Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 390

Search results for: best effort

390 The Effects of Software Size on Development Effort and Software Quality

Authors: Zhizhong Jiang, Peter Naudé, Binghua Jiang

Abstract:

Effective evaluation of software development effort is an important issue during project plan. This study provides a model to predict development effort based on the software size estimated with function points. We generalize the average amount of effort spent on each phase of the development, and give the estimates for the effort used in software building, testing, and implementation. Finally, this paper finds a strong correlation between software defects and software size. As the size of software constantly increases, the quality remains to be a matter which requires major concern.

Keywords: Development effort, function points, software quality, software size.

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389 An Examination of the Factors Influencing Software Development Effort

Authors: Zhizhong Jiang, Peter Naudé

Abstract:

Effective evaluation of software development effort is an important aspect of successful project management. Based on a large database with 4106 projects ever developed, this study statistically examines the factors that influence development effort. The factors found to be significant for effort are project size, average number of developers that worked on the project, type of development, development language, development platform, and the use of rapid application development. Among these factors, project size is the most critical cost driver. Unsurprisingly, this study found that the use of CASE tools does not necessarily reduce development effort, which adds support to the claim that the use of tools is subtle. As many of the current estimation models are rarely or unsuccessfully used, this study proposes a parsimonious parametric model for the prediction of effort which is both simple and more accurate than previous models.

Keywords: Development effort, function points, team size, development language, CASE tool, rapid application development.

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388 The Relationship between Military Expenditure, Military Personnel, Economic Growth, and the Environment

Authors: El Harbi Sana, Ben Afia Neila

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the relationship between the military effort and pollution. A distinction is drawn between the direct and indirect impact of the military effort (military expenditure and military personnel) on pollution, which operates through the impact of military effort on per capita income and the resultant impact of income on pollution. Using the data of 121 countries covering the period 1980–2011, both the direct and indirect impacts of military effort on air pollution emissions are estimated. Our results show that the military effort is estimated to have a positive direct impact on per capita emissions. Indirect effects are found to be positive, the total effect of military effort on emissions is positive for all countries.

Keywords: Military expenditure, military personnel, income, emissions of CO2 and panel data.

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387 Parametric Cost Estimating Relationships for Design Effort Estimation

Authors: Adil Salam, Nadia Bhuiyan, Gerard J. Gouw

Abstract:

The Canadian aerospace industry faces many challenges. One of them is the difficulty in estimating costs. In particular, the design effort required in a project impacts resource requirements and lead-time, and consequently the final cost. This paper presents the findings of a case study conducted for recognized global leader in the design and manufacturing of aircraft engines. The study models parametric cost estimation relationships to estimate the design effort of integrated blade-rotor low-pressure compressor fans. Several effort drivers are selected to model the relationship. Comparative analyses of three types of models are conducted. The model with the best accuracy and significance in design estimation is retained.

Keywords: Effort estimation, design, aerospace.

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386 Functional Decomposition Based Effort Estimation Model for Software-Intensive Systems

Authors: Nermin Sökmen

Abstract:

An effort estimation model is needed for softwareintensive projects that consist of hardware, embedded software or some combination of the two, as well as high level software solutions. This paper first focuses on functional decomposition techniques to measure functional complexity of a computer system and investigates its impact on system development effort. Later, it examines effects of technical difficulty and design team capability factors in order to construct the best effort estimation model. With using traditional regression analysis technique, the study develops a system development effort estimation model which takes functional complexity, technical difficulty and design team capability factors as input parameters. Finally, the assumptions of the model are tested.

Keywords: Functional complexity, functional decomposition, development effort, technical difficulty, design team capability, regression analysis.

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385 Software Effort Estimation Models Using Radial Basis Function Network

Authors: E. Praynlin, P. Latha

Abstract:

Software Effort Estimation is the process of estimating the effort required to develop software. By estimating the effort, the cost and schedule required to estimate the software can be determined. Accurate Estimate helps the developer to allocate the resource accordingly in order to avoid cost overrun and schedule overrun. Several methods are available in order to estimate the effort among which soft computing based method plays a prominent role. Software cost estimation deals with lot of uncertainty among all soft computing methods neural network is good in handling uncertainty. In this paper Radial Basis Function Network is compared with the back propagation network and the results are validated using six data sets and it is found that RBFN is best suitable to estimate the effort. The Results are validated using two tests the error test and the statistical test.

