Permutation, Good key, Combinationalpermutation, Pseudo random index generator.

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4177 Effect of Visual Speech in Sign Speech Synthesis

Authors: Zdenek Krnoul

Abstract:

This article investigates a contribution of synthesized visual speech. Synthesis of visual speech expressed by a computer consists in an animation in particular movements of lips. Visual speech is also necessary part of the non-manual component of a sign language. Appropriate methodology is proposed to determine the quality and the accuracy of synthesized visual speech. Proposed methodology is inspected on Czech speech. Hence, this article presents a procedure of recording of speech data in order to set a synthesis system as well as to evaluate synthesized speech. Furthermore, one option of the evaluation process is elaborated in the form of a perceptual test. This test procedure is verified on the measured data with two settings of the synthesis system. The results of the perceptual test are presented as a statistically significant increase of intelligibility evoked by real and synthesized visual speech. Now, the aim is to show one part of evaluation process which leads to more comprehensive evaluation of the sign speech synthesis system.

Keywords: Perception test, Sign speech synthesis, Talking head, Visual speech.

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4176 Talent in Autism: Cognitive Style based on Weak Central Coherence and Special Sensory Characteristics in State of Kuwait: Case Study

Authors: Mariam Abdulaziz Y.Esmaeel

Abstract:

The study aimed to identify the nature of autistic talent, the manifestations of their weak central coherence, and their sensory characteristics. The case study consisted of four talented autistic males. Two of them in drawing, one in clay formation and one in jigsaw puzzle. Tools of data collection were Group Embedded Figures Test, Block Design Test, Sensory Profile Checklist Revised, Interview forms and direct observation. Results indicated that talent among autistics emerges in limited domain and being extraordinary for each case. Also overlapping construction properties. Indeed, they show three perceptual aspects of weak central coherence: The weak in visual spatial-constructional coherence, the weak in perceptual coherence and the weak in verbal – semantic coherence. Moreover, the majority of the study cases used the three strategies of weak central coherence (segmentation, obliqueness and rotation). As for the sensory characteristics, all study cases have numbers of that characteristics that especially emerges in the visual system.

Keywords: Autism, Central Coherence, Savant, Sensory characteristics, Talent.

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4175 Developmental Differences in the Construction of Concepts by Children from 3 to 14-Year-Olds: Perception, Language and Instruction

Authors: Mehmet Ozcan

Abstract:

This study was designed to investigate the relationship between language and children’s construction of the concept of objects, actions, and states. Participants of this study are 120 children whose ages range from 3 to 14 years. Ten children participated from each age group and 10 adults participated as normative group. Data were collected using 28 words which were identified and grouped according to the purpose of this study. Participants were asked the question “What is x?’ for each word in a reserved room. The audio recorded data were transcribed and coded. The data were analyzed primarily qualitatively but quantitatively as well to support qualitative findings. The findings reveal that younger children rely more on their perceptual experience and linguistic input while 7-year-olds and older ones rely more on instructional language in the construction of the concepts related to objects, actions and states. Adults differ from all age groups with their usage of metaphors to refer to objects. It has been noted that linguistic, perceptual and instructional experiences work in an interwoven way but each one seems to be dominant at certain ages.

Keywords: Cognition, concept construction, first language acquisition, language, thought.

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4174 Perceptual JPEG Compliant Coding by Using DCT-Based Visibility Thresholds of Color Images

Authors: Kuo-Cheng Liu

Abstract:

Effective estimation of just noticeable distortion (JND) for images is helpful to increase the efficiency of a compression algorithm in which both the statistical redundancy and the perceptual redundancy should be accurately removed. In this paper, we design a DCT-based model for estimating JND profiles of color images. Based on a mathematical model of measuring the base detection threshold for each DCT coefficient in the color component of color images, the luminance masking adjustment, the contrast masking adjustment, and the cross masking adjustment are utilized for luminance component, and the variance-based masking adjustment based on the coefficient variation in the block is proposed for chrominance components. In order to verify the proposed model, the JND estimator is incorporated into the conventional JPEG coder to improve the compression performance. A subjective and fair viewing test is designed to evaluate the visual quality of the coding image under the specified viewing condition. The simulation results show that the JPEG coder integrated with the proposed DCT-based JND model gives better coding bit rates at visually lossless quality for a variety of color images.

Keywords: Just-noticeable distortion (JND), discrete cosine transform (DCT), JPEG.

