Search results for: sol-gel immobilization.
35 Immobilization of Lipase Enzyme by Low Cost Material: A Statistical Approach
Authors: Md. Z. Alam, Devi R. Asih, Md. N. Salleh
Immobilization of lipase enzyme produced from palm oil mill effluent (POME) by the activated carbon (AC) among the low cost support materials was optimized. The results indicated that immobilization of 94% was achieved by AC as the most suitable support material. A sequential optimization strategy based on a statistical experimental design, including one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) method was used to determine the equilibrium time. Three components influencing lipase immobilization were optimized by the response surface methodology (RSM) based on the face-centered central composite design (FCCCD). On the statistical analysis of the results, the optimum enzyme concentration loading, agitation rate and carbon active dosage were found to be 30 U/ml, 300 rpm and 8 g/L respectively, with a maximum immobilization activity of 3732.9 U/g-AC after 2 hrs of immobilization. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a high regression coefficient (R2) of 0.999, which indicated a satisfactory fit of the model with the experimental data. The parameters were statistically significant at p<0.05.
Keywords: Activated carbon, adsorption, immobilization, POME based lipase.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2418
34 Immobilization of Aspergillus awamori 1-8 for Subsequent Pectinase Production
Authors: Zh. B. Suleimenova, Zh. K. Rakhmetova, R. K. Blieva, A. E. Nurlybayeva
The overall objective of this research is a strain improvement technology for efficient pectinase production. A novel cells cultivation technology by immobilization of fungal cells has been studied in long time continuous fermentations. Immobilization was achieved by using of new material for absorption of stores of immobilized cultures which was for the first time used for immobilization of microorganisms. Effects of various conditions of nitrogen and carbon nutrition on the biosynthesis of pectolytic enzymes in Aspergillus awamori 1-8 strain were studied. Proposed cultivation technology along with optimization of media components for pectinase overproduction led to increased pectinase productivity in Aspergillus awamori 1-8 from 7 to 8 times. Proposed technology can be applied successfully for production of major industrial enzymes such as α-amylase, protease, collagenase etc.
Keywords: Aspergillus awamori, immobilization, pectolytic enzymes.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1702
33 Study on the Effect of Sulphur, Glucose, Nitrogen and Plant Residues on the Immobilization of Sulphate-S in Soil
Authors: S. Shahsavani, A. Gholami
In order to evaluate the relationship between the sulphur (S), glucose (G), nitrogen (N) and plant residues (st), sulphur immobilization and microbial transformation were monitored in five soil samples from 0-30 cm of Bastam farmers fields of Shahrood area following 11 treatments with different levels of Sulphur (S), glucose (G), N and plant residues (wheat straw) in a randomized block design with three replications and incubated over 20, 45 and 60 days, the immobilization of SO4 -2-S presented as a percentage of that added, was inversely related to its addition rate. Additions of glucose and plant residues increased with the C-to-S ratio of the added amendments, irrespective of their origins (glucose and plant residues). In the presence of C sources (glucose or plant residues). N significantly increased the immobilization of SO4 -2-S, whilst the effect of N was insignificant in the absence of a C amendment. In first few days the amounts of added SO4 -2-S immobilized were linearly correlated with the amounts of added S recovered in the soil microbial biomass. With further incubation the proportions of immobilized SO4 -2-S remaining as biomass-S decreased. Decrease in biomass-S was thought to be due to the conversion of biomass-S into soil organic-S. Glucose addition increased the immobilization (microbial utilization and incorporation into the soil organic matter) of native soil SO4 -2-S. However, N addition enhance the mineralization of soil organic-S, increasing the concentration of SO4 - 2-S in soil.
Keywords: Immobilization, microbial biomass, sulphur, nitrogen, glucose.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1367
32 Dextran Modified Silicon Photonic Microring Resonator Sensors
Authors: Jessie Yiying Quah, Vivian Netto, Jack Sheng Kee, Eric Mouchel La Fosse, Mi Kyoung Park
Abstract:We present a dextran modified silicon microring resonator sensor for high density antibody immobilization. An array of sensors consisting of three sensor rings and a reference ring was fabricated and its surface sensitivity and the limit of detection were obtained using polyelectrolyte multilayers. The mass sensitivity and the limit of detection of the fabricated sensor ring are 0.35 nm/ng mm-2 and 42.8 pg/mm2 in air, respectively. Dextran modified sensor surface was successfully prepared by covalent grafting of oxidized dextran on 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) modified silicon sensor surface. The antibody immobilization on hydrogel dextran matrix improves 40% compared to traditional antibody immobilization method via APTES and glutaraldehyde linkage.