Keywords: Software cost estimation, Radial Basis Function Network (RBFN), Back propagation function network, Mean Magnitude of Relative Error (MMRE).

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384 Factors of Effective Business Software Systems Development and Enhancement Projects Work Effort Estimation

Authors: Beata Czarnacka-Chrobot

Abstract:

Majority of Business Software Systems (BSS) Development and Enhancement Projects (D&EP) fail to meet criteria of their effectiveness, what leads to the considerable financial losses. One of the fundamental reasons for such projects- exceptionally low success rate are improperly derived estimates for their costs and time. In the case of BSS D&EP these attributes are determined by the work effort, meanwhile reliable and objective effort estimation still appears to be a great challenge to the software engineering. Thus this paper is aimed at presenting the most important synthetic conclusions coming from the author-s own studies concerning the main factors of effective BSS D&EP work effort estimation. Thanks to the rational investment decisions made on the basis of reliable and objective criteria it is possible to reduce losses caused not only by abandoned projects but also by large scale of overrunning the time and costs of BSS D&EP execution.

Keywords: Benchmarking data, business software systems development and enhancement projects, effort estimation, software engineering economics, software functional size measurement.

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383 Comparative Analysis of the Software Effort Estimation Models

Authors: Jaswinder Kaur, Satwinder Singh, Karanjeet Singh Kahlon

Abstract:

Accurate software cost estimates are critical to both developers and customers. They can be used for generating request for proposals, contract negotiations, scheduling, monitoring and control. The exact relationship between the attributes of the effort estimation is difficult to establish. A neural network is good at discovering relationships and pattern in the data. So, in this paper a comparative analysis among existing Halstead Model, Walston-Felix Model, Bailey-Basili Model, Doty Model and Neural Network Based Model is performed. Neural Network has outperformed the other considered models. Hence, we proposed Neural Network system as a soft computing approach to model the effort estimation of the software systems.

Keywords: Effort Estimation, Neural Network, Halstead Model, Walston-Felix Model, Bailey-Basili Model, Doty Model.

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382 A Model for Estimation of Efforts in Development of Software Systems

Authors: Parvinder S. Sandhu, Manisha Prashar, Pourush Bassi, Atul Bisht

Abstract:

Software effort estimation is the process of predicting the most realistic use of effort required to develop or maintain software based on incomplete, uncertain and/or noisy input. Effort estimates may be used as input to project plans, iteration plans, budgets. There are various models like Halstead, Walston-Felix, Bailey-Basili, Doty and GA Based models which have already used to estimate the software effort for projects. In this study Statistical Models, Fuzzy-GA and Neuro-Fuzzy (NF) Inference Systems are experimented to estimate the software effort for projects. The performances of the developed models were tested on NASA software project datasets and results are compared with the Halstead, Walston-Felix, Bailey-Basili, Doty and Genetic Algorithm Based models mentioned in the literature. The result shows that the NF Model has the lowest MMRE and RMSE values. The NF Model shows the best results as compared with the Fuzzy-GA based hybrid Inference System and other existing Models that are being used for the Effort Prediction with lowest MMRE and RMSE values.

Keywords: Neuro-Fuzzy Model, Halstead Model, Walston-Felix Model, Bailey-Basili Model, Doty Model, GA Based Model, Genetic Algorithm.

