@article{(Open Science Index):https://publications.waset.org/pdf/9999945,
	  title     = {Papain Immobilized Polyurethane Film as Antimicrobial Food Package},
	  author    = {M. Cynthya and  V. Prabhawathi and  D. Mukesh},
	  country	= {},
	  institution	= {},
	  abstract     = {Food contamination occurs during post process
handling. This leads to spoilage and growth of pathogenic
microorganisms in the food, thereby reducing its shelf life or
spreading of food borne diseases. Several methods are tried and one
of which is use of antimicrobial packaging. Here, papain, a protease
enzyme, is covalently immobilized with the help of glutarldehyde on
polyurethane and used as a food wrap to protect food from microbial
contamination. Covalent immobilization of papain was achieved at a
pH of 7.4; temperature of 4°C; glutaraldehyde concentration of 0.5%;
incubation time of 24h; and 50mg of papain. The formation of -C=Nobserved
in the Fourier transform infrared spectrum confirmed the
immobilization of the enzyme on the polymer. Immobilized enzyme
retained higher activity than the native free enzyme. The modified
polyurethane showed better reduction of Staphylococcus aureus
biofilm than bare polymer film (eight folds reduction in live colonies,
two times reduction in protein and 6 times reduction in
carbohydrates). The efficacy of this was studied by wrapping it over
S. aureus contaminated cottage cheese (paneer) and cheese and
stored at a temperature of 4°C for 7days. The modified film reduced
the bacterial contamination by eight folds when compared to the bare
film. FTIR also indicated reduction in lipids, sugars and proteins in
the biofilm.
	    journal   = {International Journal of Bioengineering and Life Sciences},
	  volume    = {8},
	  number    = {12},
	  year      = {2014},
	  pages     = {1367 - 1370},
	  ee        = {https://publications.waset.org/pdf/9999945},
	  url   	= {https://publications.waset.org/vol/96},
	  bibsource = {https://publications.waset.org/},
	  issn  	= {eISSN: 1307-6892},
	  publisher = {World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology},
	  index 	= {Open Science Index 96, 2014},