Keywords: Antibody immobilization, Dextran, Immunosensor, Label-free detection, Silicon micro-ring resonatorProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2141
31 Improvement of Lipase Catalytic Properties by Immobilization in Hybrid Matrices
Authors: C. Zarcula, R. Croitoru, L. Corîci, C. Csunderlik, F. Peter
Abstract:Lipases are enzymes particularly amenable for immobilization by entrapment methods, as they can work equally well in aqueous or non-conventional media and long-time stability of enzyme activity and enantioselectivity is needed to elaborate more efficient bioprocesses. The improvement of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Amano AK) lipase characteristics was investigated by optimizing the immobilization procedure in hybrid organic-inorganic matrices using ionic liquids as additives. Ionic liquids containing a more hydrophobic alkyl group in the cationic moiety are beneficial for the activity of immobilized lipase. Silanes with alkyl- or aryl nonhydrolizable groups used as precursors in combination with tetramethoxysilane could generate composites with higher enantioselectivity compared to the native enzyme in acylation reactions of secondary alcohols. The optimal effect on both activity and enantioselectivity was achieved for the composite made from octyltrimethoxysilane and tetramethoxysilane at 1:1 molar ratio (60% increase of total activity following immobilization and enantiomeric ratio of 30). Ionic liquids also demonstrated valuable properties as reaction media for the studied reactions, comparable with the usual organic solvent, hexane.
Keywords: Ionic liquids, lipase, enantioselectivity, sol-gelimmobilizationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1744
30 Preparation of Low-Molecular-Weight 6-Amino-6-Deoxychitosan (LM6A6DC) for Immobilization of Growth Factor
Authors: Koo-Yeon Kim, Eun-Hye Kim, Tae-Il Son
Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF, Mw=6,045) has been reported to have high efficiency of wound repair and anti-wrinkle effect. However, the half-life of EGF in the body is too short to exert the biological activity effectively when applied in free form. Growth Factors can be stabilized by immobilization with carbohydrates from thermal and proteolytic degradation. Low molecular weight chitosan (LMCS) and its derivate prepared by hydrogen peroxide has high solubility. LM6A6DC was successfully prepared as a reactive carbohydrate for the stabilization of EGF by the reactions of LMCS with alkalization, tosylation, azidation and reduction. The structure of LM6A6DC was confirmed by FT-IR, 1H NMR and elementary analysis. For enhancing the stability of free EGF, EGF was attached with LM6A6DC by using water-soluble carbodiimide. EGF-LM6A6DC conjugates did not show any cytotoxicity on the Normal Human Dermal Fibroblast (NHDF) 3T3 proliferation at least under 100 μg/ml. In the result, it was considered that LM6A6DC is suitable to immobilize of growth factor.
Keywords: Epidermal growth factor (EGF), low-molecular-weight chitosan, immobilization.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2036
29 Synthesis of Peptide Amides using Sol-Gel Immobilized Alcalase in Batch and Continuous Reaction System
Authors: L. N. Corîci, A. E. Frissen, D -J. Van Zoelen, I. F. Eggen, F. Peter, C. M. Davidescu, C. G. Boeriu
Abstract:Two commercial proteases from Bacillus licheniformis (Alcalase 2.4 L FG and Alcalase 2.5 L, Type DX) were screened for the production of Z-Ala-Phe-NH2 in batch reaction. Alcalase 2.4 L FG was the most efficient enzyme for the C-terminal amidation of Z-Ala-Phe-OMe using ammonium carbamate as ammonium source. Immobilization of protease has been achieved by the sol-gel method, using dimethyldimethoxysilane (DMDMOS) and tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) as precursors (unpublished results). In batch production, about 95% of Z-Ala-Phe-NH2 was obtained at 30°C after 24 hours of incubation. Reproducibility of different batches of commercial Alcalase 2.4 L FG preparations was also investigated by evaluating the amidation activity and the entrapment yields in the case of immobilization. A packed-bed reactor (0.68 cm ID, 15.0 cm long) was operated successfully for the continuous synthesis of peptide amides. The immobilized enzyme retained the initial activity over 10 cycles of repeated use in continuous reactor at ambient temperature. At 0.75 mL/min flow rate of the substrate mixture, the total conversion of Z-Ala-Phe-OMe was achieved after 5 hours of substrate recycling. The product contained about 90% peptide amide and 10% hydrolysis byproduct.
