Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 458

Search results for: Directional Filter bank

458 Different Approaches for the Design of IFIR Compaction Filter

Authors: Sheeba V.S, Elizabeth Elias

Abstract:

Optimization of filter banks based on the knowledge of input statistics has been of interest for a long time. Finite impulse response (FIR) Compaction filters are used in the design of optimal signal adapted orthonormal FIR filter banks. In this paper we discuss three different approaches for the design of interpolated finite impulse response (IFIR) compaction filters. In the first method, the magnitude squared response satisfies Nyquist constraint approximately. In the second and third methods Nyquist constraint is exactly satisfied. These methods yield FIR compaction filters whose response is comparable with that of the existing methods. At the same time, IFIR filters enjoy significant saving in the number of multipliers and can be implemented efficiently. Since eigenfilter approach is used here, the method is less complex. Design of IFIR filters in the least square sense is presented.

Keywords: Principal Component Filter Bank, InterpolatedFinite Impulse Response filter, Orthonormal Filter Bank, Eigen Filter.

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457 A Computationally Efficient Design for Prototype Filters of an M-Channel Cosine Modulated Filter Bank

Authors: Neela. R. Rayavarapu, Neelam Rup Prakash

Abstract:

The paper discusses a computationally efficient method for the design of prototype filters required for the implementation of an M-band cosine modulated filter bank. The prototype filter is formulated as an optimum interpolated FIR filter. The optimum interpolation factor requiring minimum number of multipliers is used. The model filter as well as the image suppressor will be designed using the Kaiser window. The method will seek to optimize a single parameter namely cutoff frequency to minimize the distortion in the overlapping passband.

Keywords: Cosine modulated filter bank, interpolated FIR filter, optimum interpolation factor, prototype filter.

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456 Optimal Design of Two-Channel Recursive Parallelogram Quadrature Mirror Filter Banks

Authors: Ju-Hong Lee, Yi-Lin Shieh

Abstract:

This paper deals with the optimal design of two-channel recursive parallelogram quadrature mirror filter (PQMF) banks. The analysis and synthesis filters of the PQMF bank are composed of two-dimensional (2-D) recursive digital all-pass filters (DAFs) with nonsymmetric half-plane (NSHP) support region. The design problem can be facilitated by using the 2-D doubly complementary half-band (DC-HB) property possessed by the analysis and synthesis filters. For finding the coefficients of the 2-D recursive NSHP DAFs, we appropriately formulate the design problem to result in an optimization problem that can be solved by using a weighted least-squares (WLS) algorithm in the minimax (L) optimal sense. The designed 2-D recursive PQMF bank achieves perfect magnitude response and possesses satisfactory phase response without requiring extra phase equalizer. Simulation results are also provided for illustration and comparison.

Keywords: Parallelogram Quadrature Mirror Filter Bank, Doubly Complementary Filter, Nonsymmetric Half-Plane Filter, Weighted Least Squares Algorithm, Digital All-Pass Filter.

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455 Near Perfect Reconstruction Quadrature Mirror Filter

Authors: A. Kumar, G. K. Singh, R. S. Anand

Abstract:

In this paper, various algorithms for designing quadrature mirror filter are reviewed and a new algorithm is presented for the design of near perfect reconstruction quadrature mirror filter bank. In the proposed algorithm, objective function is formulated using the perfect reconstruction condition or magnitude response condition of prototype filter at frequency (ω = 0.5π) in ideal condition. The cutoff frequency is iteratively changed to adjust the filters coefficients using optimization algorithm. The performances of the proposed algorithm are evaluated in term of computation time, reconstruction error and number of iterations. The design examples illustrate that the proposed algorithm is superior in term of peak reconstruction error, computation time, and number of iterations. The proposed algorithm is simple, easy to implement, and linear in nature.

Keywords: Aliasing cancellations filter bank, Filter banks, quadrature mirror filter (QMF), subband coding.

