Search results for: synergistic interaction.
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1088

Search results for: synergistic interaction.

1088 Stabilization of γ-Sterilized Food-Packaging Materials by Synergistic Mixtures of Food-Contact Approval Stabilizers

Authors: Sameh A. S. Alariqi

Abstract:

Food is widely packaged with plastic materials to prevent microbial contamination and spoilage. Ionizing radiation is widely used to sterilize the food-packaging materials. Sterilization by γ-radiation causes degradation such as embrittlement, stiffening, softening, discoloration, odour generation, and decrease in molecular weight. Many antioxidants can prevent γ-degradation but most of them are toxic. The migration of antioxidants to its environment gives rise to major concerns in case of food packaging plastics. In this attempt, we have aimed to utilize synergistic mixtures of stabilizers which are approved for food-contact applications. Ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer has been melt-mixed with hindered amine stabilizers (HAS), phenolic antioxidants and organophosphites (hydroperoxide decomposer). Results were discussed by comparing the stabilizing efficiency of mixtures with and without phenol system. Among phenol containing systems where we mostly observed discoloration due to the oxidation of hindered phenol, the combination of secondary HAS, tertiary HAS, organo-phosphite and hindered phenol exhibited improved stabilization efficiency than single or binary additive systems. The mixture of secondary HAS and tertiary HAS, has shown antagonistic effect of stabilization. However, the combination of organo-phosphite with secondary HAS, tertiary HAS and phenol antioxidants have been found to give synergistic even at higher doses of Gamma-irradiation. The effects have been explained through the interaction between the stabilizers. After γ-irradiation, the consumption of oligomeric stabilizer significantly depends on the components of stabilization mixture. The effect of the organo-phosphite antioxidant on the overall stability has been discussed.

Keywords: Ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer, Synergistic mixtures, Gamma-sterilization and stabilization.

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1087 Synergistic Impacts and Optimization of Gas Flow Rate, Concentration of CO2, and Light Intensity on CO2 Biofixation in Wastewater Medium by Chlorella vulgaris

Authors: Ahmed Arkoazi, Hussein Znad, Ranjeet Utikar

Abstract:

The synergistic impact and optimization of gas flow rate, concentration of CO2, and light intensity on CO2 biofixation rate were investigated using wastewater as a medium to cultivate Chlorella vulgaris under different conditions (gas flow rate 1-8 L/min), CO2 concentration (0.03-7%), and light intensity (150-400 µmol/m2.s)). Response Surface Methodology and Box-Behnken experimental Design were applied to find optimum values for gas flow rate, CO2 concentration, and light intensity. The optimum values of the three independent variables (gas flow rate, concentration of CO2, and light intensity) and desirability were 7.5 L/min, 3.5%, and 400 µmol/m2.s, and 0.904, respectively. The highest amount of biomass produced and CO2 biofixation rate at optimum conditions were 5.7 g/L, 1.23 gL-1d-1, respectively. The synergistic effect between gas flow rate and concentration of CO2, and between gas flow rate and light intensity was significant on the three responses, while the effect between CO2 concentration and light intensity was less significant on CO2 biofixation rate. The results of this study could be highly helpful when using microalgae for CO2 biofixation in wastewater treatment.

Keywords: Synergistic impact, optimization, CO2 biofixation, airlift reactor.

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1086 Mixture Design Experiment on Flow Behaviour of O/W Emulsions as Affected by Polysaccharide Interactions

Authors: Nor Hayati Ibrahim, Yaakob B. Che Man, Chin Ping Tan, Nor Aini Idris

Abstract:

Interaction effects of xanthan gum (XG), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and locust bean gum (LBG) on the flow properties of oil-in-water emulsions were investigated by a mixture design experiment. Blends of XG, CMC and LBG were prepared according to an augmented simplex-centroid mixture design (10 points) and used at 0.5% (wt/wt) in the emulsion formulations. An appropriate mathematical model was fitted to express each response as a function of the proportions of the blend components that are able to empirically predict the response to any blend of combination of the components. The synergistic interaction effect of the ternary XG:CMC:LBG blends at approximately 33-67% XG levels was shown to be much stronger than that of the binary XG:LBG blend at 50% XG level (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, an antagonistic interaction effect became significant as CMC level in blends was more than 33% (p < 0.05). Yield stress and apparent viscosity (at 10 s-1) responses were successfully fitted with a special quartic model while flow behaviour index and consistency coefficient were fitted with a full quartic model (R2 adjusted ≥ 0.90). This study found that a mixture design approach could serve as a valuable tool in better elucidating and predicting the interaction effects beyond the conventional twocomponent blends.