Keywords: packed-bed reactor, peptide amide, protease, sol-gel immobilization.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2571
28 Promising Immobilization of Cadmium and Lead inside Ca-rich Glass-ceramics
Authors: A. Karnis, L. Gautron
Abstract:Considering toxicity of heavy metals and their accumulation in domestic wastes, immobilization of lead and cadmium is envisaged inside glass-ceramics. We particularly focused this work on calcium-rich phases embedded in a glassy matrix. Glass-ceramics were synthesized from glasses doped with 12 wt% and 16 wt% of PbO or CdO. They were observed and analyzed by Electron MicroProbe Analysis (EMPA) and Analytical Scanning Electron Microscopy (ASEM). Structural characterization of the samples was performed by powder XRay Diffraction. Diopside crystals of CaMgSi2O6 composition are shown to incorporate significant amounts of cadmium (up to 9 wt% of CdO). Two new crystalline phases are observed with very high Cd or Pb contents: about 40 wt% CdO for the cadmiumrich phase and near 60 wt% PbO for the lead-rich phase. We present complete chemical and structural characterization of these phases. They represent a promising way for the immobilization of toxic elements like Cd or Pb since glass ceramics are known to propose a “double barrier" protection (metal-rich crystals embedded in a glass matrix) against metal release in the environment.
Keywords: Cadmium, Calcium-rich phases, Diopside, Domesticwastes, Fly ashes, Glass-ceramics, Lead, Municipal Solid WasteIncineration.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1540
27 Double Immobilized Lipase for the Kinetic Resolution of Secondary Alcohols
Authors: A. Ursoiu, C. Paul, C. Marcu, M. Ungurean, F. Péter
Sol-gel immobilization of enzymes, which can improve considerably their properties, is now one of the most used techniques. By deposition of the entrapped lipase on a solid support, a new and improved biocatalyst was obtained, which can be used with excellent results in acylation reactions. In this paper, lipase B from Candida antarctica was double immobilized on different adsorbents. These biocatalysts were employed in the kinetic resolution of several aliphatic secondary alcohols in organic medium. High total recovery yields of enzymatic activity, up to 560%, were obtained. For all the studied alcohols the enantiomeric ratios E were over 200. The influence of the reaction medium was studied for the kinetic resolution of 2-pentanol.
Keywords: Double immobilization, enantioselectivity, kineticresolution, lipase, racemates, sol-gel entrapment.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1551
26 Effect of Anion and Amino Functional Group on Resin for Lipase Immobilization with Adsorption-Cross Linking Method
Authors: Heri Hermansyah, Annisa Kurnia, A. Vania Anisya, Adi Surjosatyo, Yopi Sunarya, Rita Arbianti, Tania Surya Utami
Lipase is one of biocatalyst which is applied commercially for the process in industries, such as bioenergy, food, and pharmaceutical industry. Nowadays, biocatalysts are preferred in industries because they work in mild condition, high specificity, and reduce energy consumption (high pressure and temperature). But, the usage of lipase for industry scale is limited by economic reason due to the high price of lipase and difficulty of the separation system. Immobilization of lipase is one of the solutions to maintain the activity of lipase and reduce separation system in the process. Therefore, we conduct a study about lipase immobilization with the adsorption-cross linking method using glutaraldehyde because this method produces high enzyme loading and stability. Lipase is immobilized on different kind of resin with the various functional group. Highest enzyme loading (76.69%) was achieved by lipase immobilized on anion macroporous which have anion functional group (OH‑). However, highest activity (24,69 U/g support) through olive oil emulsion method was achieved by lipase immobilized on anion macroporous-chitosan which have amino (NH2) and anion (OH-) functional group. In addition, it also success to produce biodiesel until reach yield 50,6% through interesterification reaction and after 4 cycles stable 63.9% relative with initial yield. While for Aspergillus, niger lipase immobilized on anion macroporous-kitosan have unit activity 22,84 U/g resin and yield biodiesel higher than commercial lipase (69,1%) and after 4 cycles stable reach 70.6% relative from initial yield. This shows that optimum functional group on support for immobilization with adsorption-cross linking is the support that contains amino (NH2) and anion (OH-) functional group because they can react with glutaraldehyde and binding with enzyme prevent desorption of lipase from support through binding lipase with a functional group on support.
