Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 546

Search results for: Cognitive radio

546 Single Port Overlay Cognitive Radio Using Reconfigurable Filtennas

Authors: V. Nagaraju, Tapas Bapu. B. R, Beryl J. Victor

Abstract:

In this paper cognitive radio is presented and the spectrum overlay cognitive radio antenna system is detailed. A UWB antenna with frequency reconfigurable characteristics is proposed. The reconfigurability is achieved when the filter is integrated to the feeding line of the single port overlay cognitive radio. When activated, the filter can transform the UWB frequency response into a reconfigurable narrowband one, which is suitable for the communication operation of the CR system. Here single port overlay cognitive radio antenna is designed and simulated using Ansoft High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS).

Keywords: Band-pass filter, Cognitive radio, filtenna, frequency reconfigurable, ultra-wideband antenna.

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545 Artificial Neural Networks for Cognitive Radio Network: A Survey

Authors: Vishnu Pratap Singh Kirar

Abstract:

The main aim of a communication system is to achieve maximum performance. In Cognitive Radio any user or transceiver has ability to sense best suitable channel, while channel is not in use. It means an unlicensed user can share the spectrum of a licensed user without any interference. Though, the spectrum sensing consumes a large amount of energy and it can reduce by applying various artificial intelligent methods for determining proper spectrum holes. It also increases the efficiency of Cognitive Radio Network (CRN). In this survey paper we discuss the use of different learning models and implementation of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to increase the learning and decision making capacity of CRN without affecting bandwidth, cost and signal rate.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Network, Cognitive Radio, Cognitive Radio Networks, Back Propagation, Spectrum Sensing.

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544 Performance Evaluation of Qos Parameters in Cognitive Radio Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Maninder Jeet Kaur, Moin Uddin, Harsh K. Verma

Abstract:

The efficient use of available licensed spectrum is becoming more and more critical with increasing demand and usage of the radio spectrum. This paper shows how the use of spectrum as well as dynamic spectrum management can be effectively managed and spectrum allocation schemes in the wireless communication systems be implemented and used, in future. This paper would be an attempt towards better utilization of the spectrum. This research will focus on the decision-making process mainly, with an assumption that the radio environment has already been sensed and the QoS requirements for the application have been specified either by the sensed radio environment or by the secondary user itself. We identify and study the characteristic parameters of Cognitive Radio and use Genetic Algorithm for spectrum allocation. Performance evaluation is done using MATLAB toolboxes.

Keywords: Cognitive Radio, Fitness Functions, Fuzzy Logic, Quality of Service (QoS)

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543 Wavelet-Based Spectrum Sensing for Cognitive Radios using Hilbert Transform

Authors: Shiann-Shiun Jeng, Jia-Ming Chen, Hong-Zong Lin, Chen-Wan Tsung

Abstract:

For cognitive radio networks, there is a major spectrum sensing problem, i.e. dynamic spectrum management. It is an important issue to sense and identify the spectrum holes in cognitive radio networks. The first-order derivative scheme is usually used to detect the edge of the spectrum. In this paper, a novel spectrum sensing technique for cognitive radio is presented. The proposed algorithm offers efficient edge detection. Then, simulation results show the performance of the first-order derivative scheme and the proposed scheme and depict that the proposed scheme obtains better performance than does the first-order derivative scheme.

Keywords: cognitive radio, Spectrum Sensing, wavelet, edgedetection

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542 Evaluation of Protocol Applied to Network Routing WCETT Cognitive Radio

Authors: Nancy Yaneth Gelvez García, Danilo Alfonso López Sarmiento

Abstract:

This article presents the results of researchrelated to the assessment protocol weightedcumulative expected transmission time (WCETT)applied to cognitive radio networks.The development work was based on researchdone by different authors, we simulated a network,which communicates wirelessly, using a licensedchannel, through which other nodes are notlicensed, try to transmit during a given time nodeuntil the station's owner begins its transmission.