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4173 Implementation of Intuitionistic Fuzzy Approach in Maximizing Net Present Value

Authors: Gaurav Kumar, Rakesh Kumar Bajaj

Abstract:

The applicability of Net Present Value (NPV) in an investment project is becoming more and more popular in the field of engineering economics. The classical NPV methodology involves only the precise and accurate data of the investment project. In the present communication, we give a new mathematical model for NPV which uses the concept of intuitionistic fuzzy set theory. The proposed model is based on triangular intuitionistic fuzzy number, which may be known as Intuitionistic Fuzzy Net Present Value (IFNPV). The model has been applied to an example and the results are presented.

Keywords: Net Present Value, Intuitionistic Fuzzy Set, Investment Projects.

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4172 Audio Watermarking Using Spectral Modifications

Authors: Jyotsna Singh, Parul Garg, Alok Nath De

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a non-blind technique of adding the watermark to the Fourier spectral components of audio signal in a way such that the modified amplitude does not exceed the maximum amplitude spread (MAS). This MAS is due to individual Discrete fourier transform (DFT) coefficients in that particular frame, which is derived from the Energy Spreading function given by Schroeder. Using this technique one can store double the information within a given frame length i.e. overriding the watermark on the host of equal length with least perceptual distortion. The watermark is uniformly floating on the DFT components of original signal. This helps in detecting any intentional manipulations done on the watermarked audio. Also, the scheme is found robust to various signal processing attacks like presence of multiple watermarks, Additive white gaussian noise (AWGN) and mp3 compression.

Keywords: Discrete Fourier Transform, Spreading Function, Watermark, Pseudo Noise Sequence, Spectral Masking Effect

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4171 The Impact of Dialectal Differences on the Perception of Japanese Gemination: A Case Study of Cantonese Learners

Authors: Honghao Ren, Mariko Kondo

Abstract:

This study investigates the perceptual features of Japanese obstruent geminates among Chinese learners of Japanese, focusing on the dialectal effect of the checked-tone, a syllable that ends in a stop consonant or a glottal stop, which is similar to Japanese obstruent geminates phonetically. In this study, 41 native speakers of Cantonese are divided into two groups based on their proficiency as well as learning period of Japanese. All stimuli employed in this study are made into C[p,k,s]+V[a,e,i] structure such as /apa/, /eke/, /isi/. Both original sounds and synthesized sounds are used in three different parts of this study. The results of the present study show that the checked-tone does have the positive effect on the perception of Japanese gemination. Furthermore, the proportion of closure duration in the entire word would be a more reliable and appropriate criterion in testing this kind of task.

Keywords: Dialectal differences, Cantonese learners of Japanese, acoustic experiment, closure duration.

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4170 The Role of Planning and Memory in the Navigational Ability

Authors: Greeshma Sharma, Sushil Chandra, Vijander Singh, Alok Prakash Mittal

Abstract:

Navigational ability requires spatial representation, planning, and memory. It covers three interdependent domains, i.e. cognitive and perceptual factors, neural information processing, and variability in brain microstructure. Many attempts have been made to see the role of spatial representation in the navigational ability, and the individual differences have been identified in the neural substrate. But, there is also a need to address the influence of planning, memory on navigational ability. The present study aims to evaluate relations of aforementioned factors in the navigational ability. Total 30 participants volunteered in the study of a virtual shopping complex and subsequently were classified into good and bad navigators based on their performances. The result showed that planning ability was the most correlated factor for the navigational ability and also the discriminating factor between the good and bad navigators. There was also found the correlations between spatial memory recall and navigational ability. However, non-verbal episodic memory and spatial memory recall were also found to be correlated with the learning variable. This study attempts to identify differences between people with more and less navigational ability on the basis of planning and memory.

Keywords: Memory, planning navigational ability, virtual reality.

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4169 Subjective Quality Assessment for Impaired Videos with Varying Spatial and Temporal Information

Authors: Muhammad Rehan Usman, Muhammad Arslan Usman, Soo Young Shin

Abstract:

The new era of digital communication has brought up many challenges that network operators need to overcome. The high demand of mobile data rates require improved networks, which is a challenge for the operators in terms of maintaining the quality of experience (QoE) for their consumers. In live video transmission, there is a sheer need for live surveillance of the videos in order to maintain the quality of the network. For this purpose objective algorithms are employed to monitor the quality of the videos that are transmitted over a network. In order to test these objective algorithms, subjective quality assessment of the streamed videos is required, as the human eye is the best source of perceptual assessment. In this paper we have conducted subjective evaluation of videos with varying spatial and temporal impairments. These videos were impaired with frame freezing distortions so that the impact of frame freezing on the quality of experience could be studied. We present subjective Mean Opinion Score (MOS) for these videos that can be used for fine tuning the objective algorithms for video quality assessment.