Keywords: Adsorption-Cross linking, lipase, resin, immobilization.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 674
25 Immobilization of Simulated High Level Nuclear Wastes with Li2O-CeO2-Fe2O3-P2O5 Glasses
Authors: Toshinori Okura, Naoya Yoshida
The leaching behavior and structure of Li2O-CeO2- Fe2O3-P2O5 glasses incorporated with simulated high level nuclear wastes (HLW) were studied. The leach rates of gross and each constituent element were determined from the total weight loss of the specimen and the leachate analyses by inductively coupled argon plasma spectroscopy (ICP). The gross leach rate of the 4.5Li2O- 9.7CeO2-34.7Fe2O3-51.5P2O5 glass waste form containing 45 mass% simulated HLW is of the order of 10
Keywords: FT-IR spectra, Leach rates, Li2O-CeO2-Fe2O3-P2O5 glasses, Nuclear waste immobilization, Thermal propertiesProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1956
24 A Novel Strategy for Oriented Protein Immobilization
Authors: Ching-Wei Tsai, Chih-I Liu, Ruoh-Chyu Ruaana
A new strategy for oriented immobilization of proteins was proposed. The strategy contains two steps. The first step is to search for a docking site away from the active site on the protein surface. The second step is trying to find a ligand that is able to grasp the targeted site of the protein. To avoid ligand binding to the active site of protein, the targeted docking site is selected to own opposite charges to those near the active site. To enhance the ligand-protein binding, both hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions need to be included. The targeted docking site should therefore contain hydrophobic amino acids. The ligand is then selected through the help of molecular docking simulations. The enzyme α-amylase derived from Aspergillus oryzae (TAKA) was taken as an example for oriented immobilization. The active site of TAKA is surrounded by negatively charged amino acids. All the possible hydrophobic sites on the surface of TAKA were evaluated by the free energy estimation through benzene docking. A hydrophobic site on the opposite side of TAKA-s active site was found to be positive in net charges. A possible ligand, 3,3-,4,4- – Biphenyltetra- carboxylic acid (BPTA), was found to catch TAKA by the designated docking site. Then, the BPTA molecules were grafted onto silica gels and measured the affinity of TAKA adsorption and the specific activity of thereby immobilized enzymes. It was found that TAKA had a dissociation constant as low as 7.0×10-6 M toward the ligand BPTA on silica gel. The increase in ionic strength has little effect on the adsorption of TAKA, which indicated the existence of hydrophobic interaction between ligands and proteins. The specific activity of the immobilized TAKA was compared with the randomly adsorbed TAKA on primary amine containing silica gel. It was found that the orderly immobilized TAKA owns a specific activity twice as high as the one randomly adsorbed by ionic interaction.
Keywords: Protein Oriented immobilization, Molecular docking, ligand design, surface modification.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1648
23 Heat Treatment and Rest-Inserted Exercise Enhances EMG Activity of the Lower Limb
Authors: Jae Kyun Bang, Sung Jae Hwang, Chang Yong Ko, Chi Hyun Kim
Abstract:Prolonged immobilization leads to significant weakness and atrophy of the skeletal muscle and can also impair the recovery of muscle strength following injury. Therefore, it is important to minimize the period under immobilization and accelerate the return to normal activity. This study examined the effects of heat treatment and rest-inserted exercise on the muscle activity of the lower limb during knee flexion/extension. Twelve healthy subjects were assigned to 4 groups that included: (1) heat treatment + rest-inserted exercise; (2) heat + continuous exercise; (3) no heat + rest-inserted exercise; and (4) no heat + continuous exercise. Heat treatment was applied for 15 mins prior to exercise. Continuous exercise groups performed knee flexion/extension at 0.5 Hz for 300 cycles without rest whereas rest-inserted exercise groups performed the same exercise but with 2 mins rest inserted every 60 cycles of continuous exercise. Changes in the rectus femoris and hamstring muscle activities were assessed at 0, 1, and 2 weeks of treatment by measuring the electromyography signals of isokinetic maximum voluntary contraction. Significant increases in both the rectus femoris and hamstring muscles were observed after 2 weeks of treatment only when both heat treatment and rest-inserted exercise were performed. These results suggest that combination of various treatment techniques, such as heat treatment and rest-inserted exercise, may expedite the recovery of muscle strength following immobilization.
Keywords: Electromyography, Heat Treatment, Muscle, Rest-Inserted Exercise.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1757
22 Inulinase Immobilization on Functionalized Magnetic Nanoparticles Prepared with Soy Protein Isolate Conjugated Bovine Serum Albumin for High Fructose Syrup Production
Authors: Homa Torabizadeh, Mohaddeseh Mikani
Inulinase from Aspergillus niger was covalently immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs/Fe3O4) covered with soy protein isolate (SPI/Fe3O4) functionalized by bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticles. MNPs are promising enzyme carriers because they separate easily under external magnetic fields and have enhanced immobilized enzyme reusability. As MNPs aggregate simply, surface coating strategy was employed. SPI functionalized by BSA was a suitable candidate for nanomagnetite coating due to its superior biocompatibility and hydrophilicity. Fe3O4@SPI-BSA nanoparticles were synthesized as a novel carrier with narrow particle size distribution. Step by step fabrication monitoring of Fe3O4@SPI-BSA nanoparticles was performed using field emission scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The results illustrated that nanomagnetite with the spherical morphology was well monodispersed with the diameter of about 35 nm. The average size of the SPI-BSA nanoparticles was 80 to 90 nm, and their zeta potential was around −34 mV. Finally, the mean diameter of fabricated Fe3O4@SPI-BSA NPs was less than 120 nm. Inulinase enzyme from Aspergillus niger was covalently immobilized through gluteraldehyde on Fe3O4@SPI-BSA nanoparticles successfully. Fourier transform infrared spectra and field emission scanning electron microscopy images provided sufficient proof for the enzyme immobilization on the nanoparticles with 80% enzyme loading.