Keywords: O/W emulsions, flow behavior, polysaccharideinteraction, mixture design.

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1085 Hybrid Honeypot System for Network Security

Authors: Kyi Lin Lin Kyaw

Abstract:

Nowadays, we are facing with network threats that cause enormous damage to the Internet community day by day. In this situation, more and more people try to prevent their network security using some traditional mechanisms including firewall, Intrusion Detection System, etc. Among them honeypot is a versatile tool for a security practitioner, of course, they are tools that are meant to be attacked or interacted with to more information about attackers, their motives and tools. In this paper, we will describe usefulness of low-interaction honeypot and high-interaction honeypot and comparison between them. And then we propose hybrid honeypot architecture that combines low and high -interaction honeypot to mitigate the drawback. In this architecture, low-interaction honeypot is used as a traffic filter. Activities like port scanning can be effectively detected by low-interaction honeypot and stop there. Traffic that cannot be handled by low-interaction honeypot is handed over to high-interaction honeypot. In this case, low-interaction honeypot is used as proxy whereas high-interaction honeypot offers the optimal level realism. To prevent the high-interaction honeypot from infections, containment environment (VMware) is used.

Keywords: Low-interaction honeypot, High-interactionhoneypot, VMware, Proxy

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1084 Effect of Exchange Interaction J on Magnetic Moment of MnO

Authors: C. Thassana, W. Techitdheera

Abstract:

This calculation focus on the effect of exchange interaction J and Coulomb interaction U on spin magnetic moments (ms) of MnO by using the local spin density approximation plus the Coulomb interaction (LSDA+U) method within full potential linear muffin-tin orbital (FP-LMTO). Our calculated results indicated that the spin magnetic moments correlated to J and U. The relevant results exhibited the increasing spin magnetic moments with increasing exchange interaction and Coulomb interaction. Furthermore, equations of spin magnetic moment, which h good correspondence to the experimental data 4.58μB, are defined ms = 0.11J +4.52μB and ms = 0.03U+4.52μB. So, the relation of J and U parameter is obtained, it is obviously, J = -0.249U+1.346 eV.

Keywords: exchange interaction J, the Coulomb interaction U, spin magnetic moment, LSDA+U, MnO.

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1083 Screening of Antagonistic/Synergistic Effect between Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) and Yeast Strains Isolated from Kefir

Authors: Mihriban Korukluoglu, Goksen Arik, Cagla Erdogan, Selen Kocakoglu

Abstract:

Kefir is a traditional fermented refreshing beverage which is known for its valuable and beneficial properties for human health. Mainly yeast species, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains and fewer acetic acid bacteria strains live together in a natural matrix named “kefir grain”, which is formed from various proteins and polysaccharides. Different microbial species live together in slimy kefir grain and it has been thought that synergetic effect could take place between microorganisms, which belong to different genera and species. In this research, yeast and LAB were isolated from kefir samples obtained from Uludag University Food Engineering Department. The cell morphology of isolates was screened by microscopic examination. Gram reactions of bacteria isolates were determined by Gram staining method, and as well catalase activity was examined. After observing the microscopic/morphological and physical, enzymatic properties of all isolates, they were divided into the groups as LAB and/or yeast according to their physicochemical responses to the applied examinations. As part of this research, the antagonistic/synergistic efficacy of the identified five LAB and five yeast strains to each other were determined individually by disk diffusion method. The antagonistic or synergistic effect is one of the most important properties in a co-culture system that different microorganisms are living together. The synergistic effect should be promoted, whereas the antagonistic effect is prevented to provide effective culture for fermentation of kefir. The aim of this study was to determine microbial interactions between identified yeast and LAB strains, and whether their effect is antagonistic or synergistic. Thus, if there is a strain which inhibits or retards the growth of other strains found in Kefir microflora, this circumstance shows the presence of antagonistic effect in the medium. Such negative influence should be prevented, whereas the microorganisms which have synergistic effect on each other should be promoted by combining them in kefir grain. Standardisation is the most desired property for industrial production. Each microorganism found in the microbial flora of a kefir grain should be identified individually. The members of the microbial community found in the glue-like kefir grain may be redesigned as a starter culture regarding efficacy of each microorganism to another in kefir processing. The main aim of this research was to shed light on more effective production of kefir grain and to contribute a standardisation of kefir processing in the food industry.

