Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30006
Self-Healing Phenomenon Evaluation in Cementitious Matrix with Different Water/Cement Ratios and Crack Opening Age

Authors: V. G. Cappellesso, D. M. G. da Silva, J. A. Arndt, N. dos Santos Petry, A. B. Masuero, D. C. C. Dal Molin


Concrete elements are subject to cracking, which can be an access point for deleterious agents that can trigger pathological manifestations reducing the service life of these structures. Finding ways to minimize or eliminate the effects of this aggressive agents’ penetration, such as the sealing of these cracks, is a manner of contributing to the durability of these structures. The cementitious self-healing phenomenon can be classified in two different processes. The autogenous self-healing that can be defined as a natural process in which the sealing of this cracks occurs without the stimulation of external agents, meaning, without different materials being added to the mixture, while on the other hand, the autonomous seal-healing phenomenon depends on the insertion of a specific engineered material added to the cement matrix in order to promote its recovery. This work aims to evaluate the autogenous self-healing of concretes produced with different water/cement ratios and exposed to wet/dry cycles, considering two ages of crack openings, 3 days and 28 days. The self-healing phenomenon was evaluated using two techniques: crack healing measurement using ultrasonic waves and image analysis performed with an optical microscope. It is possible to observe that by both methods, it possible to observe the self-healing phenomenon of the cracks. For young ages of crack openings and lower water/cement ratios, the self-healing capacity is higher when compared to advanced ages of crack openings and higher water/cement ratios. Regardless of the crack opening age, these concretes were found to stabilize the self-healing processes after 80 days or 90 days.

Keywords: Self-healing, autogenous, water/cement ratio, curing cycles, test methods.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF


[1] M. de Rooij, K. Van Tittelboom, N. de Belie, E. Schlangen, Self-Healing Phenomena in Cement-Based Materials. v. 11. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2013.
[2] K. Van Tittelboom, E. Gruyaert, H. Rahier, N. De Belie, Influence of mix composition on the extent of autogenous crack healing by continued hydration or calcium carbonate formation, Constr. Build. Mater. 37 (0) (2012) 349–359.
[3] P. Termkhajornkit, T. Nawa, Y. Yamashiro, T. Saito, Self-healing ability of fly ash– cement systems, Cem. Concr. Compos. 31 (3) (2009) 195–203.
[4] M. Sahmaran, G. Yildirim, T.K. Erdem, Self-healing capability of cementitious composites incorporating different supplementary cementitious materials, Cem. Concr. Compos. 35 (1) (2013) 89–101.
[5] P. van den Heede, M. Maes, N. de Belie. Influence of active crack width control on the chloride penetration resistance and global warming potential of slabs made with fly ash + silica fume concrete, Construction and Building Materials. v. 67 pp. 74–80, 2014.
[6] J. H. Yu, E. H. Yang Microstructure of self-healed PVA engineered cementitious composites under wet-dry cycles. In: Advances in Applied Ceramics, v. 109, n. 7, pp.399-404, 2010.
[7] M. Maes, D. Snoeck, N. de Belie, Chloride penetration in cracked mortar and the influence of autogenous crack healing. Construction and Building Materials, v. 115, p. 114–124, jul. 2016.
[8] S. Z. Qian, J. Zhou, E. Schlangen, Influence of curing condition and precracking time on the self-healing behavior of engineered cementitious composites. Cement and Concrete Composites. v. 32, pp. 686-693. 2010.
[9] H. Huang, G. Ye, Z. Shui, Feasibility of self-healing in cementitious materials – By using capsules or a vascular system? Construction and Building Materials. v. 63, p. 108–118, jul. 2014.
[10] N. ter Heide, E. Schlangen, Self-healing of early age cracks in concrete. In: Proceedings of the first international conference on self-healingmaterials. Noordwijk aan Zee, The Netherlands, 2007.
[11] K. Sisomphon, O. Copuroglu, E. A. B. Koenders. Effect of exposure conditions on self-healing behavior of strain hardening cementitious composites incorporating various cementitious materials. In:Construction and Building Materials v. 42, pp. 217-224. 2013.
[12] V. G. Cappellesso, N. S. Petry, D. C. C. Dal Molin, A. B. Masuero, Use of crystalline waterproofing to reduce capillary porosity in concrete. Journal of Building Pathology and Rehabilitation. 1:9, p. 12. 2016.
[13] V. C. Li, Y Yang, Self-healing materials: An alternative approach to 20 centuries of materials science. In: S. Van Der Zwaag, p. 161-193. Dordrecht: Springer, 2007.
[14] Y. S. Han, G. Hadiko, M. Fuji, M. Takahashi. Effect of flow rate and CO2 content on the phase and morphology of CaCO3 prepared by bubbling method. Journal of Crystal Growth. v.276 pp. 541–548. 2005.
[15] J. Chen, L. Xiang, Controllable synthesis of calcium carbonate polymorphs at different temperatures. Powder Technology. v.189 pp. 64–69. 2009.
[16] W. Zappa. Pilot-scale experimental work on the production of precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) from steel slag for CO2 fixation. Thesis. School of Engineering. Department of Energy Technology. Aalto University. Finland. p.126. 2014.
[17] H. W. Reinhardt, M Jooss, Permeability and self-healing of cracked concrete as a function of temperature and crack width. Cement and Concrete Research, v. 33, n. 7, p. 981–985, 2003.
[18] O. Çopuroğlu, E. Schlangen, T. Nishiwaki, K. van Tittelbomm, D. Snoeck, N. de Belie, M. R. de Rooij, M.R. Experimental techniques used to verify healing in: Self-Healing Phenomena in Cement-Based Materials. v. 11. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2013.
[19] E. Tsangouri, D. G. Aggelis, N. de belie, T. Shiotani, D. van Hemelrijck. Experimental Techniques synergy towards the design of a sensing tool for autonomously healed concrete. 18th International conference on experimental mechanics (ICEM18), v. 2, p. 449. Bélgica, 2018.
[20] Associação Brasileira De Normas Técnicas. NBR 16697: cimento Portland – requisitos. Rio de Janeiro, 2018.
[21] American Society For Testing And Materials. ASTM C 595: Standard Specification for Blended Hydraulic Cements. West Conshohocken, PA, 2003.
[22] Associação Brasileira De Normas Técnicas. NBR 16605: cimento Portland e outros materiais em pó - determinação da massa específica. Rio de Janeiro, 2017.
[23] Associação Brasileira De Normas Técnicas. NBR 7215: cimento Portland - determinação da resistência à compressão. Rio de Janeiro, 1996.
[24] Associação Brasileira De Normas Técnicas. NBR 7211: agregados para concreto - especificação. Rio de Janeiro, 2009.
[25] Associação Brasileira De Normas Técnicas. NBR NM 67: concreto - determinação da consistência pelo abatimento do tronco de cone. Rio de Janeiro, 1998.
[26] Associação Brasileira De Normas Técnicas. NBR 5738: concreto - procedimento para moldagem e cura de corpos de prova. Rio de Janeiro, 2015.
[27] Associação Brasileira De Normas Técnicas. NBR 6118: Projeto de estruturas de concreto - Procedimento. Rio de Janeiro, 2014.
[28] American Concrete Institute – ACI 318-14: Building code requirements for structural concrete. 2014.
[29] Associação Brasileira De Normas Técnicas. NBR 5739: concreto - ensaios de compressão de corpos-de-prova cilíndricos. Rio de Janeiro, 2018.
[30] K. van Tittelboom, N. de Belie, Self-Healing in Cementitious Materials—A Review. Materials, v. 6, n. 6, p. 2182–2217, 27 maio 2013.
[31] A. M. Neville. Propriedades do concreto. In: CREMONINI, R. A. (Tradução) 5. ed. Porto Alegre: Bookman, 2016.
[32] W. Zhong, W. Yao, Influence of damage degree on self-healing of concrete. Construction and Building Materials. (S.1.). v.22, p.1137-1142. 2008.
[33] Y. Abdel-Jawad, F. Dehn, Self-healing of self-compacting concrete. In: Proceedings of SCC 2005, Orlando, Florida, USA, p. 1023–1029, 2005.
[34] A. Abd-Elmoaty, Self-healing of polymer modified concrete. Alexandria Engineering Journal 50(2), p.171–178. 2011.
[35] L. Bertolini. Materiais de construção: Patologia, Reabilitação e Prevenção. HELENE, P. Oficina de Textos, 2010.
[36] P. K. Mehta, P. J. M. Monteiro. Concreto: estrutura, propriedades e materiais. In: HASPARYK, N. P. (Ed). 2. ed. São Paulo: Ibracon, 2014.
[37] D. Snoeck, J. Dewanckele, V. Cnudde, N. de Belie, X-ray computed microtomography to study autogenous healing of cementitious materials promoted by superabsorbent polymers, Cement and Concrete Composites. v. 65, pp. 83-93, 2016.
[38] L Kan, H Shi, Investigation of self-healing behavior of engineered cementitious composites (ECC) materials. Construction and Building Materials. v.29, pp. 348-356. 2012.
[39] M. Wu, B. Johannesson, M. Geiker, A review: Self-healing in cementitious materials and engineered cementitious composite as a self-healing material. Construction and Building Materials 28. Elsevier. 2012. p.571-583.
[40] T. –H. Ahn, T. Kishi, Crack Self-healing Behavior of Cementitious Composites Incorporating Various Mineral Admixtures. Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology, v. 8, n. 2, p. 171–186, 2010.
[41] D. Chakraborty, V. K. Agarwal, S. K. Bhatia, J. Bellare, Steady-state transitions and polymorph transformations in continuous precipitation of calcium carbonate. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. v.33 pp. 2187-2197. 1994.