Keywords: High fructose syrup, inulinase immobilization, functionalized magnetic nanoparticles, soy protein isolate.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1049
21 Separation of Chlorinated Plastics and Immobilization of Heavy Metals in Hazardous Automotive Shredder Residue
Authors: Srinivasa Reddy Mallampati, Chi-Hyeon Lee, Nguyen Thi Thanh Truc, Byeong-Kyu Lee
Abstract:In the present study, feasibility of the selective surface hydrophilization of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) by microwave treatment was evaluated to facilitate the separation from automotive shredder residue (ASR), by the froth flotation. The combination of 60 sec microwave treatment with PAC, a sharp and significant decrease about 16.5° contact angle of PVC was observed in ASR plastic compared with other plastics. The microwave treatment with the addition of PAC resulted in a synergetic effect for the froth flotation, which may be a result of the 90% selective separation of PVC from ASR plastics, with 82% purity. While, simple mixing with a nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO4 dispersion mixture immobilized 95-100% of heavy metals in ASR soil/residues. The quantity of heavy metals leached from thermal residues after treatment by nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO4 was lower than the Korean standard regulatory limit for hazardous waste landfills. Microwave treatment can be a simple and effective method for PVC separation from ASR plastics.
Keywords: Automotive shredder residue, microwave treatment, chlorinated plastics, separation, heavy metals, Immobilization, separation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1864
20 Production of Sr-Ferrite Sub-Micron Powder by Conventional and Sol-Gel Auto-Combustion Methods
Authors: M. Ghobeiti-Hasab
Magnetic powder of Sr-ferrite was prepared by conventional and sol-gel auto-combustion methods. In conventional method, strontium carbonate and ferric oxide powders were mixed together and then mixture was calcined. In sol-gel auto-combustion method, a solution containing strontium nitrate, ferric nitrate and citric acid was heated until the combustion took place automatically; then, as-burnt powder was calcined. Thermal behavior, phase identification, morphology and magnetic properties of powders obtained by these two methods were compared by DTA, XRD, SEM and VSM techniques. According to the results of DTA analysis, formation temperature of Sr-ferrite obtained by conventional and solgel auto-combustion methods were 1300°C and 1000°C, respectively. XRD results confirmed the formation of pure Sr-ferrite at the mentioned temperatures. Plate and hexagonal-shape particles of Srferrite were observed using SEM. The Sr-ferrite powder obtained by sol-gel auto-combustion method had saturation magnetization of 66.03 emu/g and coercivity of 5731 Oe in comparison with values of 58.20 emu/g and 4378 Oe obtained by conventional method.
Keywords: Sr-ferrite, Sol-gel, Magnetic properties, Calcination.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2347
19 Detoxification of Hazardous Organic/Inorganic Contaminants in Automobile Shredder Residue by Multi-Functioned Nano-Size Metallic Calcium Composite
Authors: Srinivasa Reddy Mallampati, Byoung Ho Lee, Yoshiharu Mitoma, Simion Cristian
In recent years, environmental nanotechnology has risen to the forefront and the new properties and enhanced reactivates offered by nanomaterial may offer a new, low-cost paradigm to solving complex environmental pollution problems. This study assessed the synthesis and application of multi-functioned nano-size metallic calcium (nMC) composite for detoxification of hazardous inorganic (heavy metals (HMs)/organic chlorinated/brominated compound (CBCs) contaminants in automobile shredder residue (ASR). ASR residues ball milled with nMC composite can achieve about 90-100% of HMs immobilization and CBCs decomposition. The results highlight the low quantity of HMs leached from ASR residues after treatment with nMC, which was found to be lower than the standard regulatory limit for hazardous waste landfills. The use of nMC composite in a mechanochemical process to treat hazardous ASR (dry conditions) is a simple and innovative approach to remediate hazardous inorganic/organic cross-contaminates in ASR.
Keywords: Nano-sized metallic calcium, automobile shredder residue, organic/inorganic contaminants, immobilization, detoxification.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 757
18 Papain Immobilized Polyurethane Film as Antimicrobial Food Package
Authors: M. Cynthya, V. Prabhawathi, D. Mukesh
Food contamination occurs during post process handling. This leads to spoilage and growth of pathogenic microorganisms in the food, thereby reducing its shelf life or spreading of food borne diseases. Several methods are tried and one of which is use of antimicrobial packaging. Here, papain, a protease enzyme, is covalently immobilized with the help of glutarldehyde on polyurethane and used as a food wrap to protect food from microbial contamination. Covalent immobilization of papain was achieved at a pH of 7.4; temperature of 4°C; glutaraldehyde concentration of 0.5%; incubation time of 24h; and 50mg of papain. The formation of -C=Nobserved in the Fourier transform infrared spectrum confirmed the immobilization of the enzyme on the polymer. Immobilized enzyme retained higher activity than the native free enzyme. The modified polyurethane showed better reduction of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm than bare polymer film (eight folds reduction in live colonies, two times reduction in protein and 6 times reduction in carbohydrates). The efficacy of this was studied by wrapping it over S. aureus contaminated cottage cheese (paneer) and cheese and stored at a temperature of 4°C for 7days. The modified film reduced the bacterial contamination by eight folds when compared to the bare film. FTIR also indicated reduction in lipids, sugars and proteins in the biofilm.