Keywords: Antagonistic effect, kefir, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), synergistic, yeast.

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1082 Interaction at a Distance – An Approach for Redesigning for Distance Education

Authors: Martin Henkel

Abstract:

Different forms of interaction are an integral part of modern courses. Traditional courses held on-campus might focus on teacher-student interaction, or student-student interaction, or both. However when these traditional on-campus courses are to be held as distance courses there is a risk that these well-designed interactions will be difficult or impossible to uphold. For example, studentstudent interaction in traditional project assignments might not work well if the students are scattered across the world. Thus, even a welldesigned traditional on-site course cannot without modification be turned into a distance course. Traditional on-site courses simply have to be redesigned to become true distance courses. This paper describes a structured approach which facilitates the redesign of a traditional course into a distance course. The approach is based on that the desired forms of course flexibility are identified, and thereafter that the course activities are redesigned to facilitate interaction in a distance course. The approach is making use of known patterns of pedagogic interaction and existing guidelines for distance education design. The approach is illustrated with an example course in the field of information systems design.

Keywords: Distance education, interaction in education, course design.

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1081 Mixed Micellization Study of Adiphenine Hydrochloride with 1-Decyl-3-Methylimidazolium Chloride

Authors: Abbul B. Khan, Neeraj Dohare, Rajan Patel

Abstract:

The mixed micellization of adiphenine hydrochloride (ADP) with 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C10mim.Cl), was investigated at different mole fractions and temperatures by surface tension measurements. The synergistic behavior (i.e., non-ideal behavior) for binary mixtures was explained by the deviation of critical micelle concentration (cmc) from ideal critical micelle concentration (cmc*), micellar mole fraction (Xim) from ideal micellar mole fraction (Xiideal), the values of interaction parameter (β) and activity coefficients (fi) (for both mixed micelles and mixed monolayer). The excess free energy (ΔGex) for the ADP- C10mim.Cl binary mixtures explain the stability of mixed micelles in comparison to micelles of pure ADP and C10mim.Cl. Interfacial parameters, i.e., Gibbs surface excess (Гmax), minimum head group area at air/ water interface (Amin), and free energy of micellization (ΔG0m) were also evaluated for the systems.

Keywords: Adiphenine hydrochloride, Critical micelle concentration, Interaction parameter, Activity coefficient.

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1080 Buckling Analysis of a Five-walled CNT with Nonlocal Theory

Authors: Alireza Bozorgian, Navid Majdi Nasab, Abdolreza Memari

Abstract:

A continuum model is presented to study vdW interaction on buckling analysis of multi-walled walled carbon nanotube. In previous studies, only the vdW interaction between adjacent two layers was considered and the vdW interaction between the other two layers was neglected. The results show that the vdW interaction cofficients are dependent on the change of interlayer spacing and the radii of tubes. With increase of radii the vdW coefficients approach a constant value. The numerical results show that the effect of vdW interaction on the critical strain for a doublewalled CNT is negligible when the radius is large enough for the both the cases of before and after buckling.

Keywords: Buckling, Carbon nanotube, van der Waals interaction, Multi-walled Carbon nanotube, Critical Strain, Prebuckling Pressure

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1079 Effects of Molybdenum on Phosphorus Concentration in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Authors: Hamed Zakikhani, Mohd Khanif Yusop, Amin Soltangheisi

Abstract:

A hydroponic trial was carried out to investigate the effect of molybdenum (Mo) on uptake of phosphorus (P) in different rice cultivars. The experiment was conducted using a randomized complete-block design, with a split-plot arrangement of treatments and three replications. Four rates of Mo (0, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg L−1) and five cultivars (MR219, HASHEMI, MR232, FAJRE and MR253) provided the main and sub-plots, respectively. Interaction of molybdenum×variety was significant on shoot phosphorus uptake (p≤0.01). Highest and lowest shoot phosphorus uptake were seen in Mo3V3 (0.6% plant-1) and Mo0V3 (0.14% plant-1) treatments, respectively. Molybdenum did not have a significant effect on root phosphorus content. According to results, application of molybdenum has a synergistic effect on uptake of phosphorus by rice plants.

Keywords: Molybdenum, Phosphorus, Uptake, rice.