Keywords: Frame freezing, mean opinion score, objective assessment, subjective evaluation.

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4168 EU Socioeconomic Indicators and Car Market

Authors: Christina Babatsou, Efthimios Zervas

Abstract:

Since 2008 a new economic crisis is present is the entire planet. This crisis affects several domains of the economic but also of the social life. Consumption decreases due to the lack of necessary resources of households to increase their expenditures. The car manufacturing is one of the main industrial activities in European Union (EU) and the present crisis particularly affects it. The present study examines the correlations between several socio-economic indicators and car market in European Union. The target is to find out the impact of the present economic crisis on the car market in EU.

Keywords: European Union, Passenger cars, Social indicators, Correlations

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4167 Subjective Evaluation of Spectral and Time Domain Cascading Algorithm for Speech Enhancement for Mobile Communication

Authors: Harish Chander, Balwinder Singh, Ravinder Khanna

Abstract:

In this paper, we present the comparative subjective analysis of Improved Minima Controlled Recursive Averaging (IMCRA) Algorithm, the Kalman filter and the cascading of IMCRA and Kalman filter algorithms. Performance of speech enhancement algorithms can be predicted in two different ways. One is the objective method of evaluation in which the speech quality parameters are predicted computationally. The second is a subjective listening test in which the processed speech signal is subjected to the listeners who judge the quality of speech on certain parameters. The comparative objective evaluation of these algorithms was analyzed in terms of Global SNR, Segmental SNR and Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality (PESQ) by the authors and it was reported that with cascaded algorithms there is a substantial increase in objective parameters. Since subjective evaluation is the real test to judge the quality of speech enhancement algorithms, the authenticity of superiority of cascaded algorithms over individual IMCRA and Kalman algorithms is tested through subjective analysis in this paper. The results of subjective listening tests have confirmed that the cascaded algorithms perform better under all types of noise conditions.

Keywords: Speech enhancement, spectral domain, time domain, PESQ, subjective analysis, objective analysis.

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4166 Autistic Children and Different Tense Forms

Authors: Ameneh Zare, Shahin Nematzadeh, Shahla Raghibdoust, Iran Kalbassi

Abstract:

Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by abnormalities in social communication, language abilities and repetitive behaviors. The present study focused on some grammatical deficits in autistic children. We evaluated the impairment of correct use of different Persian verb tenses in autistic children-s speech. Two standardized Language Test were administered then gathered data were analyzed. The main result of this study was significant difference between the mean scores of correct responses to present tense in comparison with past tense in Persian language. This study demonstrated that tense is severely impaired in autistic children-s speech. Our findings indicated those autistic children-s production of simple present/ past tense opposition to be better than production of future and past periphrastic forms (past perfect, present perfect, past progressive).

Keywords: Autism, Past, Persian Language, Present, Tense

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4165 Constructing a Fuzzy Net Present Value Method to Evaluating the BOT Sport Facilities

Authors: Huei-Fu Lu

Abstract:

This paper is to develop a fuzzy net present value (FNPV) method by taking vague cash flow and imprecise required rate of return into account for evaluating the value of the Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) sport facilities. In order to clearly manifest a more realistic capital budgeting model based on the classical net present value (NPV) method, some uncertain financial elements in NPV formula will be fuzzified as triangular fuzzy numbers. Through the conscientious manipulation of fuzzy set theory, we will find that the proposed FNPV model is a more explicit extension of classical (crisp) model and could be more practicable for the financial managers to capture the essence of capital budgeting of sport facilities than non-fuzzy model.