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454 Fingerprint Compression Using Contourlet Transform and Multistage Vector Quantization

Authors: S. Esakkirajan, T. Veerakumar, V. Senthil Murugan, R. Sudhakar

Abstract:

This paper presents a new fingerprint coding technique based on contourlet transform and multistage vector quantization. Wavelets have shown their ability in representing natural images that contain smooth areas separated with edges. However, wavelets cannot efficiently take advantage of the fact that the edges usually found in fingerprints are smooth curves. This issue is addressed by directional transforms, known as contourlets, which have the property of preserving edges. The contourlet transform is a new extension to the wavelet transform in two dimensions using nonseparable and directional filter banks. The computation and storage requirements are the major difficulty in implementing a vector quantizer. In the full-search algorithm, the computation and storage complexity is an exponential function of the number of bits used in quantizing each frame of spectral information. The storage requirement in multistage vector quantization is less when compared to full search vector quantization. The coefficients of contourlet transform are quantized by multistage vector quantization. The quantized coefficients are encoded by Huffman coding. The results obtained are tabulated and compared with the existing wavelet based ones.

Keywords: Contourlet Transform, Directional Filter bank, Laplacian Pyramid, Multistage Vector Quantization

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453 Design of Two-Channel Quincunx Quadrature Mirror Filter Banks Using Digital All-Pass Lattice Filters

Authors: Ju-Hong Lee, Chong-Jia Ciou

Abstract:

This paper deals with the problem of two-dimensional (2-D) recursive two-channel quincunx quadrature mirror filter (QQMF) banks design. The analysis and synthesis filters of the 2-D recursive QQMF bank are composed of 2-D recursive digital allpass lattice filters (DALFs) with symmetric half-plane (SHP) support regions. Using the 2-D doubly complementary half-band (DC-HB) property possessed by the analysis and synthesis filters, we facilitate the design of the proposed QQMF bank. For finding the coefficients of the 2-D recursive SHP DALFs, we present a structure of 2-D recursive digital allpass filters by using 2-D SHP recursive digital all-pass lattice filters (DALFs). The novelty of using 2-D SHP recursive DALFs to construct a 2-D recursive QQMF bank is that the resulting 2-D recursive QQMF bank provides better performance than the existing 2-D recursive QQMF banks. Simulation results are also presented for illustration and comparison.

Keywords: All-pass digital filter, doubly complementary, lattice structure, symmetric half-plane digital filter, quincunx QMF bank.

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452 Investigating Activity Recognition Using 9-Axis Sensors and Filters in Wearable Devices

Authors: Jun Gil Ahn, Jong Kang Park, Jong Tae Kim

Abstract:

In this paper, we analyze major components of activity recognition (AR) in wearable device with 9-axis sensors and sensor fusion filters. 9-axis sensors commonly include 3-axis accelerometer, 3-axis gyroscope and 3-axis magnetometer. We chose sensor fusion filters as Kalman filter and Direction Cosine Matrix (DCM) filter. We also construct sensor fusion data from each activity sensor data and perform classification by accuracy of AR using Naïve Bayes and SVM. According to the classification results, we observed that the DCM filter and the specific combination of the sensing axes are more effective for AR in wearable devices while classifying walking, running, ascending and descending.

Keywords: Accelerometer, activity recognition, directional cosine matrix filter, gyroscope, Kalman filter, magnetometer.

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451 Multi-stage Directional Median Filter

Authors: Zong Chen, Li Zhang

Abstract:

Median filter is widely used to remove impulse noise without blurring sharp edges. However, when noise level increased, or with thin edges, median filter may work poorly. This paper proposes a new filter, which will detect edges along four possible directions, and then replace noise corrupted pixel with estimated noise-free edge median value. Simulations show that the proposed multi-stage directional median filter can provide excellent performance of suppressing impulse noise in all situations.