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1078 Investigation of Chlorophylls a and b Interaction with Inner and Outer Surfaces of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Using Molecular Dynamics Simulation

Authors: M. Dehestani, M. Ghasemi-Kooch

Abstract:

In this work, adsorption of chlorophylls a and b pigments in aqueous solution on the inner and outer surfaces of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) has been studied using molecular dynamics simulation. The linear interaction energy algorithm has been used to calculate the binding free energy. The results show that the adsorption of two pigments is fine on the both positions. Although there is the close similarity between these two pigments, their interaction with the nanotube is different. This result is useful to separate these pigments from one another. According to interaction energy between the pigments and carbon nanotube, interaction between these pigments-SWCNT on the inner surface is stronger than the outer surface. The interaction of SWCNT with chlorophylls phytol tail is stronger than the interaction of SWCNT with porphyrin ring of chlorophylls.

Keywords: Dynamic simulation, single walled carbon nanotube, chlorophyll, adsorption.

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1077 Assessment of Drug Delivery Systems from Molecular Dynamic Perspective

Authors: M. Rahimnejad, B. Vahidi, B. Ebrahimi Hoseinzadeh, F. Yazdian, P. Motamed Fath, R. Jamjah

Abstract:

In this study, we developed and simulated nano-drug delivery systems efficacy in compare to free drug prescription. Computational models can be utilized to accelerate experimental steps and control the experiments high cost. Molecular dynamics simulation (MDS), in particular NAMD was utilized to better understand the anti-cancer drug interaction with cell membrane model. Paclitaxel (PTX) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) were selected for the drug molecule and as a natural phospholipid nanocarrier, respectively. This work focused on two important interaction parameters between molecules in terms of center of mass (COM) and van der Waals interaction energy. Furthermore, we compared the simulation results of the PTX interaction with the cell membrane and the interaction of DPPC as a nanocarrier loaded by the drug with the cell membrane. The molecular dynamic analysis resulted in low energy between the nanocarrier and the cell membrane as well as significant decrease of COM amount in the nanocarrier and the cell membrane system during the interaction. Thus, the drug vehicle showed notably better interaction with the cell membrane in compared to free drug interaction with the cell membrane.

Keywords: Anti-cancer drug, center of Mass, interaction energy, molecular dynamics simulation, nanocarrier.

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1076 Effect of Calcium Chloride on Rheological Properties and Structure of Inulin - Whey Protein Gels

Authors: Pawel Glibowski, Agnieszka Glibowska

Abstract:

The rheological properties, structure and potential synergistic interactions of whey proteins (1-6%) and inulin (20%) in mixed gels in the presence of CaCl2 was the aim of this study. Whey proteins have a strong influence on inulin gel formation. At low concentrations (2%) whey proteins did not impair in inulin gel formation. At higher concentration (4%) whey proteins impaired inulin gelation and inulin impaired the formation of a Ca2+-induced whey protein network. The presence of whey proteins at a level allowing for protein gel network formation (6%) significantly increased the rheological parameters values of the gels. SEM micrographs showed that whey protein structure was coated by inulin moieties which could make the mixed gels firmer. The protein surface hydrophobicity measurements did not exclude synergistic interactions between inulin and whey proteins, however. The use of an electrophoretic technique did not show any stable inulin-whey protein complexes.

Keywords: gels, hydrophobicity, inulin, SEM, whey proteins.

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1075 Detecting Community Structure in Amino Acid Interaction Networks

Authors: Omar GACI, Stefan BALEV, Antoine DUTOT

Abstract:

In this paper we introduce the notion of protein interaction network. This is a graph whose vertices are the protein-s amino acids and whose edges are the interactions between them. Using a graph theory approach, we observe that according to their structural roles, the nodes interact differently. By leading a community structure detection, we confirm this specific behavior and describe thecommunities composition to finally propose a new approach to fold a protein interaction network.

Keywords: interaction network, protein structure, community structure detection.

