Production of Biodiesel Using Tannery Fleshing as a Feedstock via Solid-State Fermentation
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32870
Production of Biodiesel Using Tannery Fleshing as a Feedstock via Solid-State Fermentation

Authors: C. Santhana Krishnan, A. M. Mimi Sakinah, Lakhveer Singh, Zularisam A. Wahid


This study was initiated to evaluate and optimize the conversion of animal fat from tannery wastes into methyl ester. In the pre-treatment stage, animal fats feedstock was hydrolysed and esterified through solid state fermentation (SSF) using Microbacterium species immobilized onto sand silica matrix. After 72 hours of fermentation, predominant esters in the animal fats were found to be with 83.9% conversion rate. Later, esterified animal fats were transesterified at 3 hour reaction time with 1% NaOH (w/v %), 6% methanol to oil ratio (w/v %) to produce 89% conversion rate. C13 NMR revealed long carbon chain in fatty acid methyl esters at 22.2817-31.9727 ppm. Methyl esters of palmitic, stearic, oleic represented the major components in biodiesel.

Keywords: Tannery wastes, fatty animal fleshing, trans-esterification, immobilization, solid state fermentation.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2696


[1] L. Singh, & Z.A Wahid, “Enhancement of hydrogen production from palm oil mill effluent via cell immobilisation technique”, International Journal of Energy Research, 39(2), 2015, 215-222.
[2] L. Singh, & Z.A Wahid, “Methods for enhancing bio-hydrogen production from biological process: A review”, Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 21, 2015, 70-80.
[3] A. Demirbas, “Comparison of transesterification methods for production of biodiesel from vegetable oils and fats. Energy Conversion and Management”, 49(1), 2008, 125-130.
[4] V. Rathore, & G. “Madras, Synthesis of biodiesel from edible and non-edible oils in supercritical alcohols and enzymatic synthesis in supercritical carbon dioxide”, Fuel, 86(17), 2007, 2650-2659.
[5] H. Imahara, E. Minami, S. Hari, & S. Saka, “Thermal stability of biodiesel in supercritical methanol”, Fuel, 87(1), 2008, 1-6.
[6] B. Kegl, “Effects of biodiesel on emissions of a bus diesel engine”, Bioresource technology, 99(4), 2008, 863-873.
[7] V. Pradeep, & R.P. Sharma, R. P, “Use of HOT EGR for NOx control in a compression ignition engine fuelled with bio-diesel from Jatropha oil”, Renewable Energy, 32n7), 2007, 1136-1154.
[8] C.Y. Lin, & H.A. Lin, “Engine performance and emission characteristics of a three-phase emulsion of biodiesel produced by peroxidation”. Fuel Processing Technology, 88(1), 2007, 35-41.
[9] J.M. Encinar, N. Sanchez, G. Martínez, & L. Garcia, “Study of biodiesel production from animal fats with high free fatty acid content”. Bioresource Technology, 102(23), 2011, 10907-10914.
[10] A.V. Tomasevic, & S.S. Marinkovic, “Methanolysis of used frying oil”, Fuel Processing Technology, 81(1), 2003, 1-6.
[11] M.G. Kulkarni, A.K. Dalai, & N.N. Bakhshi, N. N, Transesterification of canola oil in mixed methanol/ethanol system and use of esters as lubricity additive. Bioresource technology, 98(10), 2007, 2027-2033.
[12] L.C. Meher, V.S, Dharmagada, & S.N. Naik, “Optimization of alkali-catalyzed transesterification of Pongamia pinnata oil for production of biodiesel”, Bioresource technology, 97(12), 2009, 1392-1397.
[13] X. Zhao, F. Qi, C. Yuan, W. Du, & D. Liu, “Lipase-catalyzed process for biodiesel production: Enzyme immobilization, process simulation and optimization”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 44, 2015, 182-197.
[14] A. Isler, S. Sundu, M. Tuter, & F. Karaosmanoglu, “Transesterification reaction of the fat originated from solid waste of the leather industry”, Waste management, 30(12), 2010, 2631-2635.
[15] H. Ozgunay, S. Çolak, G. Zengin, O. Sari, H. Sarikahya, & L. Yuceer, “Performance and emission study of biodiesel from leather industry pre-fleshings”, Waste Management, 27(12), 2007, 1897-1901.
[16] H. Ozgunay, S. Colak, M. Mutlu, & F. Akyuz, “Characterization of leather industry wastes”, Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 16(6), 2007, 867.
[17] S. Colak, G. Zengin, H. Ozgunay, O. Sari, H. Sarikahya, & I. yuceer, “Utilization of leather industry pre-fleshings in biodiesel production”, The Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association, 100(4), 2005, 137-141.
[18] T. Krawczyk, “Biodiesel-alternative fuel makes inroads but hurdles remain”, Inform, 7(8), 1996, 801-829.