Keywords: Impulse noise, Median filter, Multi-stage, Edgepreserving

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450 Image Enhancement of Medical Images using Gabor Filter Bank on Hexagonal Sampled Grids

Authors: Veni.S , K.A.Narayanankutty

Abstract:

For about two decades scientists have been developing techniques for enhancing the quality of medical images using Fourier transform, DWT (Discrete wavelet transform),PDE model etc., Gabor wavelet on hexagonal sampled grid of the images is proposed in this work. This method has optimal approximation theoretic performances, for a good quality image. The computational cost is considerably low when compared to similar processing in the rectangular domain. As X-ray images contain light scattered pixels, instead of unique sigma, the parameter sigma of 0.5 to 3 is found to satisfy most of the image interpolation requirements in terms of high Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) , lower Mean Squared Error (MSE) and better image quality by adopting windowing technique.

Keywords: Hexagonal lattices, Gabor filter, Interpolation, imageprocessing.

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449 Improved Closed Set Text-Independent Speaker Identification by Combining MFCC with Evidence from Flipped Filter Banks

Authors: Sandipan Chakroborty, Anindya Roy, Goutam Saha

Abstract:

A state of the art Speaker Identification (SI) system requires a robust feature extraction unit followed by a speaker modeling scheme for generalized representation of these features. Over the years, Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) modeled on the human auditory system has been used as a standard acoustic feature set for SI applications. However, due to the structure of its filter bank, it captures vocal tract characteristics more effectively in the lower frequency regions. This paper proposes a new set of features using a complementary filter bank structure which improves distinguishability of speaker specific cues present in the higher frequency zone. Unlike high level features that are difficult to extract, the proposed feature set involves little computational burden during the extraction process. When combined with MFCC via a parallel implementation of speaker models, the proposed feature set outperforms baseline MFCC significantly. This proposition is validated by experiments conducted on two different kinds of public databases namely YOHO (microphone speech) and POLYCOST (telephone speech) with Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM) as a Classifier for various model orders.

Keywords: Complementary Information, Filter Bank, GMM, IMFCC, MFCC, Speaker Identification, Speaker Recognition.

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448 Capacity Enhancement in Wireless Networks using Directional Antennas

Authors: Sedat Atmaca, Celal Ceken, Ismail Erturk

Abstract:

One of the biggest drawbacks of the wireless environment is the limited bandwidth. However, the users sharing this limited bandwidth have been increasing considerably. SDMA technique which entails using directional antennas allows to increase the capacity of a wireless network by separating users in the medium. In this paper, it has been presented how the capacity can be enhanced while the mean delay is reduced by using directional antennas in wireless networks employing TDMA/FDD MAC. Computer modeling and simulation of the wireless system studied are realized using OPNET Modeler. Preliminary simulation results are presented and the performance of the model using directional antennas is evaluated and compared consistently with the one using omnidirectional antennas.

Keywords: Directional Antenna, TDMA, SDMA,

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447 Aggregation Scheduling Algorithms in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Min Kyung An

Abstract:

In Wireless Sensor Networks which consist of tiny wireless sensor nodes with limited battery power, one of the most fundamental applications is data aggregation which collects nearby environmental conditions and aggregates the data to a designated destination, called a sink node. Important issues concerning the data aggregation are time efficiency and energy consumption due to its limited energy, and therefore, the related problem, named Minimum Latency Aggregation Scheduling (MLAS), has been the focus of many researchers. Its objective is to compute the minimum latency schedule, that is, to compute a schedule with the minimum number of timeslots, such that the sink node can receive the aggregated data from all the other nodes without any collision or interference. For the problem, the two interference models, the graph model and the more realistic physical interference model known as Signal-to-Interference-Noise-Ratio (SINR), have been adopted with different power models, uniform-power and non-uniform power (with power control or without power control), and different antenna models, omni-directional antenna and directional antenna models. In this survey article, as the problem has proven to be NP-hard, we present and compare several state-of-the-art approximation algorithms in various models on the basis of latency as its performance measure.