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1074 Inhibitory Effects of Extracts and Isolates from Kigelia africana Fruits against Pathogenic Bacteria and Yeasts

Authors: Deepak K. Semwal, Ruchi B. Semwal, Aijaz Ahmad, Guy P. Kamatou, Alvaro M. Viljoen

Abstract:

Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth. (Bignoniaceae) is a reputed traditional remedy for various human ailments such as skin diseases, microbial infections, melanoma, stomach troubles, metabolic disorders, malaria and general pains. In spite of the fruit being widely used for purposes related to its antibacterial and antifungal properties, the chemical constituents associated with the activity have not been fully identified. To elucidate the active principles, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of fruit extracts and purified fractions against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Moraxella catarrhalis, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis. Shade-dried fruits were powdered and extracted with hydroalcoholic (1:1) mixture by soaking at room temperature for 72 h. The crude extract was further fractionated by column chromatography, with successive elution using hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol. The dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions were combined and subjected to column chromatography to furnish a wax and oil from the eluates of 20% and 40% ethyl acetate in hexane, respectively. The GC-MS and GC×GC-MS results revealed that linoleic acid, linolenic acid, palmitic acid, arachidic acid and stearic acid were the major constituents in both oil and wax. The crude hydroalcoholic extract exhibited the strongest activity with MICs of 0.125-0.5 mg/mL, followed by the ethyl acetate (MICs = 0.125-1.0 mg/mL), dichloromethane (MICs = 0.250-2.0 mg/mL), hexane (MICs = 0.25- 2.0 mg/mL), acetone (MICs = 0.5-2.0 mg/mL) and methanol (MICs = 1.0-2.0 mg/mL), whereas the wax (MICs = 2.0-4.0 mg/mL) and oil (MICs = 4.0-8.0 mg/mL) showed poor activity. The study concludes that synergistic interactions of chemical constituents could be responsible for the antimicrobial activity of K. africana fruits, which needs a more holistic approach to understand the mechanism of its antimicrobial activity.

Keywords: Kigelia Africana, traditional medicine, antimicrobial activity, Candida albicans, palmitic acid, synergistic interaction.

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1073 Improved Algorithms for Construction of Interface Agent Interaction Model

Authors: Huynh Quyet Thang, Le Hai Quan

Abstract:

Interaction Model plays an important role in Modelbased Intelligent Interface Agent Architecture for developing Intelligent User Interface. In this paper we are presenting some improvements in the algorithms for development interaction model of interface agent including: the action segmentation algorithm, the action pair selection algorithm, the final action pair selection algorithm, the interaction graph construction algorithm and the probability calculation algorithm. The analysis of the algorithms also presented. At the end of this paper, we introduce an experimental program called “Personal Transfer System".

Keywords: interface agent, interaction model, user model.

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1072 Mutational Effect to Particular Interaction Energy of Cycloguanil Drug to Plasmodium Plasmodium Falciparum Dihydrofolate Reductase Enzymes

Authors: A. Maitarad, P. Maitarad

Abstract:

In order to find the particular interaction energy between cylcloguanil and the amino acids surrounding the pocket of wild type and quadruple mutant type PfDHFR enzymes, the MP2 method with basis set 6-31G(d,p) level of calculations was performed. The obtained interaction energies found that Asp54 has the strongest interaction energy to both wild type and mutant type of - 12.439 and -11.250 kcal/mol, respectively and three amino acids; Asp54, Ile164 and Ile14 formed the H-bonding with cycloguanil drug. Importantly, the mutation at Ser108Asn was the key important of cycloguanil resistant with showing repulsive interaction energy.

Keywords: Cycloguanil, DHFR, malaria disease, interactionenergy, quantum calculations

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1071 Determination of in Vitro Susceptibility of the Typhoid Pathogens to Synergistic Action of Euphorbia Hirta, Euphorbia Heterophylla and Phyllanthus Niruri for Possible Development of Effective Anti-Typhoid Drugs

Authors: Abalaka, M. E., Daniyan, S. Y., Adeyemo, S. O.

Abstract:

Studies were carried out to determine the in vitro susceptibility of the typhoid pathogens to combined action of Euphorbia hirta, Euphorbia heterophylla and Phyllanthus niruri. Clinical isolates of the typhoid bacilli were subjected to susceptibility testing using agar diffusion technique and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determined with tube dilution technique. These isolates, when challenged with doses of the extracts from the three medicinal plants showed zones of inhibition as wide as 26±0.2mm, 22±0.1mm and 18±0.0mm respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) revealed organisms inhibited at varying concentrations of extracts: E. hirta (S. typhi 0.250mg/ml, S. paratyphi A 0.125mg/ml, S. paratyphi B 0.185mg/ml and S. paratyphi C 0.225mg/ml), E. heterophylla (S. typhi 0.280mg/ml, S. paratyphi A 0.150mg/ml, S. paratyphi B 0.200mg/ml and S. paratyphi C 0.250mg/ml) and P. niruri (S. typhi 0.150mg/ml, S. paratyphi A 0.100mg/ml, S. paratyphi B 0.115mg/ml and S. paratyphi C 0.125mg/ml). The results of the synergy between the three plants in the ration of 1:1:1 showed very low MICs for the test pathogens as follows S. typhi 0.025mg/ml, S. paratyphi A 0.080mg/ml, S. paratyphi B 0.015mg/ml and S. paratyphi C 0.10mg/ml with the diameter zone of inhibition (DZI) ranging from 35±0.2mm, 28±0.4mm, 20±0.1mm and 32±0.3mm respectively. The secondary metabolites were identified using simple methods and HPLC. Organic components such as anthroquinones, different alkaloids, tannins, 6-ethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2,2,4-trimethyl and steroids were identified. The prevalence of Salmonellae, a deadly infectious disease, is still very high in parts of Nigeria. The synergistic action of these three plants is very high. It is concluded that pharmaceutical companies should take advantage of these findings to develop new anti-typhoid drugs from these plants.

Keywords: A Prevalence, Susceptibility, Synergistic, Typhoid pathogens.

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1070 A FE-Based Scheme for Computing Wave Interaction with Nonlinear Damage and Generation of Harmonics in Layered Composite Structures

Authors: R. K. Apalowo, D. Chronopoulos

Abstract:

A Finite Element (FE) based scheme is presented for quantifying guided wave interaction with Localised Nonlinear Structural Damage (LNSD) within structures of arbitrary layering and geometric complexity. The through-thickness mode-shape of the structure is obtained through a wave and finite element method. This is applied in a time domain FE simulation in order to generate time harmonic excitation for a specific wave mode. Interaction of the wave with LNSD within the system is computed through an element activation and deactivation iteration. The scheme is validated against experimental measurements and a WFE-FE methodology for calculating wave interaction with damage. Case studies for guided wave interaction with crack and delamination are presented to verify the robustness of the proposed method in classifying and identifying damage.

Keywords: Layered Structures, nonlinear ultrasound, wave interaction with nonlinear damage, wave finite element, finite element.

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1069 Numerical Analysis of Electrical Interaction between two Axisymmetric Spheroids

Authors: Kuan-Liang Liu, Eric Lee, Jung-Jyh Lee, Jyh-Ping Hsu

Abstract:

The electrical interaction between two axisymmetric spheroidal particles in an electrolyte solution is examined numerically. A Galerkin finite element method combined with a Newton-Raphson iteration scheme is proposed to evaluate the spatial variation in the electrical potential, and the result obtained used to estimate the interaction energy between two particles. We show that if the surface charge density is fixed, the potential gradient is larger at a point, which has a larger curvature, and if surface potential is fixed, surface charge density is proportional to the curvature. Also, if the total interaction energy against closest surface-to-surface curve exhibits a primary maximum, the maximum follows the order (oblate-oblate) > (sphere-sphere)>(oblate-prolate)>(prolate-prolate), and if the curve has a secondary minimum, the absolute value of the minimum follows the same order.

Keywords: interaction energy, interaction force, Poisson-Boltzmann equation, spheroid.

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1068 Realization of Soliton Phase Characteristics in 10 Gbps, Single Channel, Uncompensated Telecommunication System

Authors: A. Jawahar

Abstract:

In this paper, the dependence of soliton pulses with respect to phase in a 10Gbps, single channel, dispersion uncompensated telecommunication system was studied. The characteristic feature of periodic soliton interaction was noted at the Interaction point (I=6202.5Km) in one collision length of L=12405.1 Km. The interaction point is located for 10Gbps system with an initial relative spacing (qo) of soliton as 5.28 using Perturbation theory. It is shown that, when two in-phase solitons are launched, they interact at the point I=6202.5 Km, but the interaction could be restricted with introduction of different phase initially. When the phase of the input solitons increases, the deviation of soliton pulses at the ‘I’ also increases. We have successfully demonstrated this effect in a telecommunication set-up in terms of Quality factor (Q), where the Q=0 for in-phase soliton. The Q was noted to be 125.9, 38.63, 47.53, 59.60, 161.37, and 78.04 for different phases such as 10o, 20o, 30o, 45o, 60o and 90o degrees respectively at Interaction point (I).