Keywords: Cheese, Papain, polyurethane, Staphylococcus aureus.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2829
17 Silver Modified TiO2/Halloysite Thin Films for Decontamination of Target Pollutants
Authors: Dionisios Panagiotaras, Elias Stathatos, Dimitrios Papoulis
Sol-gel method has been used to fabricate nanocomposite films on glass substrates composed halloysite clay mineral and nanocrystalline TiO2. The methodology for the synthesis involves a simple chemistry method utilized nonionic surfactant molecule as pore directing agent along with the acetic acid-based solgel route with the absence of water molecules. The thermal treatment of composite films at 450oC ensures elimination of organic material and lead to the formation of TiO2 nanoparticles onto the surface of the halloysite nanotubes. Microscopy techniques and porosimetry methods used in order to delineate the structural characteristics of the materials. The nanocomposite films produced have no cracks and active anatase crystal phase with small crystallite size were deposited on halloysite nanotubes. The photocatalytic properties for the new materials were examined for the decomposition of the Basic Blue 41 azo dye in solution. These, nanotechnology based composite films show high efficiency for dye’s discoloration in spite of different halloysite quantities and small amount of halloysite/TiO2 catalyst immobilized onto glass substrates. Moreover, we examined the modification of the halloysite/TiO2 films with silver particles in order to improve the photocatalytic properties of the films. Indeed, the presence of silver nanoparticles enhances the discoloration rate of the Basic Blue 41 compared to the efficiencies obtained for unmodified films.
Keywords: Clay mineral, nanotubular Halloysite, Photocatalysis, Titanium Dioxide, Silver modification.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2404
16 An Immunosensor for Bladder Cancer Screening
Authors: Congo Tak Shing Ching, Hong-Sheng Chen, Tai-Ping Sun, Hsiu-Li Shieh
Abstract:Nuclear matrix protein 22 (NMP22) is a FDA approved biomarker for bladder cancer. The objective of this study is to develop a simple NMP22 immumosensor (NMP22-IMS) for accurate measurement of NMP22. The NMP22-IMS was constructed with NMP22 antibody immobilized on screen-printed carbon electrodes. The construction procedures and antibody immobilization are simple. Results showed that the NMP22-IMS has an excellent (r2³0.95) response range (20 – 100 ng/mL). In conclusion, a simple and reliable NMP22-IMS was developed, capable of precisely determining urine NMP22 level.
Keywords: Bladder Cancer, Immunosensor, Impedance, NMP22Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1560
15 Fabrication of ZnO Nanorods Based Biosensor via Hydrothermal Method
Authors: Muhammad Tariq, Jafar Khan Kasi, Samiullah, Ajab Khan Kasi
Abstract:Biosensors are playing vital role in industrial, clinical, and chemical analysis applications. Among other techniques, ZnO based biosensor is an easy approach due to its exceptional chemical and electrical properties. ZnO nanorods have positively charged isoelectric point which helps immobilize the negative charge glucose oxides (GOx). Here, we report ZnO nanorods based biosensors for the immobilization of GOx. The ZnO nanorods were grown by hydrothermal method on indium tin oxide substrate (ITO). The fabrication of biosensors was carried through batch processing using conventional photolithography. The buffer solutions of GOx were prepared in phosphate with a pH value of around 7.3. The biosensors effectively immobilized the GOx and result was analyzed by calculation of voltage and current on nanostructures.
Keywords: Hydrothermal growth, zinc dioxide, biosensors.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 867
14 Development of an Immunoassay Platform for Diagnosis of Acute Kidney Injury
Authors: T. Bovornvirakit, K. Viravaidya
Abstract:Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a new worldwide public health problem. A diagnosis of this disease using creatinine is still a problem in clinical practice. Therefore, a measurement of biomarkers responsible for AKI has received much attention in the past couple years. Cytokine interleukin-18 (IL-18) was reported as one of the early biomarkers for AKI. The most commonly used method to detect this biomarker is an immunoassay. This study used a planar platform to perform an immunoassay using fluorescence for detection. In this study, anti-IL-18 antibody was immobilized onto a microscope slide using a covalent binding method. Make-up samples were diluted at the concentration between 10 to 1000 pg/ml to create a calibration curve. The precision of the system was determined using a coefficient of variability (CV), which was found to be less than 10%. The performance of this immunoassay system was compared with the measurement from ELISA.