[19] J.V. Garpen, & M. Canakei, “Biodiesel Production from Oils and Fats with High Free Fatty Acids”, American society of agricultural engineering, 44, 2000, 1429-1436.
[20] H.N. Bhatti, M.A. Hanif, & M. Qasim, “Biodiesel production from waste tallow,” Fuel, 87(13), 2008, 2961-2966.
[21] J.M. Dias, M.C. Alvim-Ferraz, & M.F. Almeida, Production of biodiesel from acid waste lard. Bioresource technology, 100(24), 2009, 6355-6361.
[22] H.T. Hwang, F. Qi, C. Yuan, X. Zhao, D. Ramkrishna, D. Liu, & A. Varma, “Lipase‐catalyzed process for biodiesel production: Protein engineering and lipase production”, Biotechnology and bioengineering, 111(4), 2014, 639-653.
[23] A. Pandey, “Solid-state fermentation”, Biochemical Engineering Journal, 13(2), 2003, 81-84.
[24] T. Aggelopoulos, K. Katsieris, A. Bekatorou, A. Pandey I. Banat, & A. Koutinas, Solid state fermentation of food waste mixtures for single cell protein, aroma volatiles and fat production. Food chemistry, 145, 2014, 710-716.
[25] M.R. Kosseva, “Recovery of commodities from food wastes using solid-state fermentation”, Food Industry Wastes, 5, 2013, 77–102.
[26] M. Thompson, S.L. Ellison, & R. Wood, “The international harmonized protocol for the proficiency testing of analytical chemistry laboratories (IUPAC Technical Report)”, Pure and Applied Chemistry, 78(1), 2006, 145-196.
[27] C. Brady, L. Metcalfe, D. Slaboszewski, & D. Frank, “Lipase immobilized on a hydrophobic, microporous support for the hydrolysis of fats”, Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 65(6), 1988, 917-921.
[28] Y.J. Kwon, F. Wang, & C.Z. Liu, “Deep-bed solid state fermentation of sweet sorghum stalk to ethanol by thermotolerant Issatchenkia orientalis IPE 100”, Bioresource technology, 102(24), 2011, 11262-11265.
[29] R.M. Silverstein, G.C. Bassler, & T.C. Morrill, “Spectrometric identification of organic compounds”, NY: John Wiley & Sons, 2001, 196.
[30] D. Srinivas, J.K. Satyarthi, “Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oils and Animal Fat over Solid Acid Double-Metal Cyanide Catalysts”, Catalysis Surveys from Asia, 15(145), 2011, 160.
[31] R. Tripathi, J. Singh, R. Bharti, & I. Thakur, “Isolation, Purification and Characterization of Lipase from Microbacterium sp. and its Application in Biodiesel Production”, Energy Procedia, 54, 2014, 518-529.
[32] A.L. Ferrarezi, T. Ohe, J.P. Borges, R.R. Brito, M.R. Siqueira, P.H. Vendramini, & E. Gomes, “Production and characterization of lipases and immobilization of whole cell of the thermophilic Thermomucor indicae seudaticae N31 for transesterification reaction”, Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic, 107, 2014, 106-113.
[33] M. Adamczak, & W. Bednarski, “Enhanced activity of intracellular lipases from Rhizomucor miehei and Yarrowia lipolytica by immobilization on biomass support particles”, Process Biochemistry, 39(11), 2004, 1347-1361.
[34] B. Joseph, N. Shrivastava, & P.W. Ramteke, “Extracellular cold-active lipase of Microbacterium luteolum isolated from Gangotri glacier, western Himalaya: Isolation, partial purification and characterization”, Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, 10(1), 2012, 137-144.
[35] M.D. Virto I. Agudt, S. Monteroc A. Blanco, “Hydrolysis of fanfls by immobilized Candida rugosa lipase”, Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 16, 1994, 61-65.
[36] C.C Enweremadu, & M.M. Mbarawa, “Technical aspects of production and analysis of biodiesel from used cooking oil—a review”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 13(9), 2009, 2205-2224.
[37] L. Canoira, M. Rodríguez, E. Querol, R. AlcAntara, M. Lapuerta, & F. Oliva, “Biodiesel from low-grade animal fat: production process assessment and biodiesel properties characterization”, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 47(21), 2008,7997-8004.
[38] U. Rashid, & F. Anwar, “Production of biodiesel through optimized alkaline-catalyzed transesterification of rapeseed oil”, Fuel, 87(3), 2008, 265-273.
[39] M. Takase, M. Zhang, W. Feng, Y. Chen, T. Zhao, S.J. Cobbina, & X. Wu, “Application of zirconia modified with KOH as heterogeneous solid base catalyst to new non-edible oil for biodiesel”, Energy Conversion and Management, 80, 2014, 117-125.
[40] M.E. Cunha, L.C. Krause, M.S. Moraes, C.S. Faccini, R.A. Jacques, S.R. Almeida, & E.B. Caramao, Beef tallow biodiesel produced in a pilot scale. Fuel Processing Technology, 90(4), 2009, 570-575.