Keywords: Data aggregation, convergecast, gathering, approximation, interference, omni-directional, directional.

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446 The Model to Calculate the Cost of Money to the Breakdown of Deposits and Banking Service

Authors: Javad Elkaie Behjati, Mehrzad Minouei

Abstract:

The present study aimed to assess the cost of money based on separating deposits and identifying actions and costs affecting in the process of cost of money in EN Bank of Iran (also known as Eghtesad Novin Bank). The method to calculate the cost of money is based on Activity-Based Costing (ABC). To conduct the study, the required data including deposits in banks and absorbed costs related to the same deposits were extracted from the financial statements of the bank. In order to cost the bank services properly as well as determining the commercial strategies required by commercial units, the data are precisely studied and the cost of each deposit is calculated according to the ABC. Eventually, the factors helping to improve the cost management and also a new model to calculate the cost of money in the bank are presented by some applicable formulas. Furthermore, some offers have been provided for users of both sections, in the practical section in commercial units and the theoretical one in universities.

Keywords: The cost of money, activity-based costing, banking, bank deposits, bank fees, services bank.

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445 Low Power Approach for Decimation Filter Hardware Realization

Authors: Kar Foo Chong, Pradeep K. Gopalakrishnan, T. Hui Teo

Abstract:

There are multiple ways to implement a decimator filter. This paper addresses usage of CIC (cascaded-integrator-comb) filter and HB (half band) filter as the decimator filter to reduce the frequency sample rate by factor of 64 and detail of the implementation step to realize this design in hardware. Low power design approach for CIC filter and half band filter will be discussed. The filter design is implemented through MATLAB system modeling, ASIC (application specific integrated circuit) design flow and verified using a FPGA (field programmable gate array) board and MATLAB analysis.

Keywords: CIC filter, decimation filter, half-band filter, lowpower.

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444 Credit Risk Management and Analysis in an Iranian Bank

Authors: Isa Nakhai Kamal Abadi, Esmaeel Saberi, Ehsan Mirjafari

Abstract:

While financial institutions have faced difficulties over the years for a multitude of reasons, the major cause of serious banking problems continues to be directly related to lax credit standards for borrowers and counterparties, poor portfolio risk management, or a lack of attention to changes in economic or other circumstances that can lead to a deterioration in the credit standing of a bank's counterparties. Credit risk is most simply defined as the potential that a bank borrower or counterparty will fail to meet its obligations in accordance with agreed terms. The goal of credit risk management is to maximize a bank's risk-adjusted rate of return by maintaining credit risk exposure within acceptable parameters. Banks need to manage the credit risk inherent in the entire portfolio as well as the risk in individual credits or transactions. Banks should also consider the relationships between credit risk and other risks. The effective management of credit risk is a critical component of a comprehensive approach to risk management and essential to the long-term success of any banking organization. In this research we also study the relationship between credit risk indices and borrower-s timely payback in Karafarin bank.

Keywords: Financial Ratios; Spearman Test; Bank OperationsRisk

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443 The Key Challenges of the New Bank Regulations

Authors: Petr Teply

Abstract:

The New Basel Capital Accord (Basel II) influences how financial institutions around the world, and especially European Union institutions, determine the amount of capital to reserve. However, as the recent global crisis has shown, the revision of Basel II is needed to reflect current trends, such as increased volatility and correlation, in the world financial markets. The overall objective of Basel II is to increase the safety and soundness of the international financial system. Basel II builds on three main pillars: Pillar I deals with the minimum capital requirements for credit, market and operational risk, Pillar II focuses on the supervisory review process and finally Pillar III promotes market discipline through enhanced disclosure requirements for banks. The aim of this paper is to provide the historical background, key features and impact of Basel II on financial markets. Moreover, we discuss new proposals for international bank regulation (sometimes referred to as Basel III) which include requirements for higher quality, constituency and transparency of banks' capital and risk management, regulation of OTC markets and introduction of new liquidity standards for internationally active banks.