Keywords: Cognitive radio, ETT, WCETT

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541 BER Analysis of Energy Detection Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Using GNU Radio

Authors: B. Siva Kumar Reddy, B. Lakshmi

Abstract:

Cognitive Radio is a turning out technology that empowers viable usage of the spectrum. Energy Detector-based Sensing is the most broadly utilized spectrum sensing strategy. Besides, it's a lot of generic as receivers doesn't would like any information on the primary user's signals, channel data, of even the sort of modulation. This paper puts forth the execution of energy detection sensing for AM (Amplitude Modulated) signal at 710 KHz, FM (Frequency Modulated) signal at 103.45 MHz (local station frequency), Wi-Fi signal at 2.4 GHz and WiMAX signals at 6 GHz. The OFDM/OFDMA based WiMAX physical layer with convolutional channel coding is actualized utilizing USRP N210 (Universal Software Radio Peripheral) and GNU Radio based Software Defined Radio (SDR). Test outcomes demonstrated the BER (Bit Error Rate) augmentation with channel noise and BER execution is dissected for different Eb/N0 (the energy per bit to noise power spectral density ratio) values.

Keywords: BER, Cognitive Radio, GNU Radio, OFDM, SDR, WiMAX.

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540 Monitoring of Spectrum Usage and Signal Identification Using Cognitive Radio

Authors: O. S. Omorogiuwa, E. J. Omozusi

Abstract:

The monitoring of spectrum usage and signal identification, using cognitive radio, is done to identify frequencies that are vacant for reuse. It has been established that ‘internet of things’ device uses secondary frequency which is free, thereby facing the challenge of interference from other users, where some primary frequencies are not being utilised. The design was done by analysing a specific frequency spectrum, checking if all the frequency stations that range from 87.5-108 MHz are presently being used in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. From the results, it was noticed that by using Software Defined Radio/Simulink, we were able to identify vacant frequencies in the range of frequency under consideration. Also, we were able to use the significance of energy detection threshold to reuse this vacant frequency spectrum, when the cognitive radio displays a zero output (that is decision H0), meaning that the channel is unoccupied. Hence, the analysis was able to find the spectrum hole and identify how it can be reused.

Keywords: Spectrum, interference, telecommunication, cognitive radio, frequency.

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539 Modern Spectrum Sensing Techniques for Cognitive Radio Networks: Practical Implementation and Performance Evaluation

Authors: Antoni Ivanov, Nikolay Dandanov, Nicole Christoff, Vladimir Poulkov

Abstract:

Spectrum underutilization has made cognitive radio a promising technology both for current and future telecommunications. This is due to the ability to exploit the unused spectrum in the bands dedicated to other wireless communication systems, and thus, increase their occupancy. The essential function, which allows the cognitive radio device to perceive the occupancy of the spectrum, is spectrum sensing. In this paper, the performance of modern adaptations of the four most widely used spectrum sensing techniques namely, energy detection (ED), cyclostationary feature detection (CSFD), matched filter (MF) and eigenvalues-based detection (EBD) is compared. The implementation has been accomplished through the PlutoSDR hardware platform and the GNU Radio software package in very low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) conditions. The optimal detection performance of the examined methods in a realistic implementation-oriented model is found for the common relevant parameters (number of observed samples, sensing time and required probability of false alarm).

Keywords: Cognitive radio, dynamic spectrum access, GNU Radio, spectrum sensing.

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538 Enhancement of Capacity in a MC-CDMA based Cognitive Radio Network Using Non-Cooperative Game Model

Authors: Kalyani J. Kulkarni, Bharat S. Chaudhari

Abstract:

This paper addresses the issue of resource allocation in the emerging cognitive technology. Focusing the Quality of Service (QoS) of Primary Users (PU), a novel method is proposed for the resource allocation of Secondary Users (SU). In this paper, we propose the unique Utility Function in the game theoretic model of Cognitive Radio which can be maximized to increase the capacity of the Cognitive Radio Network (CRN) and to minimize the interference scenario. Utility function is formulated to cater the need of PUs by observing Signal to Noise ratio. Existence of Nash Equilibrium for the postulated game is established.

Keywords: Cognitive Networks, Game Theory, Nash Equilibrium, Resource Allocation.