Keywords: Soliton interaction, Initial relative spacing, phase, Perturbation theory and telecommunication system.

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1067 Evaluation of AR-4BL-MAST with Multiple Markers Interaction Technique for Augmented Reality Based Engineering Application

Authors: Waleed Maqableh, Ahmad Al-Hamad, Manjit Sidhu

Abstract:

Augmented reality (AR) technology has the capability to provide many benefits in the field of education as a modern technology which aided learning and improved the learning experience. This paper evaluates AR based application with multiple markers interaction technique (touch-to-print) which is designed for analyzing the kinematics of 4BL mechanism in mechanical engineering. The application is termed as AR-4BL-MAST and it allows the users to touch the symbols on a paper in natural way of interaction. The evaluation of this application was performed with mechanical engineering students and human–computer interaction (HCI) experts to test its effectiveness as a tangible user interface application where the statistical results show its ability as an interaction technique, and it gives the users more freedom in interaction with the virtual mechanical objects.

Keywords: Augmented reality, engineering, four-bar linkage, Multimedia, user interface, visualization.

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1066 Control Strategies for a Robot for Interaction with Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Vinicius Binotte, Guilherme Baldo, Christiane Goulart, Carlos Valadão, Eliete Caldeira, Teodiano Bastos

Abstract:

Socially assistive robotic has become increasingly active and it is present in therapies of people affected for several neurobehavioral conditions, such as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In fact, robots have played a significant role for positive interaction with children with ASD, by stimulating their social and cognitive skills. This work introduces a mobile socially-assistive robot, which was built for interaction with children with ASD, using non-linear control techniques for this interaction.

Keywords: Socially assistive robotics, mobile robot, autonomous control, autism.

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1065 Design Guidelines for an Enhanced Interaction Experience in the Domain of Smartphone-Based Applications for Sport and Fitness

Authors: Paolo Pilloni, Fabrizio Mulas, Salvatore Carta

Abstract:

Nowadays, several research studies point up that an active lifestyle is essential for physical and mental health benefits. Mobile phones have greatly influenced people’s habits and attitudes also in the way they exercise. Our research work is mainly focused on investigating how to exploit mobile technologies to favour people’s exertion experience. To this end, we developed an exertion framework users can exploit through a real world mobile application, called EverywhereSport Run (EWRun), designed to act as a virtual personal trainer to support runners during their trainings. In this work, inspired by both previous findings in the field of interaction design for people with visual impairments, feedback gathered from real users of our framework, and positive results obtained from two experimentations, we present some new interaction facilities we designed to enhance the interaction experience during a training. The positive obtained results helped us to derive some interaction design recommendations we believe will be a valid support for designers of future mobile systems conceived to be used in circumstances where there are limited possibilities of interaction.

Keywords: Human Computer Interaction, Interaction Design Guidelines, Persuasive Mobile Technologies for Sport and Health.

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1064 The Interaction between Human and Environment on the Perspective of Environmental Ethics

Authors: Mella Ismelina Farma Rahayu

Abstract:

Environmental problems could not be separated from unethical human perspectives and behaviors toward the environment. There is a fundamental error in the philosophy of people’s perspective about human and nature and their relationship with the environment, which in turn will create an inappropriate behavior in relation to the environment. The aim of this study is to investigate and to understand the ethics of the environment in the context of humans interacting with the environment by using the hermeneutic approach. The related theories and concepts collected from literature review are used as data, which were analyzed by using interpretation, critical evaluation, internal coherence, comparisons, and heuristic techniques. As a result of this study, there will be a picture related to the interaction of human and environment in the perspective of environmental ethics, as well as the problems of the value of ecological justice in the interaction of humans and environment. We suggest that the interaction between humans and environment need to be based on environmental ethics, in a spirit of mutual respect between humans and the natural world.

Keywords: The environment, environmental ethics, the interaction, value.

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1063 Soliton Interaction in Birefringent Fibers with Third-Order Dispersion

Authors: Dowluru Ravi Kumar, Bhima Prabhakara Rao

Abstract:

Propagation of solitons in single-mode birefringent fibers is considered under the presence of third-order dispersion (TOD). The behavior of two neighboring solitons and their interaction is investigated under the presence of third-order dispersion with different group velocity dispersion (GVD) parameters. It is found that third-order dispersion makes the resultant soliton to deviate from its ideal position and increases the interaction between adjacent soliton pulses. It is also observed that this deviation due to third-order dispersion is considerably small when the optical pulse propagates at wavelengths relatively far from the zerodispersion. Modified coupled nonlinear Schrödinger-s equations (CNLSE) representing the propagation of optical pulse in single mode fiber with TOD are solved using split-step Fourier algorithm. The results presented in this paper reveal that the third-order dispersion can substantially increase the interaction between the solitons, but large group velocity dispersion reduces the interaction between neighboring solitons.