Keywords: Basel II, Basel III, risk management, bank regulation

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442 The Impact of Bank Consolidation on the Performance of SMES in Nigeria

Authors: Okolo Chimaobi Valentine

Abstract:

This paper seeks to assess the implications of bank consolidation on the performance of small and medium scale enterprises in the Nigerian economy. Multiple linear regression technique and correlation matrix test were employed to measure the extent to which small and medium scale enterprises asset size, survival and access to credit were influenced. The result showed that bank deposit (BD) and bank credit (L or BC) impacted on asset size and survival of small and medium scale enterprises. None of the variables had significant impact on SMEs access to credit. There is a shift of focus by commercial banks away from small and medium scale enterprises (small customers), which is evidenced by the significant negative influence of bank credit to both the survival and asset size of small and medium enterprises. While micro finance banks work hard at providing funds to small and medium scale entrepreneurs, their capacity to meet the needs of these entrepreneurs is constrained. CBN should make policies that will boost micro finance bank’s capital and also monitor closely the management of the banks to ensure prudent financing of small and medium scale investments.

Keywords: Bank consolidation, small and medium enterprises.

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441 Modeling Directional Thermal Radiance Anisotropy for Urban Canopy

Authors: Limin Zhao, Xingfa Gu, C. Tao Yu

Abstract:

one of the significant factors for improving the accuracy of Land Surface Temperature (LST) retrieval is the correct understanding of the directional anisotropy for thermal radiance. In this paper, the multiple scattering effect between heterogeneous non-isothermal surfaces is described rigorously according to the concept of configuration factor, based on which a directional thermal radiance model is built, and the directional radiant character for urban canopy is analyzed. The model is applied to a simple urban canopy with row structure to simulate the change of Directional Brightness Temperature (DBT). The results show that the DBT is aggrandized because of the multiple scattering effects, whereas the change range of DBT is smoothed. The temperature difference, spatial distribution, emissivity of the components can all lead to the change of DBT. The “hot spot" phenomenon occurs when the proportion of high temperature component in the vision field came to a head. On the other hand, the “cool spot" phenomena occur when low temperature proportion came to the head. The “spot" effect disappears only when the proportion of every component keeps invariability. The model built in this paper can be used for the study of directional effect on emissivity, the LST retrieval over urban areas and the adjacency effect of thermal remote sensing pixels.

Keywords: Directional thermal radiance, multiple scattering, configuration factor, urban canopy, hot spot effect

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440 Designing a Fuzzy Logic Controller to Enhance Directional Stability of Vehicles under Difficult Maneuvers

Authors: Mehrdad N. Khajavi , Golamhassan Paygane, Ali Hakima

Abstract:

Vehicle which are turning or maneuvering at high speeds are susceptible to sliding and subsequently deviate from desired path. In this paper the dynamics governing the Yaw/Roll behavior of a vehicle has been simulated. Two different simulations have been used one for the real vehicle, for which a fuzzy controller is designed to increase its directional stability property. The other simulation is for a hypothetical vehicle with much higher tire cornering stiffness which is capable of developing the required lateral forces at the tire-ground patch contact to attain the desired lateral acceleration for the vehicle to follow the desired path without slippage. This simulation model is our reference model. The logic for keeping the vehicle on the desired track in the cornering or maneuvering state is to have some braking forces on the inner or outer tires based on the direction of vehicle deviation from the desired path. The inputs to our vehicle simulation model is steer angle δ and vehicle velocity V , and the outputs can be any kinematical parameters like yaw rate, yaw acceleration, side slip angle, rate of side slip angle and so on. The proposed fuzzy controller is a feed forward controller. This controller has two inputs which are steer angle δ and vehicle velocity V, and the output of the controller is the correcting moment M, which guides the vehicle back to the desired track. To develop the membership functions for the controller inputs and output and the fuzzy rules, the vehicle simulation has been run for 1000 times and the correcting moment have been determined by trial and error. Results of the vehicle simulation with fuzzy controller are very promising and show the vehicle performance is enhanced greatly over the vehicle without the controller. In fact the vehicle performance with the controller is very near the performance of the reference ideal model.