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537 Cognitive Radio Spectrum Management

Authors: Swapnil Singhal, Santosh Kumar Singh

Abstract:

The emerging Cognitive Radio is combo of both the technologies i.e. Radio dynamics and software technology. It involve wireless system with efficient coding, designing, and making them artificial intelligent to take the decision according to the surrounding environment and adopt themselves accordingly, so as to deliver the best QoS. This is the breakthrough from fixed hardware and fixed utilization of the spectrum. This software-defined approach of research is centralized at user-definition and application driven model, various software method are used for the optimization of the wireless communication. This paper focused on the Spectrum allocation technique using genetic algorithm GA to evolve radio, represented by chromosomes. The chromosomes gene represents the adjustable parameters in given radio and by using GA, evolving over the generations, the optimized set of parameters are evolved, as per the requirement of user and availability of the spectrum, in our prototype the gene consist of 6 different parameters, and the best set of parameters are evolved according to the application need and availability of the spectrum holes and thus maintaining best QoS for user, simultaneously maintaining licensed user rights. The analyzing tool Matlab is used for the performance of the prototype.

Keywords: ASDR, Cognitive Radio, QoS, Spectrum.

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536 In Cognitive Radio the Analysis of Bit-Error- Rate (BER) by using PSO Algorithm

Authors: Shrikrishan Yadav, Akhilesh Saini, Krishna Chandra Roy

Abstract:

The electromagnetic spectrum is a natural resource and hence well-organized usage of the limited natural resources is the necessities for better communication. The present static frequency allocation schemes cannot accommodate demands of the rapidly increasing number of higher data rate services. Therefore, dynamic usage of the spectrum must be distinguished from the static usage to increase the availability of frequency spectrum. Cognitive radio is not a single piece of apparatus but it is a technology that can incorporate components spread across a network. It offers great promise for improving system efficiency, spectrum utilization, more effective applications, reduction in interference and reduced complexity of usage for users. Cognitive radio is aware of its environmental, internal state, and location, and autonomously adjusts its operations to achieve designed objectives. It first senses its spectral environment over a wide frequency band, and then adapts the parameters to maximize spectrum efficiency with high performance. This paper only focuses on the analysis of Bit-Error-Rate in cognitive radio by using Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm. It is theoretically as well as practically analyzed and interpreted in the sense of advantages and drawbacks and how BER affects the efficiency and performance of the communication system.

Keywords: BER, Cognitive Radio, Environmental Parameters, PSO, Radio spectrum, Transmission Parameters

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535 An Investigation of Performance versus Security in Cognitive Radio Networks with Supporting Cloud Platforms

Authors: Kurniawan D. Irianto, Demetres D. Kouvatsos

Abstract:

The growth of wireless devices affects the availability of limited frequencies or spectrum bands as it has been known that spectrum bands are a natural resource that cannot be added. Meanwhile, the licensed frequencies are idle most of the time. Cognitive radio is one of the solutions to solve those problems. Cognitive radio is a promising technology that allows the unlicensed users known as secondary users (SUs) to access licensed bands without making interference to licensed users or primary users (PUs). As cloud computing has become popular in recent years, cognitive radio networks (CRNs) can be integrated with cloud platform. One of the important issues in CRNs is security. It becomes a problem since CRNs use radio frequencies as a medium for transmitting and CRNs share the same issues with wireless communication systems. Another critical issue in CRNs is performance. Security has adverse effect to performance and there are trade-offs between them. The goal of this paper is to investigate the performance related to security trade-off in CRNs with supporting cloud platforms. Furthermore, Queuing Network Models with preemptive resume and preemptive repeat identical priority are applied in this project to measure the impact of security to performance in CRNs with or without cloud platform. The generalized exponential (GE) type distribution is used to reflect the bursty inter-arrival and service times at the servers. The results show that the best performance is obtained when security is disabled and cloud platform is enabled.

Keywords: Cloud Platforms, Cognitive Radio Networks, GEtype Distribution, Performance Vs Security.

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534 Algorithm and Software Based on Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks for Estimating Channel Use in the Spectral Decision Stage in Cognitive Radio Networks

Authors: Danilo López, Johana Hernández, Edwin Rivas

Abstract:

The use of the Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks (MLPNN) technique is presented to estimate the future state of use of a licensed channel by primary users (PUs); this will be useful at the spectral decision stage in cognitive radio networks (CRN) to determine approximately in which time instants of future may secondary users (SUs) opportunistically use the spectral bandwidth to send data through the primary wireless network. To validate the results, sequences of occupancy data of channel were generated by simulation. The results show that the prediction percentage is greater than 60% in some of the tests carried out.