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381 Effectiveness of Business Software Systems Development and Enhancement Projects versus Work Effort Estimation Methods

Authors: Beata Czarnacka-Chrobot

Abstract:

Execution of Business Software Systems (BSS) Development and Enhancement Projects (D&EP) is characterized by the exceptionally low effectiveness, leading to considerable financial losses. The general reason for low effectiveness of such projects is that they are inappropriately managed. One of the factors of proper BSS D&EP management is suitable (reliable and objective) method of project work effort estimation since this is what determines correct estimation of its major attributes: project cost and duration. BSS D&EP is usually considered to be accomplished effectively if product of a planned functionality is delivered without cost and time overrun. The goal of this paper is to prove that choosing approach to the BSS D&EP work effort estimation has a considerable influence on the effectiveness of such projects execution.

Keywords: Business software systems, development and enhancement projects, effectiveness, work effort estimation methods, software product size, software product functionality, project duration, project cost.

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380 Evaluation of Model Evaluation Criterion for Software Development Effort Estimation

Authors: S. K. Pillai, M. K. Jeyakumar

Abstract:

Estimation of model parameters is necessary to predict the behavior of a system. Model parameters are estimated using optimization criteria. Most algorithms use historical data to estimate model parameters. The known target values (actual) and the output produced by the model are compared. The differences between the two form the basis to estimate the parameters. In order to compare different models developed using the same data different criteria are used. The data obtained for short scale projects are used here. We consider software effort estimation problem using radial basis function network. The accuracy comparison is made using various existing criteria for one and two predictors. Then, we propose a new criterion based on linear least squares for evaluation and compared the results of one and two predictors. We have considered another data set and evaluated prediction accuracy using the new criterion. The new criterion is easy to comprehend compared to single statistic. Although software effort estimation is considered, this method is applicable for any modeling and prediction.

Keywords: Software effort estimation, accuracy, Radial Basis Function, linear least squares.

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379 Study on the Influence of Physical Effort on the Mental Processes of Preteen Students

Authors: Constantin Pehoiu, Cristian Savu, Silviu Badea, Cristian Borida

Abstract:

The physiological effects of physical exercise on human body are relatively well known in literature, which describes in detail the changes that occur in the cardiovascular system, the respiratory one, in bones and other systems, both during exercise and after its delivery. However, the effects of exercise on mental processes are less treated. From the literature reviews discussed in this study, it can be detached the idea that we can not exactly say that physical exercise has beneficial effects on mental processes, but neither that it would have potentially negative effects. This uncertainty, reflected in the inability to indicate precise and unequivocal meaning, favorable-unfavorable physical effort in acting on mental processes, is a prime reason to undertake a study of the phenomenon influence effort administered physical education classes on the dynamics of mental processes like attention and memory.

Keywords: management, exercise, mental process, lesson.

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378 Intention to Use Digital Library based on Modified UTAUT Model: Perspectives of Malaysian Postgraduate Students

Authors: Abd Latif Abdul Rahman, Adnan Jamaludin, Zamalia Mahmud

Abstract:

Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model has demonstrated the influencing factors for generic information systems use such as tablet personal computer (TPC) and mobile communication. However, in the context of digital library system, there has been very little effort to determine factors affecting the intention to use digital library based on the UTAUT model. This paper investigates factors that are expected to influence the intention of postgraduate students to use digital library based on modified UTAUT model. The modified model comprises of constructs represented by several latent variables, namely performance expectancy (PE), effort expectancy (EE), information quality (IQ) and service quality (SQ) and moderated by age, gender and experience in using digital library. Results show that performance expectancy, effort expectancy and information quality are positively related to the intention to use digital library, while service quality is negatively related to the intention to use digital library. Age and gender have shown no evidence of any significant interactions, while experience in using digital library significantly interacts with effort expectancy and intention to use digital library. This has provided the evidence of a moderating effect of experience in the intention to use digital library. It is expected that this research will shed new lights into research of acceptance and intention to use the library in a digital environment.

Keywords: Intention to use digital library, UTAUT model, performance expectancy, effort expectancy, information quality, service quality.