Keywords: Vehicle, Directional Stability, Fuzzy Logic Controller, ANFIS..

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439 A Novel Optimal Setting for Directional over Current Relay Coordination using Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: D. Vijayakumar, R. K. Nema

Abstract:

Over Current Relays (OCRs) and Directional Over Current Relays (DOCRs) are widely used for the radial protection and ring sub transmission protection systems and for distribution systems. All previous work formulates the DOCR coordination problem either as a Non-Linear Programming (NLP) for TDS and Ip or as a Linear Programming (LP) for TDS using recently a social behavior (Particle Swarm Optimization techniques) introduced to the work. In this paper, a Modified Particle Swarm Optimization (MPSO) technique is discussed for the optimal settings of DOCRs in power systems as a Non-Linear Programming problem for finding Ip values of the relays and for finding the TDS setting as a linear programming problem. The calculation of the Time Dial Setting (TDS) and the pickup current (Ip) setting of the relays is the core of the coordination study. PSO technique is considered as realistic and powerful solution schemes to obtain the global or quasi global optimum in optimization problem.

Keywords: Directional over current relays, Optimization techniques, Particle swarm optimization, Power system protection.

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438 Design of an M-Channel Cosine Modulated Filter Bank by New Cosh Window Based FIR Filters

Authors: Jyotsna Ogale, Alok Jain

Abstract:

In this paper newly reported Cosh window function is used in the design of prototype filter for M-channel Near Perfect Reconstruction (NPR) Cosine Modulated Filter Bank (CMFB). Local search optimization algorithm is used for minimization of distortion parameters by optimizing the filter coefficients of prototype filter. Design examples are presented and comparison has been made with Kaiser window based filterbank design of recently reported work. The result shows that the proposed design approach provides lower distortion parameters and improved far-end suppression than the Kaiser window based design of recent reported work.

Keywords: Window function, Cosine modulated filterbank, Local search optimization.

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437 Increasing Directional Intensity of Output Light Beam from Photonic Crystal Slab Outlet Including Micro Cavity Resonators

Authors: A. Mobini, K. Saghafi, V. Ahmadi

Abstract:

in this paper we modified a simple two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide by creating micro cavity resonators in order to increase the output light emission which can be applicable to photonic integrated circuits. The micro cavity resonators are constructed by removing two tubes close to the waveguide output. Coupling emitted light from waveguide with those micro cavities, results increasing intensity of waveguide output light. Inserting a tube in last row of waveguide, we have improved directionality of output light beam.

Keywords: photonic crystal, waveguide, micro cavity resonators, directional emission

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436 Exciting Voltage Control for Efficiency Maximization for 2-D Omni-Directional Wireless Power Transfer Systems

Authors: Masato Sasaki, Masayoshi Yamamoto

Abstract:

The majority of wireless power transfer (WPT) systems transfer power in a directional manner. This paper describes a discrete exciting voltage control technique for WPT via magnetic resonant coupling with two orthogonal transmitter coils (2D omni-directional WPT system) which can maximize the power transfer efficiency in response to the change of coupling status. The theory allows the equations of the efficiency of the system to be determined at all the rate of the mutual inductance. The calculated results are included to confirm the advantage to one directional WPT system and the validity of the theory and the equations.

Keywords: Wireless power transfer, orthogonal, omni-directional, efficiency.