Keywords: Cognitive radio, neural network, prediction, primary user.

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533 Energy Detection Based Sensing and Primary User Traffic Classification for Cognitive Radio

Authors: Urvee B. Trivedi, U. D. Dalal

Abstract:

As wireless communication services grow quickly; the seriousness of spectrum utilization has been on the rise gradually. An emerging technology, cognitive radio has come out to solve today’s spectrum scarcity problem. To support the spectrum reuse functionality, secondary users are required to sense the radio frequency environment, and once the primary users are found to be active, the secondary users are required to vacate the channel within a certain amount of time. Therefore, spectrum sensing is of significant importance. Once sensing is done, different prediction rules apply to classify the traffic pattern of primary user. Primary user follows two types of traffic patterns: periodic and stochastic ON-OFF patterns. A cognitive radio can learn the patterns in different channels over time. Two types of classification methods are discussed in this paper, by considering edge detection and by using autocorrelation function. Edge detection method has a high accuracy but it cannot tolerate sensing errors. Autocorrelation-based classification is applicable in the real environment as it can tolerate some amount of sensing errors.

Keywords: Cognitive radio (CR), probability of detection (PD), probability of false alarm (PF), primary User (PU), secondary user (SU), Fast Fourier transform (FFT), signal to noise ratio (SNR).

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532 Capacity Optimization for Local and Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks

Authors: Ayman A. El-Saleh, Mahamod Ismail, Mohd. A. M. Ali, Ahmed N. H. Alnuaimy

Abstract:

The dynamic spectrum allocation solutions such as cognitive radio networks have been proposed as a key technology to exploit the frequency segments that are spectrally underutilized. Cognitive radio users work as secondary users who need to constantly and rapidly sense the presence of primary users or licensees to utilize their frequency bands if they are inactive. Short sensing cycles should be run by the secondary users to achieve higher throughput rates as well as to provide low level of interference to the primary users by immediately vacating their channels once they have been detected. In this paper, the throughput-sensing time relationship in local and cooperative spectrum sensing has been investigated under two distinct scenarios, namely, constant primary user protection (CPUP) and constant secondary user spectrum usability (CSUSU) scenarios. The simulation results show that the design of sensing slot duration is very critical and depends on the number of cooperating users under CPUP scenario whereas under CSUSU, cooperating more users has no effect if the sensing time used exceeds 5% of the total frame duration.

Keywords: Capacity, cognitive radio, optimization, spectrumsensing.

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531 MCDM Spectrum Handover Models for Cognitive Wireless Networks

Authors: Cesar Hernández, Diego Giral, Fernando Santa

Abstract:

Spectrum handover is a significant topic in the cognitive radio networks to assure an efficient data transmission in the cognitive radio user’s communications. This paper proposes a comparison between three spectrum handover models: VIKOR, SAW and MEW. Four evaluation metrics are used. These metrics are, accumulative average of failed handover, accumulative average of handover performed, accumulative average of transmission bandwidth and, accumulative average of the transmission delay. As a difference with related work, the performance of the three spectrum handover models was validated with captured data of spectrum occupancy in experiments performed at the GSM frequency band (824 MHz - 849 MHz). These data represent the actual behavior of the licensed users for this wireless frequency band. The results of the comparison show that VIKOR Algorithm provides a 15.8% performance improvement compared to SAW Algorithm and, it is 12.1% better than the MEW Algorithm.

Keywords: Cognitive radio, decision making, MEW, SAW, spectrum handover, VIKOR.

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530 Cognitive Radio Networks (CRN): Resource Allocation Techniques Based On DNA-inspired Computing

Authors: Santosh Kumar Singh, Krishna Chandra Roy, Vibhakar Pathak

Abstract:

Spectrum is a scarce commodity, and considering the spectrum scarcity faced by the wireless-based service providers led to high congestion levels. Technical inefficiencies from pooled, since all networks share a common pool of channels, exhausting the available channels will force networks to block the services. Researchers found that cognitive radio (CR) technology may resolve the spectrum scarcity. A CR is a self-configuring entity in a wireless networking that senses its environment, tracks changes, and frequently exchanges information with their networks. However, CRN facing challenges and condition become worst while tracks changes i.e. reallocation of another under-utilized channels while primary network user arrives. In this paper, channels or resource reallocation technique based on DNA-inspired computing algorithm for CRN has been proposed.

