Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32119
Development of an Immunoassay Platform for Diagnosis of Acute Kidney Injury

Authors: T. Bovornvirakit, K. Viravaidya


Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a new worldwide public health problem. A diagnosis of this disease using creatinine is still a problem in clinical practice. Therefore, a measurement of biomarkers responsible for AKI has received much attention in the past couple years. Cytokine interleukin-18 (IL-18) was reported as one of the early biomarkers for AKI. The most commonly used method to detect this biomarker is an immunoassay. This study used a planar platform to perform an immunoassay using fluorescence for detection. In this study, anti-IL-18 antibody was immobilized onto a microscope slide using a covalent binding method. Make-up samples were diluted at the concentration between 10 to 1000 pg/ml to create a calibration curve. The precision of the system was determined using a coefficient of variability (CV), which was found to be less than 10%. The performance of this immunoassay system was compared with the measurement from ELISA.

Keywords: Acute kidney injury, Acute renal failure, Antibody immobilization, Interleukin-18

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1474


[1] W. K. Han and J. V. Bonventre, "Biologic Markers for the Early Detection of Acute Kidney Injury," Current Opinion in Critical Care, Vol. 10, 2004, pp. 476-482.
[2] M.R. Lattanzio and N.P. Kopyt, "Acute Kidney Injury: New Concepts in Definition, Diagnosis,Pathophysiology, and Treatment," Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, Vol. 109 No.1, 2009, pp. 13-19.
[3] S.S. Soni, C. Ronco, N. Katz and D.N. Cruz, "Early Diagnosis of Acute Kidney Injury: The Promise of Novel Biomarkers," Blood Purification, Vol. 28, 2009, pp. 165-174.
[4] R. Bellomo, J.A. Kellum, and C. Ronco, "Defining Acute Renal Failure: Physiological Principles," Intensive Care Medicine, Vol. 30, 2004, pp. 33-37.
[5] L.-M. Barbara, "Serum and Urinary Biomarkers of Acute Kidney Injury," Blood Purification, Vol. 29, 2010, pp. 357-365.
[6] K.D. Liu, "Molecular mechanisms of recovery from acute renal failure," Crit Care Med, Vol. 31, 2003, pp.72-581.
[7] C.R. Parikh, E. Abraham, M. Ancukiewicz, and C.L. Edelstein, "Urine Il-18 Is an Early Diagnostic Marker for Acute Kidney Injury and Predicts Mortality in the Intensive Care Unit," Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, Vol. 16, 2005, pp. 3046-3052.
[8] M.A. Ferguson, V.S. Vaidya and J.V. Bonventre, "Biomarkers of Nephrotoxic Acute Kidney Injury," Toxicology, Vol. 245, 2008, pp. 182-193.
[9] C.R. Parikh, A. Janib, V.Y. Melnikov, S. Faubel and C.L. Edelstein, "Urinary Interleukin-18 Is a Marker of Human Acute Tubular Necrosis," American Journal of Kidney Diseases, Vol. 43 No.3, 2004, pp. 405-414.
[10] J.F. Naud and M. Leblanc, "Biomarkers in Acute Kidney Injury," Biomarker Insights, Vol.3, 2008, pp.115-125.
[11] V.S. Vaidya, M.A. Ferguson, and J.V. Bonventre, J.V., "Biomarkers of Acute Kidney Injury," Annual Review Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vol. 48, 2008, pp. 463-493.
[12] N. Karoonuthaisiri, R. Charlermroj, U. Uawisetwathana, P. Luxananil, K. Kirtikara and O. Gajanandana, "Development of antibody array for simultaneous detection of foodborne pathogens," Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Vol. 24, 2009, pp. 1641-1648.
[13] N. Bojorge Ramírez, A.M. Salgado, and B. Valdman, "The Evolution and Developments Sensors for Health and Environmental Monitoring: Problems and Perspectives," Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering, Vol. 26 No. 2, 2008, pp. 227-249.
[14] Y. Jung, J.Y. Jeong, and B.H. Chung, "Recent Advances in Immobilization Methods of Antibodies on Solid Supports," Analyst, Vol. 133, 2008, pp. 697-701.
[15] E.W. Olle, J. Messamore, M.P. Deogracias, S.D. McClintock, T.D. Anderson, and K.J. Johnson, "Comparison of Antibody Array Substrates and the Use of Glycerol to Normalize Spot Morphology," Experimental and Molecular Pathology, Vol. 79, 2005, pp. 206 - 209.
[16] S.L. Seurynck-Servoss, C.L. Baird, K.D. Rodland, and R.C. Zangar, "Surface Chemistries for Antibody Microarrays," Frontiers in bioscience, Vol. 12, 2007, pp. 3956-3964.
[17] E.W. Olle, M.P. Deogracias, J.E. Messamore, S.D. McClintock, A.G. Barron, T.D. Anderson, and K.J. Johnson, 2007, "Screening of Serum Samples from Wegener-s Granulomatosis Patients Using Antibody Microarrays," Proteomics clinical application, Vol. 1, pp. 1212-1220.
[18] M.G.R. Rajan, and B. Gupta, "Immobilization of Antibody Spots on Glass Surfaces - Potential Use as Antibody Chips for Multianalyte Assays," BARC Newsletter, Vol. 10 No.237, 2003, pp. 107-110.
[19] D. Maraldo, and R. Mutharasan, "Optimization of Antibody Immobilization for Sensing Using Piezoelectrically Excited-Millimeter- Sized Cantilever (Pemc) Sensors," Sensors and Actuators B, Vol. 123, 2007, pp. 474-479.
[20] G. Lonnemann, D. Novick, M. Rubinstein and C. Dinarello, "Interleukin-18, Interleukin-18 Binding Protein and Impaired Production of Interferon-Gamma in Chronic Renal Failure," Clinical Nephrology, Vol. 60 No.5, 2003, pp. 327-334.
[21] C.R. Parikh, A. Janib, J. Mishra, Q. Ma, C. Kelly, J. Barasch, C.L. Edelstein, and P. Devarajan, "Urine Ngal and Il-18 Are Predictive Biomarkers for Delayed Graft Function Following Kidney Transplantation," American Journal of Transplantation, Vol. 6, 2006, pp. 1639-1645.
[22] C.R. Parikh, J. Mishra, H. Thiessen-Philbrook, B. Dursun, Q. Ma, C. Kelly, C. Dent, P. Devarajan and C. Edelstein, "Urinary Il-18 Is an Early Predictive Biomarker of Acute Kidney Injury after Cardiac Surgery," Kidney International, Vol. 70, 2006, pp. 199-203.
[23] D. Hu, X. Liu, S. Chen and C. Bao, "Expressions of Il-18 and Its Binding Protein in Peripheral Blood Leukocytes and Kidney Tissues of Lupus Nephritis Patients," Clinical Rheumatol, Vol. 29, 2010, pp. 717- 721.
[24] B. DeSilva, W. Smith, R. Weiner, M. Kelley, J. Smolec, B. Lee, M. Khan, R. Tacey, H. Hill and A. Celniker, "Recommendations for the bioanalytical method validationof ligand-binding assays to support pharmacokinetic assessments of macromolecules," Pharmaceutical Research, Vol. 20, 2003, pp. 1885-1900.
[25] M. Bonham and S. Miller, "Clinical Comparison of 99th Percentile and 10% Coefficient of Variation Cutoff Values for Four Commercially Available Troponin I Assays," LABMEDICINE, vol. 4o No.8, 2009, pp. 470-473.