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435 Adaptive Bidirectional Flow for Image Interpolation and Enhancement

Authors: Shujun Fu, Qiuqi Ruan, Wenqia Wang

Abstract:

Image interpolation is a common problem in imaging applications. However, most interpolation algorithms in existence suffer visually the effects of blurred edges and jagged artifacts in the image to some extent. This paper presents an adaptive feature preserving bidirectional flow process, where an inverse diffusion is performed to sharpen edges along the normal directions to the isophote lines (edges), while a normal diffusion is done to remove artifacts (“jaggies") along the tangent directions. In order to preserve image features such as edges, corners and textures, the nonlinear diffusion coefficients are locally adjusted according to the directional derivatives of the image. Experimental results on synthetic images and nature images demonstrate that our interpolation algorithm substantially improves the subjective quality of the interpolated images over conventional interpolations.

Keywords: anisotropic diffusion, bidirectional flow, directional derivatives, edge enhancement, image interpolation, inverse flow, shock filter.

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434 On the AC-Side Interface Filter in Three-Phase Shunt Active Power Filter Systems

Authors: Mihaela Popescu, Alexandru Bitoleanu, Mircea Dobriceanu

Abstract:

The proper selection of the AC-side passive filter interconnecting the voltage source converter to the power supply is essential to obtain satisfactory performances of an active power filter system. The use of the LCL-type filter has the advantage of eliminating the high frequency switching harmonics in the current injected into the power supply. This paper is mainly focused on analyzing the influence of the interface filter parameters on the active filtering performances. Some design aspects are pointed out. Thus, the design of the AC interface filter starts from transfer functions by imposing the filter performance which refers to the significant current attenuation of the switching harmonics without affecting the harmonics to be compensated. A Matlab/Simulink model of the entire active filtering system including a concrete nonlinear load has been developed to examine the system performances. It is shown that a gamma LC filter could accomplish the attenuation requirement of the current provided by converter. Moreover, the existence of an optimal value of the grid-side inductance which minimizes the total harmonic distortion factor of the power supply current is pointed out. Nevertheless, a small converter-side inductance and a damping resistance in series with the filter capacitance are absolutely needed in order to keep the ripple and oscillations of the current at the converter side within acceptable limits. The effect of change in the LCL-filter parameters is evaluated. It is concluded that good active filtering performances can be achieved with small values of the capacitance and converter-side inductance.

Keywords: Active power filter, LCL filter, Matlab/Simulinkmodeling, Passive filters, Transfer function.

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433 A Decision Support Model for Bank Branch Location Selection

Authors: Nihan Cinar

Abstract:

Location selection is one of the most important decision making process which requires to consider several criteria based on the mission and the strategy. This study-s object is to provide a decision support model in order to help the bank selecting the most appropriate location for a bank-s branch considering a case study in Turkey. The object of the bank is to select the most appropriate city for opening a branch among six alternatives in the South-Eastern of Turkey. The model in this study was consisted of five main criteria which are Demographic, Socio-Economic, Sectoral Employment, Banking and Trade Potential and twenty one subcriteria which represent the bank-s mission and strategy. Because of the multi-criteria structure of the problem and the fuzziness in the comparisons of the criteria, fuzzy AHP is used and for the ranking of the alternatives, TOPSIS method is used.

Keywords: MCDM, bank branch location, fuzzy AHP, TOPSIS.

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432 Dynamic Shock Bank Liquidity Analysis

Authors: C. Recommandé, J.C. Blind, A. Clavel, R. Gourichon, V. Le Gal

Abstract:

Simulations are developed in this paper with usual DSGE model equations. The model is based on simplified version of Smets-Wouters equations in use at European Central Bank which implies 10 macro-economic variables: consumption, investment, wages, inflation, capital stock, interest rates, production, capital accumulation, labour and credit rate, and allows take into consideration the banking system. Throughout the simulations, this model will be used to evaluate the impact of rate shocks recounting the actions of the European Central Bank during 2008.

Keywords: CC-LM, Central Bank, DSGE, Liquidity Shock, Non-standard Intervention.