Keywords: Ad hoc networks, channels reallocation, cognitive radio, DNA local sequence alignment.

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529 Performance of Hybrid-MIMO Receiver Scheme in Cognitive Radio Network

Authors: Tanapong Khomyat, Peerapong Uthansakul, Monthippa Uthansakul

Abstract:

In this paper, we evaluate the performance of the Hybrid-MIMO Receiver Scheme (HMRS) in Cognitive Radio network (CR-network). We investigate the efficiency of the proposed scheme which the energy level and user number of primary user are varied according to the characteristic of CR-network. HMRS can allow users to transmit either Space-Time Block Code (STBC) or Spatial-Multiplexing (SM) streams simultaneously by using Successive Interference Cancellation (SIC) and Maximum Likelihood Detection (MLD). From simulation, the results indicate that the interference level effects to the performance of HMRS. Moreover, the exact closed-form capacity of the proposed scheme is derived and compared with STBC scheme.

Keywords: Hybrid-MIMO, Cognitive radio network (CRnetwork), Symbol Error Rate (SER), Successive interference cancellation (SIC), Maximum likelihood detection (MLD).

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528 Capacity Optimization in Cooperative Cognitive Radio Networks

Authors: Mahdi Pirmoradian, Olayinka Adigun, Christos Politis

Abstract:

Cooperative spectrum sensing is a crucial challenge in cognitive radio networks. Cooperative sensing can increase the reliability of spectrum hole detection, optimize sensing time and reduce delay in cooperative networks. In this paper, an efficient central capacity optimization algorithm is proposed to minimize cooperative sensing time in a homogenous sensor network using OR decision rule subject to the detection and false alarm probabilities constraints. The evaluation results reveal significant improvement in the sensing time and normalized capacity of the cognitive sensors.

Keywords: Cooperative networks, normalized capacity, sensing time.

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527 An Energy Detection-Based Algorithm for Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Rayleigh Fading Channel

Authors: H. Bakhshi, E. Khayyamian

Abstract:

Cognitive radios have been recognized as one of the most promising technologies dealing with the scarcity of the radio spectrum. In cognitive radio systems, secondary users are allowed to utilize the frequency bands of primary users when the bands are idle. Hence, how to accurately detect the idle frequency bands has attracted many researchers’ interest. Detection performance is sensitive toward noise power and gain fluctuation. Since signal to noise ratio (SNR) between primary user and secondary users are not the same and change over the time, SNR and noise power estimation is essential. In this paper, we present a cooperative spectrum sensing algorithm using SNR estimation to improve detection performance in the real situation.

Keywords: Cognitive radio, cooperative spectrum sensing, energy detection, SNR estimation, spectrum sensing, Rayleigh fading channel.

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526 Hybrid Algorithm for Frequency Channel Selection in Wi-Fi Networks

Authors: Cesar Hernández, Diego Giral, Ingrid Páez

Abstract:

This article proposes a hybrid algorithm for spectrum allocation in cognitive radio networks based on the algorithms Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) and Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) to improve the performance of the spectrum mobility of secondary users in cognitive radio networks. To calculate the level of performance of the proposed algorithm a comparative analysis between the proposed AHP-TOPSIS, Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) and Multiplicative Exponent Weighting (MEW) algorithm is performed. Four evaluation metrics are used. These metrics are accumulative average of failed handoffs, accumulative average of handoffs performed, accumulative average of transmission bandwidth, and accumulative average of the transmission delay. The results of the comparison show that AHP-TOPSIS Algorithm provides 2.4 times better performance compared to a GRA Algorithm and, 1.5 times better than the MEW Algorithm.

Keywords: Cognitive radio, decision making, hybrid algorithm, spectrum handoff, wireless networks.