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377 Software Effort Estimation Using Soft Computing Techniques

Authors: Parvinder S. Sandhu, Porush Bassi, Amanpreet Singh Brar

Abstract:

Various models have been derived by studying large number of completed software projects from various organizations and applications to explore how project sizes mapped into project effort. But, still there is a need to prediction accuracy of the models. As Neuro-fuzzy based system is able to approximate the non-linear function with more precision. So, Neuro-Fuzzy system is used as a soft computing approach to generate model by formulating the relationship based on its training. In this paper, Neuro-Fuzzy technique is used for software estimation modeling of on NASA software project data and performance of the developed models are compared with the Halstead, Walston-Felix, Bailey-Basili and Doty Models mentioned in the literature.

Keywords: Effort Estimation, Neural-Fuzzy Model, Halstead Model, Walston-Felix Model, Bailey-Basili Model, Doty Model.

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376 Estimation of the External Force for a Co-Manipulation Task Using the Drive Chain Robot

Authors: Sylvain Devie, Pierre-Philippe Robet, Yannick Aoustin, Maxime Gautier

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to show that the observation of the external effort and the sensor-less control of a system is limited by the mechanical system. First, the model of a one-joint robot with a prismatic joint is presented. Based on this model, two different procedures were performed in order to identify the mechanical parameters of the system and observe the external effort applied on it. Experiments have proven that the accuracy of the force observer, based on the DC motor current, is limited by the mechanics of the robot. The sensor-less control will be limited by the accuracy in estimation of the mechanical parameters and by the maximum static friction force, that is the minimum force which can be observed in this case. The consequence of this limitation is that industrial robots without specific design are not well adapted to perform sensor-less precision tasks. Finally, an efficient control law is presented for high effort applications.

Keywords: Control, Identification, Robot, Co-manipulation, Sensor-less.

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375 Experimental Characterization of Anisotropic Mechanical Properties of Textile Woven Fabric

Authors: Rym Zouari, Sami Ben Amar, Abdelwaheb Dogui

Abstract:

This paper presents an experimental characterization of the anisotropic mechanical behavior of 4 textile woven fabrics with different weaves (Twill 3, Plain, Twill4 and Satin 4) by off-axis tensile testing. These tests are applied according seven directions oriented by 15° increment with respect to the warp direction. Fixed and articulated jaws are used. Analysis of experimental results is done through global (Effort/Elongation curves) and local scales. Global anisotropy was studied from the Effort/Elongation curves: shape, breaking load (Frup), tensile elongation (EMT), tensile energy (WT) and linearity index (LT). Local anisotropy was studied from the measurement of strain tensor components in the central area of the specimen as a function of testing orientation and effort: longitudinal strain ɛL, transverse strain ɛT and shearing ɛLT. The effect of used jaws is also analyzed.

Keywords: Anisotropy, Off-axis tensile test, strain fields, Textile woven fabric.

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374 The Role of Cognitive Decision Effort in Electronic Commerce Recommendation System

Authors: Cheng-Che Tsai, Huang-Ming Chuang

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of cognitive decision effort in recommendation system, combined with indicators "information quality" and "service quality" from IS success model to exam the awareness of the user for the "recommended system performance". A total of 411 internet user answered a questionnaire assessing their attention of use and satisfaction of recommendation system in internet book store. Quantitative result indicates following research results. First, information quality of recommended system has obvious influence in consumer shopping decision-making process, and the attitude to use the system. Second, in the process of consumer's shopping decision-making, the recommendation system has no significant influence for consumers to pay lower cognitive decision-making effort. Third, e-commerce platform provides recommendations and information is necessary, but the quality of information on user needs must be considered, or they will be other competitors offer homogeneous services replaced.

Keywords: Recommender system, Cognitive decision-making efforts, IS success model, Internet bookstore.

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373 Software Engineering Inspired Cost Estimation for Process Modelling

Authors: Felix Baumann, Aleksandar Milutinovic, Dieter Roller

Abstract:

Up to this point business process management projects in general and business process modelling projects in particular could not rely on a practical and scientifically validated method to estimate cost and effort. Especially the model development phase is not covered by a cost estimation method or model. Further phases of business process modelling starting with implementation are covered by initial solutions which are discussed in the literature. This article proposes a method of filling this gap by deriving a cost estimation method from available methods in similar domains namely software development or software engineering. Software development is regarded as closely similar to process modelling as we show. After the proposition of this method different ideas for further analysis and validation of the method are proposed. We derive this method from COCOMO II and Function Point which are established methods of effort estimation in the domain of software development. For this we lay out similarities of the software development process and the process of process modelling which is a phase of the Business Process Management life-cycle.