Keywords: Acute kidney injury, Acute renal failure, Antibody immobilization, Interleukin-18Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1482
13 Fabrication of Immune-Affinity Monolithic Array for Detection of α-Fetoprotein and Carcinoembryonic Antigen
Authors: Li Li, Li-Ru Xia, He-Ye Wang, Xiao-Dong Bi
Abstract:In this paper, we presented a highly sensitive immune-affinity monolithic array for detection of α-fetoprotein (AFP) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Firstly, the epoxy functionalized monolith arrays were fabricated using UV initiated copolymerization method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image showed that the poly(BABEA-co-GMA) monolith exhibited a well-controlled skeletal and well-distributed porous structure. Then, AFP and CEA immune-affinity monolithic arrays were prepared by immobilization of AFP and CEA antibodies on epoxy functionalized monolith arrays. With a non-competitive immune response format, the presented AFP and CEA immune-affinity arrays were demonstrated as an inexpensive, flexible, homogeneous and stable array for detection of AFP and CEA.
Keywords: Chemiluminescent detection, immune-affinity, monolithic copolymer array, UV-initiated copolymerization.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1595
12 Characterization of ZrO2/PEG Composite Film as Immobilization Matrix for Glucose Oxidase
Authors: N. M. Ahmad, J. Abdullah, N. I. Ramli, S. Abd Rahman, N. E. Azmi, Z. Hamzah, A. Saat, N. H. Rahman
Abstract:A biosensor based on glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilized onto nanoparticles zirconium oxide with polyethylene nanocomposite for glucose monitoring has been designed. The CTAB/PEG/ZrO2/GOx nanocomposite was deposited onto screen printed carbon paste (SPCE) electrode via spin coating technique. The properties of CTAB/PEG/ZrO2/GOx were study using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SPE modified with the CTAB/PEG/ZrO2/GOx showed electrocatalytical response to the oxidation of glucose when ferrocene carboxaldehyde was used as an artificial redox mediator, which was studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV). Several parameters such as working potential, effect of pH and effect of ZrO2/PEG layers that governed the analytical performance of the biosensor, have been studied. The biosensor was applied to detect glucose with a linear range of 0.4 to 2.0 mmol L−1 with good repetability and reproducibility.
Keywords: Nanocomposite, Nanoparticles, Modified SPE, Ferrocenecarboxaldehyde.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2055
11 Scattering Operator and Spectral Clustering for Ultrasound Images: Application on Deep Venous Thrombi
Authors: Thibaud Berthomier, Ali Mansour, Luc Bressollette, Frédéric Le Roy, Dominique Mottier, Léo Fréchier, Barthélémy Hermenault
Abstract:Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT) occurs when a thrombus is formed within a deep vein (most often in the legs). This disease can be deadly if a part or the whole thrombus reaches the lung and causes a Pulmonary Embolism (PE). This disorder, often asymptomatic, has multifactorial causes: immobilization, surgery, pregnancy, age, cancers, and genetic variations. Our project aims to relate the thrombus epidemiology (origins, patient predispositions, PE) to its structure using ultrasound images. Ultrasonography and elastography were collected using Toshiba Aplio 500 at Brest Hospital. This manuscript compares two classification approaches: spectral clustering and scattering operator. The former is based on the graph and matrix theories while the latter cascades wavelet convolutions with nonlinear modulus and averaging operators.
Keywords: Deep venous thrombosis, ultrasonography, elastography, scattering operator, wavelet, spectral clustering.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 791
10 Production of Biodiesel Using Tannery Fleshing as a Feedstock via Solid-State Fermentation
Authors: C. Santhana Krishnan, A. M. Mimi Sakinah, Lakhveer Singh, Zularisam A. Wahid
This study was initiated to evaluate and optimize the conversion of animal fat from tannery wastes into methyl ester. In the pre-treatment stage, animal fats feedstock was hydrolysed and esterified through solid state fermentation (SSF) using Microbacterium species immobilized onto sand silica matrix. After 72 hours of fermentation, predominant esters in the animal fats were found to be with 83.9% conversion rate. Later, esterified animal fats were transesterified at 3 hour reaction time with 1% NaOH (w/v %), 6% methanol to oil ratio (w/v %) to produce 89% conversion rate. C13 NMR revealed long carbon chain in fatty acid methyl esters at 22.2817-31.9727 ppm. Methyl esters of palmitic, stearic, oleic represented the major components in biodiesel.