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525 Dynamic TDMA Slot Reservation Protocol for QoS Provisioning in Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: S. M. Kamruzzaman

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a dynamic TDMA slot reservation (DTSR) protocol for cognitive radio ad hoc networks. Quality of Service (QoS) guarantee plays a critically important role in such networks. We consider the problem of providing QoS guarantee to users as well as to maintain the most efficient use of scarce bandwidth resources. According to one hop neighboring information and the bandwidth requirement, our proposed protocol dynamically changes the frame length and the transmission schedule. A dynamic frame length expansion and shrinking scheme that controls the excessive increase of unassigned slots has been proposed. This method efficiently utilizes the channel bandwidth by assigning unused slots to new neighboring nodes and increasing the frame length when the number of slots in the frame is insufficient to support the neighboring nodes. It also shrinks the frame length when half of the slots in the frame of a node are empty. An efficient slot reservation protocol not only guarantees successful data transmissions without collisions but also enhance channel spatial reuse to maximize the system throughput. Our proposed scheme, which provides both QoS guarantee and efficient resource utilization, be employed to optimize the channel spatial reuse and maximize the system throughput. Extensive simulation results show that the proposed mechanism achieves desirable performance in multichannel multi-rate cognitive radio ad hoc networks.

Keywords: TDMA, cognitive radio, ad hoc networks, QoSguarantee, dynamic frame length.

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524 Reliability Factors Based Fuzzy Logic Scheme for Spectrum Sensing

Authors: Tallataf Rasheed, Adnan Rashdi, Ahmad Naeem Akhtar

Abstract:

The accurate spectrum sensing is a fundamental requirement of dynamic spectrum access for deployment of Cognitive Radio Network (CRN). To acheive this requirement a Reliability factors based Fuzzy Logic (RFL) Scheme for Spectrum Sensing has been proposed in this paper. Cognitive Radio User (CRU) predicts the presence or absence of Primary User (PU) using energy detector and calculates the Reliability factors which are SNR of sensing node, threshold of energy detector and decision difference of each node with other nodes in a cooperative spectrum sensing environment. Then the decision of energy detector is combined with Reliability factors of sensing node using Fuzzy Logic. These Reliability Factors used in RFL Scheme describes the reliability of decision made by a CRU to improve the local spectrum sensing. This Fuzzy combining scheme provides the accuracy of decision made by sensornode. The simulation results have shown that the proposed technique provide better PU detection probability than existing Spectrum Sensing Techniques.

Keywords: Cognitive radio, spectrum sensing, energy detector, reliability factors, fuzzy logic.

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523 Sidelobe Reduction in Cognitive Radio Systems Using Hybrid Technique

Authors: Atif Elahi, Ijaz Mansoor Qureshi, Mehreen Atif, Noor Gul

Abstract:

Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is one of the best candidates for dynamic spectrum access due to its flexibility of spectrum shaping. However, the high sidelobes of the OFDM signal that result in high out-of-band radiation, introduce significant interference to the users operating in its vicinity. This problem becomes more critical in cognitive radio (CR) system that enables the secondary users (SUs) users to access the spectrum holes not used by the primary users (PUs) at that time. In this paper, we present a generalized OFDM framework that has a capability of describing any sidelobe suppression techniques, despite of whether one or a number of techniques are used. Based on that framework, we propose cancellation carrier (CC) technique in conjunction with the generalized sidelobe canceller (GSC) to reduce the out-of-band radiation in the region where the licensed users are operating. Simulation results show that the proposed technique can reduce the out-of-band radiation better when compared with the existing techniques found in the literature.

Keywords: Cognitive radio, cancellation carriers, generalized sidelobe canceller, out-of-band radiation, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing.

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522 Distributed Relay Selection and Channel Choice in Cognitive Radio Network

Authors: Hao He, Shaoqian Li

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the cooperative communications where multiple cognitive radio (CR) transmit-receive pairs competitive maximize their own throughputs. In CR networks, the influences of primary users and the spectrum availability are usually different among CR users. Due to the existence of multiple relay nodes and the different spectrum availability, each CR transmit-receive pair should not only select the relay node but also choose the appropriate channel. For this distributed problem, we propose a game theoretic framework to formulate this problem and we apply a regret-matching learning algorithm which is leading to correlated equilibrium. We further formulate a modified regret-matching learning algorithm which is fully distributed and only use the local information of each CR transmit-receive pair. This modified algorithm is more practical and suitable for the cooperative communications in CR network. Simulation results show the algorithm convergence and the modified learning algorithm can achieve comparable performance to the original regretmatching learning algorithm.