Keywords: Fuzzy sets; Capital budgeting, Sport facility, Net present value (NPV), Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) scheme

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4164 Discrepant Views of Social Competence and Links with Social Phobia

Authors: Pamela-Zoe Topalli, Niina Junttila, Päivi M. Niemi, Klaus Ranta

Abstract:

Adolescents’ biased perceptions about their social competence (SC), whether negatively or positively, serve to influence their socioemotional adjustment such as early feelings of social phobia (nowadays referred to as Social Anxiety Disorder-SAD). Despite the importance of biased self-perceptions in adolescents’ psychosocial adjustment, the extent to which discrepancies between self- and others’ evaluations of one’s SC are linked to social phobic symptoms remains unclear in the literature. This study examined the perceptual discrepancy profiles between self- and peers’ as well as between self- and teachers’ evaluations of adolescents’ SC and the interrelations of these profiles with self-reported social phobic symptoms. The participants were 390 3rd graders (15 years old) of Finnish lower secondary school (50.8% boys, 49.2% girls). In contrast with variable-centered approaches that have mainly been used by previous studies when focusing on this subject, this study used latent profile analysis (LPA), a person-centered approach which can provide information regarding risk profiles by capturing the heterogeneity within a population and classifying individuals into groups. LPA revealed the following five classes of discrepancy profiles: i) extremely negatively biased perceptions of SC, ii) negatively biased perceptions of SC, iii) quite realistic perceptions of SC, iv) positively biased perceptions of SC, and v) extremely positively biased perceptions of SC. Adolescents with extremely negatively biased perceptions and negatively biased perceptions of their own SC reported the highest number of social phobic symptoms. Adolescents with quite realistic, positively biased and extremely positively biased perceptions reported the lowest number of socio-phobic symptoms. The results point out the negatively and the extremely negatively biased perceptions as possible contributors to social phobic symptoms. Moreover, the association of quite realistic perceptions with low number of social phobic symptoms indicates its potential protective power against social phobia. Finally, positively and extremely positively biased perceptions of SC are negatively associated with social phobic symptoms in this study. However, the profile of extremely positively biased perceptions might be linked as well with the existence of externalizing problems such as antisocial behavior (e.g. disruptive impulsivity). The current findings highlight the importance of considering discrepancies between self- and others’ perceptions of one’s SC in clinical and research efforts. Interventions designed to prevent or moderate social phobic symptoms need to take into account individual needs rather than aiming for uniform treatment. Implications and future directions are discussed.

Keywords: Adolescence, latent profile analysis, perceptual discrepancies, social competence, social phobia.

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4163 Analysis of Explosive Shock Wave and its Application in Snow Avalanche Release

Authors: Mahmoud Zarrini, R. N. Pralhad

Abstract:

Avalanche velocity (from start to track zone) has been estimated in the present model for an avalanche which is triggered artificially by an explosive devise. The initial development of the model has been from the concept of micro-continuum theories [1], underwater explosions [2] and from fracture mechanics [3] with appropriate changes to the present model. The model has been computed for different slab depth R, slope angle θ, snow density ¤ü, viscosity μ, eddy viscosity η*and couple stress parameter η. The applicability of the present model in the avalanche forecasting has been highlighted.

Keywords: Snow avalanche velocity, avalanche zones, shockwave, couple stress fluids.

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4162 A Formal Approach for Instructional Design Integrated with Data Visualization for Learning Analytics

Authors: Douglas A. Menezes, Isabel D. Nunes, Ulrich Schiel

Abstract:

Most Virtual Learning Environments do not provide support mechanisms for the integrated planning, construction and follow-up of Instructional Design supported by Learning Analytic results. The present work aims to present an authoring tool that will be responsible for constructing the structure of an Instructional Design (ID), without the data being altered during the execution of the course. The visual interface aims to present the critical situations present in this ID, serving as a support tool for the course follow-up and possible improvements, which can be made during its execution or in the planning of a new edition of this course. The model for the ID is based on High-Level Petri Nets and the visualization forms are determined by the specific kind of the data generated by an e-course, a population of students generating sequentially dependent data.

Keywords: Educational data visualization, high-level petri nets, instructional design, learning analytics.

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4161 Motor Skill Adaptation Depends On the Level of Learning

Authors: Herbert Ugrinowitsch, Suziane Peixoto dos Santos-Naves, Michele Viviene Carbinatto, Rodolfo NovellinoBenda, Go Tani

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of the level of performance stabilization on the human adaptability to perceptual-motor perturbation in a complex coincident timing task. Three levels of performance stabilization were established operationally: pre-stabilization, stabilization, and super-stabilization groups. Each group practiced the task until reached its level of stabilization in a constant sequence of movements and under a constant time constraint before exposure to perturbation. The results clearly showed that performance stabilization is a pre-condition for adaptation. Moreover, variability before reaching stabilization is harmful to adaptation and persistent variability after stabilization is beneficial. Moreover, the behavior of variability is specific to each measure.

Keywords: Adaptation, motor skill, perturbation, stabilization.

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