Keywords: Cost Estimation, Effort Estimation, Process Modelling, Business Process Management, COCOMO.

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372 Spam E-mail: How Malaysian E-mail Users Deal with It?

Authors: Yanti Rosmunie Bujang, Husnayati Hussin

Abstract:

This paper attempts to discuss the spam issue from the Malaysian e-mail users- perspective. The purpose is to discover how Malaysian users handle the spam e-mail problem. From the experiences we hope to discover the necessary effort needed to be undertaken to face this problem in the context of Malaysia. A survey was conducted to understand how Malaysian individual perceived spam and what they actually do with the spam e-mail they received in their daily life. The findings indicate that the level of awareness on spam issue in action is still low and need some extra effort by government and relevant agencies to increase their level of awareness.

Keywords: E-mail, Malaysia, spam, users' perspective.

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371 Determination of the Economic Planning Depth for Assembly Process Planning

Authors: A. Kampker, P. Burggräf, Y. Bäumers

Abstract:

In order to be competitive, companies have to reduce their production costs while meeting increasing quality requirements. Therefore, companies try to plan their assembly processes as detailed as possible. However, increasing product individualization leading to a higher number of variants, smaller batch sizes and shorter product life cycles raise the question to what extent the effort of detailed planning is still justified. An important approach in this field of research is the concept of determining the economic planning depth for assembly process planning based on production specific influencing factors. In this paper first solution hypotheses as well as a first draft of the resulting method will be presented.

Keywords: Assembly process planning, economic planning depth, planning benefit, planning effort.

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370 Touch Interaction through Tagging Context

Authors: Gabriel Chavira, Jorge Orozco, Salvador Nava, Eduardo Álvarez, Julio Rolón, Roberto Pichardo

Abstract:

Ambient Intelligence promotes a shift in computing which involves fitting-out the environments with devices to support context-aware applications. One of main objectives is the reduction to a minimum of the user’s interactive effort, the diversity and quantity of devices with which people are surrounded with, in existing environments; increase the level of difficulty to achieve this goal. The mobile phones and their amazing global penetration, makes it an excellent device for delivering new services to the user, without requiring a learning effort. The environment will have to be able to perceive all of the interaction techniques. In this paper, we present the PICTAC model (Perceiving touch Interaction through TAgging Context), which similarly delivers service to members of a research group.

Keywords: Ambient Intelligence, Tagging Context, Touch Interaction, Touching Services.

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369 Globalisation, ICTs and National Identity: The Consequences of ICT Policy in Malaysia

Authors: Abd Rasid Abd Rahman

Abstract:

For the past thirty years the Malaysian economy has been said to contribute well to the progress of the nations. However, the intensification of global economy activity and the extensive use of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) in recent years are challenging government-s effort to further develop Malaysian society. The competition posed by the low wage economies such as China and Vietnam have made the government realise the importance of engaging in high-skill and high technology industries. It is hoped this will be the basis of attracting more foreign direct investment (FDI) in order to help the country to compete in globalised world. Using Vision 2020 as it targeted vision, the government has decided to engage in the use of ICTs and introduce many policies pertaining to it. Mainly based on the secondary analysis approach, the findings show that policy pertaining to ICTs in Malaysia contributes to economic growth, but the consequences of this have resulted in greater division within society. Although some of the divisions such as gender and ethnicity are narrowing down, the gap in important areas such as regions and class differences is becoming wider. The widespread use of ICTs might contribute to the further establishment of democracy in Malaysia, but the increasing number of foreign entities such as FDI and foreign workers, cultural hybridisation and to some extent cultural domination are contributing to neocolonialism in Malaysia. This has obvious consequences for the government-s effort to create a Malaysian national identity. An important finding of this work is that there are contradictions within ICT policy between the effort to develop the economy and society.