Keywords: cognitive radio, cooperative communication, relay selection, channel choice, regret-matching learning, correlated equilibrium.

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521 A Survey of Baseband Architecture for Software Defined Radio

Authors: M. A. Fodha, H. Benfradj, A. Ghazel

Abstract:

This paper is a survey of recent works that proposes a baseband processor architecture for software defined radio. A classification of different approaches is proposed. The performance of each architecture is also discussed in order to clarify the suitable approaches that meet software-defined radio constraints.

Keywords: Multi-core architectures, reconfigurable architecture, software defined radio.

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520 Classification of Radio Communication Signals using Fuzzy Logic

Authors: Zuzana Dideková, Beata Mikovičová

Abstract:

Characterization of radio communication signals aims at automatic recognition of different characteristics of radio signals in order to detect their modulation type, the central frequency, and the level. Our purpose is to apply techniques used in image processing in order to extract pertinent characteristics. To the single analysis, we add several rules for checking the consistency of hypotheses using fuzzy logic. This allows taking into account ambiguity and uncertainty that may remain after the extraction of individual characteristics. The aim is to improve the process of radio communications characterization.

Keywords: fuzzy classification, fuzzy inference system, radio communication signals, telecommunications

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519 An Algorithm for Determining the Arrival Behavior of a Secondary User to a Base Station in Cognitive Radio Networks

Authors: Danilo López, Edwin Rivas, Leyla López

Abstract:

This paper presents the development of an algorithm that predicts the arrival of a secondary user (SU) to a base station (BS) in a cognitive network based on infrastructure, requesting a Best Effort (BE) or Real Time (RT) type of service with a determined bandwidth (BW) implementing neural networks. The algorithm dynamically uses a neural network construction technique using the geometric pyramid topology and trains a Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks (MLPNN) based on the historical arrival of an SU to estimate future applications. This will allow efficiently managing the information in the BS, since it precedes the arrival of the SUs in the stage of selection of the best channel in CRN. As a result, the software application determines the probability of arrival at a future time point and calculates the performance metrics to measure the effectiveness of the predictions made.

Keywords: Cognitive radio, MLPNN, base station, prediction, best effort, real time.

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518 A Cooperative Weighted Discriminator Energy Detector Technique in Fading Environment

Authors: Muhammad R. Alrabeiah, Ibrahim S. Alnomay

Abstract:

The need in cognitive radio system for a simple, fast, and independent technique to sense the spectrum occupancy has led to the energy detection approach. Energy detector is known by its dependency on noise variation in the system which is one of its major drawbacks. In this paper, we are aiming to improve its performance by utilizing a weighted collaborative spectrum sensing, it is similar to the collaborative spectrum sensing methods introduced previously in the literature. These weighting methods give more improvement for collaborative spectrum sensing as compared to no weighting case. There is two method proposed in this paper: the first one depends on the channel status between each sensor and the primary user while the second depends on the value of the energy measured in each sensor.

Keywords: Cognitive radio, Spectrum sensing, Collaborative sensors, Weighted Decisions.

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517 Variation of Metrological Parameters as They Affect the Tropospheric Radio Refractivity for Akure South-West Nigeria

Authors: Famoriji J.Oluwole

Abstract:

This research work examines the effect of variations of metrological parameters on the tropospheric radio refractivity during dry and raining seasons for Akure in 2013. The daily averages of radio refractivity during dry (January) and raining (August) seasons were calculated from the data obtained from the Nigeria Metrological Agency (NIMET). The data that was used for the computation of radio refractivity is a daily interval of the variations of metrological parameters for each day in the troposphere for Akure. Consequently, the daily averages of radio refractivity during raining season (August) were greater than the results in dry season (January) as a result of the variations in meteorological parameters such as temperature, humidity and atmospheric pressure in the lower troposphere.

Keywords: Troposphere, Radio refractivity, Akure, Meteorological parameters.

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