Keywords: Tannery wastes, fatty animal fleshing, trans-esterification, immobilization, solid state fermentation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1880
9 Bioconversion of Biodiesel Derived Crude Glycerol by Immobilized Clostridium pasteurianum: Effect of Temperature
Authors: Swati Khanna, Arun Goyal, Vijayanand S. Moholkar
Abstract:Batch fermentation of 5, 10 and 25 g/L biodiesel derived crude glycerol was carried out at 30, 37 and 450C by Clostridium pasteurianum cells immobilized on silica. Maximum yield of 1,3-propanediol (PDO) (0.60 mol/mol), and ethanol (0.26 mol/mol) were obtained from 10 g/L crude glycerol at 30 and 370C respectively. Maximum yield of butanol (0.28 mol/mol substrate added) was obtained at 370C with 25 g/L substrate. None of the three products were detected at 45oC even after 10 days of fermentation. Only traces of ethanol (0.01 mol/mol) were detected at 450C with 5 g/L substrate. The results obtained for 25 g/L substrate utilization were fitted in first order rate equation to obtain the values of rate constant at three different temperatures for bioconversion of glycerol. First order rate constants for bioconversion of glycerol at 30, 37 and 45oC were found to be 0.198, 0.294 and 0.029/day respectively. Activation energy (Ea) for crude glycerol bioconversion was calculated to be 57.62 kcal/mol.
Keywords: activation energy, Clostridium pasteurianum, crude glycerol, immobilizationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1968
8 Cold Plasma Surface Modified Electrospun Microtube Array Membrane for Chitosan Immobilization and Their Properties
Authors: Ko-Shao Chen, Yun Tsao, Chia-Hsuan Tsen, Chien-Chung Chen, Shu-Chuan Liao
Electrospun microtube array membranes (MTAMs) made of PLLA (poly-L-lactic acid) have wide potential applications in tissue engineering. However, their surface hydrophobicity and poor biocompatability have limited their further usage. In this study, the surface of PLLA MTAMs were made hydrophilic by introducing extra functional groups, such as peroxide, via an acetic acid plasma (AAP). UV-graft polymerization of acrylic acid (G-AAc) was then used to produce carboxyl group on MTAMs surface, which bonded covalently with chitosan through EDC / NHS crosslinking agents. To evaluate the effects of the surface modification on PLLA MTAMs, water contact angle (WCA) measurement and cell compatibility tests were carried out. We found that AAP treated electrospun PLLA MTAMs grafted with AAc and, finally, with chitosan immobilized via crosslinking agent, exhibited improved hydrophilic and cell compatibility.
Keywords: Plasma, EDC/NHS, UV grafting, chitosan, microtube array membrane.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 928
7 Langmuir–Blodgett Films of Polyaniline for Efficient Detection of Uric Acid
Authors: Kashima Arora, Monika Tomar, Vinay Gupta
Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) films of polyaniline (PANI) grown onto ITO coated glass substrates were utilized for the fabrication of Uric acid biosensor for efficient detection of uric acid by immobilizing Uricase via EDC–NHS coupling. The modified electrodes were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The response characteristics after immobilization of uricase were studied using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The uricase/PANI/ITO/glass bioelectrode studied by CV and EIS techniques revealed detection of uric acid in a wide range of 0.05 mM to 1.0 mM, covering the physiological range in blood. A low Michaelis–Menten constant (Km) of 0.21 mM indicates the higher affinity of immobilized Uricase towards its analyte (uric acid). The fabricated uric acid biosensor based on PANI LB films exhibits excellent sensitivity of 0.21 mA/mM with a response time of 4 s, good reproducibility, long shelf life (8 weeks) and high selectivity.
Keywords: Uric acid; biosensor, PANI, Langmuir Blodgett films deposition.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1996
6 Colorectal Cancer Screening by a CEACAM-6 Immunosensor
Authors: C. T. S. Ching, P. W. C hen, T. P. Sun, H. L. Shieh
Abstract:The biomarker for colorectal cancer (CRC) is CEACAM-6 antigen (C6AG). Therefore, this study aims to develop a novel, simple and low-cost CEACAM-6 antigen immumosensor (C6AG-IMS), based on electrical impedance measurement, for precise determination of C6AG. A low-cost screen-printed graphite electrode was constructed and used as the sensor, with CEACAM-6 antibody (C6AB) immobilized on it. The procedures of sensor fabrication and antibody immobilization are simple and low-cost. Measurement of the electrical impedance at a definite frequency ranges (0.43 – 1.26 MHz) showed that the C6AG-IMS has an excellent linear (r2>0.9) response range (8.125 – 65 pg/mL), covering the normal physiological and pathological ranges of blood C6AG levels. Also, the C6AG-IMS has excellent reliability and validity, with the intraclass correlation coefficient being 0.97. In conclusion, a novel, simple, low-cost and reliable C6AG-IMS was designed and developed, being able to accurately determine blood C6AG levels in the range of pathological and normal physiological regions. The C6AG-IMS can provide a point-of-care and immediate screening results to the user at home.
Keywords: Colorectal Cancer, Immunosensor, Electrical Impedance, CEACAM-6, Measurement, Point-of-CareProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1540