Keywords: Globalisation, ICTs, ICT Policy, Malaysia, National Identity, Vision 2020

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368 Root Growth of Morus alba as Affected by Size of Cuttings and Polythene Low Tunnel

Authors: Irfan Ahmad, Tahir Siddiqui, Rashid Ahmad Khan, Tahir Munir Butt

Abstract:

An effort to find out the smaller size of cuttings for propagation of Morus alba was made in experimental area Department of Forestry, Range Management and Wildlife, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. Different size of cuttings i.e. 2", 4", 6" and 8" were planted in polythene tubes of 3.5"x7". The effort was also made to compare the performance of cuttings in open air and in polythene low tunnel. Root length, number of root branches, root diameter and root fresh and dry weight were found maximum in two inches cuttings while minimum in four inches cuttings. Root growth was found maximum in open air as compared to under polythene sheet.

Keywords: cutting sizes Morus alba, Open air and polythene sheet, root growth

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367 An Algorithm for Determining the Arrival Behavior of a Secondary User to a Base Station in Cognitive Radio Networks

Authors: Danilo López, Edwin Rivas, Leyla López

Abstract:

This paper presents the development of an algorithm that predicts the arrival of a secondary user (SU) to a base station (BS) in a cognitive network based on infrastructure, requesting a Best Effort (BE) or Real Time (RT) type of service with a determined bandwidth (BW) implementing neural networks. The algorithm dynamically uses a neural network construction technique using the geometric pyramid topology and trains a Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks (MLPNN) based on the historical arrival of an SU to estimate future applications. This will allow efficiently managing the information in the BS, since it precedes the arrival of the SUs in the stage of selection of the best channel in CRN. As a result, the software application determines the probability of arrival at a future time point and calculates the performance metrics to measure the effectiveness of the predictions made.

Keywords: Cognitive radio, MLPNN, base station, prediction, best effort, real time.

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366 Program Camouflage: A Systematic Instruction Hiding Method for Protecting Secrets

Authors: Yuichiro Kanzaki, Akito Monden, Masahide Nakamura, Ken-ichi Matsumoto

Abstract:

This paper proposes an easy-to-use instruction hiding method to protect software from malicious reverse engineering attacks. Given a source program (original) to be protected, the proposed method (1) takes its modified version (fake) as an input, (2) differences in assembly code instructions between original and fake are analyzed, and, (3) self-modification routines are introduced so that fake instructions become correct (i.e., original instructions) before they are executed and that they go back to fake ones after they are executed. The proposed method can add a certain amount of security to a program since the fake instructions in the resultant program confuse attackers and it requires significant effort to discover and remove all the fake instructions and self-modification routines. Also, this method is easy to use (with little effort) because all a user (who uses the proposed method) has to do is to prepare a fake source code by modifying the original source code.

Keywords: Copyright protection, program encryption, program obfuscation, self-modification, software protection.

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365 CFD Simulation and Validation of Flap Type Wave-Maker

Authors: Anant Lal, M. Elangovan

Abstract:

A general purpose viscous flow solver Ansys CFX was used to solve the unsteady three-dimensional (3D) Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes Equation (RANSE) for simulating a 3D numerical viscous wave tank. A flap-type wave generator was incorporated in the computational domain to generate the desired incident waves. Authors have made effort to study the physical behaviors of Flap type wave maker with governing parameters. Dependency of the water fill depth, Time period of oscillations and amplitude of oscillations of flap were studied. Effort has been made to establish relations between parameters. A validation study was also carried out against CFD methodology with wave maker theory. It has been observed that CFD results are in good agreement with theoretical results. Beaches of different slopes were introduced to damp the wave, so that it should not cause any reflection from boundary. As a conclusion this methodology can simulate the experimental wave-maker for regular wave generation for different wave length and amplitudes.

Keywords: CFD, RANSE, Flap type, wave-maker, VOF, seakeeping, numerical method.