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431 The Impact of Bank Consolidation on Lending to SMES in Nigeria

Authors: Chimaobi Valentine Okolo

Abstract:

This paper seeks to assess the implications of bank consolidation on lending, which largely determine the survival and performance of small and medium scale enterprises and in turn the development of the Nigerian economy. Ordinary least square technique, correlation matrix test and Granger –causality test were employed to measure the extent to which lending to small and medium scale enterprises were influenced. The result showed that bank deposit (BD) impacted on lending to small and medium scale enterprises. Commercial and merchant bank lending rate had statistically insignificant effect on the dependent variable. There is a shift of focus by commercial banks from small and medium scale enterprises (small customers) to major investors (big customers). While micro finance banks work hard at providing funds to small and medium scale entrepreneurs, their capacity to meet the needs of these entrepreneurs is constrained. The capital and deposits of micro finance bank should be boosted in order to effectively support small and medium scale enterprises through loans.

Keywords: Asset size, bank consolidation, lending, small and medium enterprises.

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430 Directional Drilling Optimization by Non-Rotating Stabilizer

Authors: Eisa Noveiri, Adel Taheri Nia

Abstract:

The Non-Rotating Adjustable Stabilizer / Directional Solution (NAS/DS) is the imitation of a mechanical process or an object by a directional drilling operation that causes a respond mathematically and graphically to data and decision to choose the best conditions compared to the previous mode. The NAS/DS Auto Guide rotary steerable tool is undergoing final field trials. The point-the-bit tool can use any bit, work at any rotating speed, work with any MWD/LWD system, and there is no pressure drop through the tool. It is a fully closed-loop system that automatically maintains a specified curvature rate. The Non–Rotating Adjustable stabilizer (NAS) can be controls curvature rate by exactly positioning and run with the optimum bit, use the most effective weight (WOB) and rotary speed (RPM) and apply all of the available hydraulic energy to the bit. The directional simulator allowed to specify the size of the curvature rate performance errors of the NAS tool and the magnitude of the random errors in the survey measurements called the Directional Solution (DS). The combination of these technologies (NAS/DS) will provide smoother bore holes, reduced drilling time, reduced drilling cost and incredible targeting precision. This simulator controls curvature rate by precisely adjusting the radial extension of stabilizer blades on a near bit Non-Rotating Stabilizer and control process corrects for the secondary effects caused by formation characteristics, bit and tool wear, and manufacturing tolerances.

Keywords: non-rotating, Adjustable stabilizer, simulator, Directional Drilling, optimization, Oil Well Drilling

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429 Efficient Dimensionality Reduction of Directional Overcurrent Relays Optimal Coordination Problem

Authors: Fouad Salha , X. Guillaud

Abstract:

Directional over current relays (DOCR) are commonly used in power system protection as a primary protection in distribution and sub-transmission electrical systems and as a secondary protection in transmission systems. Coordination of protective relays is necessary to obtain selective tripping. In this paper, an approach for efficiency reduction of DOCRs nonlinear optimum coordination (OC) is proposed. This was achieved by modifying the objective function and relaxing several constraints depending on the four constraints classification, non-valid, redundant, pre-obtained and valid constraints. According to this classification, the far end fault effect on the objective function and constraints, and in consequently on relay operating time, was studied. The study was carried out, firstly by taking into account the near-end and far-end faults in DOCRs coordination problem formulation; and then faults very close to the primary relays (nearend faults). The optimal coordination (OC) was achieved by simultaneously optimizing all variables (TDS and Ip) in nonlinear environment by using of Genetic algorithm nonlinear programming techniques. The results application of the above two approaches on 6-bus and 26-bus system verify that the far-end faults consideration on OC problem formulation don-t lose the optimality.

Keywords: Backup/Primary relay, Coordination time interval (CTI), directional over current relays, Genetic algorithm, time dial setting (TDS), pickup current setting (Ip), nonlinear programming.

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