Keywords: Birefringence, Group velocity dispersion, Polarization mode dispersion, Soliton interaction, Third order dispersion.

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1062 Automatic Motion Trajectory Analysis for Dual Human Interaction Using Video Sequences

Authors: Yuan-Hsiang Chang, Pin-Chi Lin, Li-Der Jeng

Abstract:

Advance in techniques of image and video processing has enabled the development of intelligent video surveillance systems. This study was aimed to automatically detect moving human objects and to analyze events of dual human interaction in a surveillance scene. Our system was developed in four major steps: image preprocessing, human object detection, human object tracking, and motion trajectory analysis. The adaptive background subtraction and image processing techniques were used to detect and track moving human objects. To solve the occlusion problem during the interaction, the Kalman filter was used to retain a complete trajectory for each human object. Finally, the motion trajectory analysis was developed to distinguish between the interaction and non-interaction events based on derivatives of trajectories related to the speed of the moving objects. Using a database of 60 video sequences, our system could achieve the classification accuracy of 80% in interaction events and 95% in non-interaction events, respectively. In summary, we have explored the idea to investigate a system for the automatic classification of events for interaction and non-interaction events using surveillance cameras. Ultimately, this system could be incorporated in an intelligent surveillance system for the detection and/or classification of abnormal or criminal events (e.g., theft, snatch, fighting, etc.). 

Keywords: Motion detection, motion tracking, trajectory analysis, video surveillance.

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1061 Proactive Identification of False Alert for Drug-Drug Interaction

Authors: Hsuan-Chia Yang, Yan-Jhih Haung, Yu-Chuan Li

Abstract:

Researchers of drug-drug interaction alert systems have often suggested that there were high overridden rate for alerts and also too false alerts. However, research about decreasing false alerts is scant. Therefore, the aim of this article attempts to proactive identification of false alert for drug-drug interaction and provide solution to decrease false alerts. This research involved retrospective analysis prescribing database and calculated false alert rate by using MYSQL and JAVA. Results of this study showed 17% of false alerts and the false alert rate in the hospitals (37%) was more than in the clinics. To conclude, this study described the importance that drug-drug interaction alert system should not only detect drug name but also detect frequency or route, as well as in providing solution to decrease false alerts.

Keywords: drug-drug interaction, proactive identification, false alert

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1060 Prototype of an Interactive Toy from Lego Robotics Kits for Children with Autism

Authors: Ricardo A. Martins, Matheus S. da Silva, Gabriel H. F. Iarossi, Helen C. M. Senefonte, Cinthyan R. S. C. de Barbosa

Abstract:

This paper is the development of a concept of the man/robot interaction. More accurately in developing of an autistic child that have more troubles with interaction, here offers an efficient solution, even though simple; however, less studied for this public. This concept is based on code applied thought out the Lego NXT kit, built for the interpretation of the robot, thereby can create this interaction in a constructive way for children suffering with Autism.

Keywords: Lego NXT, autism, ANN (Artificial Neural Network), Backpropagation.

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1059 Magnetic Properties of NiO and MnO by LSDA+U

Authors: Chewa Thassana, Wicharn Techitdheera

Abstract:

The spin (ms) and orbital (mo) magnetic moment of the antiferromagnetic NiO and MnO have been studied in the local spin density approximation (LSDA+U) within full potential linear muffin-tin orbital (FP-LMTO method with in the coulomb interaction U varying from 0 to 10eV, exchange interaction J, from 0 to 1.0eV, and volume compression VC in range of 0 to 80%. Our calculated results shown that the spin magnetic moments and the orbital magnetic moments increase linearly with increasing U and J. While the interesting behaviour appears when volume compression is greater than 70% for NiO and 50% for MnO at which ms collapses. Further increase of volume compression to be at 80% leads to the disappearance of both magnetic moments.

Keywords: spin-orbital magnetic moment, Coulomb interaction U and exchange interaction J, volume compression VC, LSDA+U.

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