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364 Enabling Remote Desktop in a Virtualized Environment for Cloud Services

Authors: Shuen-Tai Wang, Yu-Ching Lin, Hsi-Ya Chang

Abstract:

Cloud computing is the innovative and leading information technology model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort. This paper presents our development on enabling an individual user's desktop in a virtualized environment, which is stored on a remote virtual machine rather than locally. We present the initial work on the integration of virtual desktop and application sharing with virtualization technology. Given the development of remote desktop virtualization, this proposed effort has the potential to positively provide an efficient, resilience and elastic environment for online cloud service. Users no longer need to burden the cost of software licenses and platform maintenances. Moreover, this development also helps boost user productivity by promoting a flexible model that lets users access their desktop environments from virtually anywhere.

Keywords: Cloud Computing, Virtualization, Virtual Desktop, Elastic Environment.

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363 Quantifying the Stability of Software Systems via Simulation in Dependency Networks

Authors: Weifeng Pan

Abstract:

The stability of a software system is one of the most important quality attributes affecting the maintenance effort. Many techniques have been proposed to support the analysis of software stability at the architecture, file, and class level of software systems, but little effort has been made for that at the feature (i.e., method and attribute) level. And the assumptions the existing techniques based on always do not meet the practice to a certain degree. Considering that, in this paper, we present a novel metric, Stability of Software (SoS), to measure the stability of object-oriented software systems by software change propagation analysis using a simulation way in software dependency networks at feature level. The approach is evaluated by case studies on eight open source Java programs using different software structures (one employs design patterns versus one does not) for the same object-oriented program. The results of the case studies validate the effectiveness of the proposed metric. The approach has been fully automated by a tool written in Java.

Keywords: Software stability, change propagation, design pattern, software maintenance, object-oriented (OO) software.

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362 An Automatic Model Transformation Methodology Based on Semantic and Syntactic Comparisons and the Granularity Issue Involved

Authors: Tiexin Wang, Sebastien Truptil, Frederick Benaben

Abstract:

Model transformation, as a pivotal aspect of Modeldriven engineering, attracts more and more attentions both from researchers and practitioners. Many domains (enterprise engineering, software engineering, knowledge engineering, etc.) use model transformation principles and practices to serve to their domain specific problems; furthermore, model transformation could also be used to fulfill the gap between different domains: by sharing and exchanging knowledge. Since model transformation has been widely used, there comes new requirement on it: effectively and efficiently define the transformation process and reduce manual effort that involved in. This paper presents an automatic model transformation methodology based on semantic and syntactic comparisons, and focuses particularly on granularity issue that existed in transformation process. Comparing to the traditional model transformation methodologies, this methodology serves to a general purpose: crossdomain methodology. Semantic and syntactic checking measurements are combined into a refined transformation process, which solves the granularity issue. Moreover, semantic and syntactic comparisons are supported by software tool; manual effort is replaced in this way.

Keywords: Automatic model transformation, granularity issue, model-driven engineering, semantic and syntactic comparisons.

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361 Pollution Control and Sustainable Urban Transport System - Electric Vehicle

Authors: M.M. Al Emran Hasan, M.Ektesabi, A.Kapoor

Abstract:

Recently electric vehicles are becoming popular as an alternative of conventional fossil fuel vehicles. Conventional Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) vehicle uses fossil fuel which contributing a major part of overall carbon emission in the environment. Carbon and other green house gas emission are responsible for global warming and resulting climate change. It becomes vital to evaluate performance of vehicle based on emission. In this paper an effort has been made to depict the picture of emission caused by vehicle and scenario of Australia has taken into account. Effort has been made to compare the fossil based vehicle with electric vehicle in phases. The study also evaluates advancement in electric vehicle technology, required infrastructure for sustainability and future scope of developments. This paper also includes the evaluation of electric vehicle concept for pollution control and sustainable transport systems in future. This study can be a benchmark for development of electric vehicle as low carbon emission alternative for the cities of tomorrow.

Keywords: Electric Vehicle, Fossil Fuel, Internal CombustionEngine, Green House Gas, In wheel motor, Smart grid

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