Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: organic Rankine cycle (ORC)

10 Conventional and Hybrid Network Energy Systems Optimization for Canadian Community

Authors: Mohamed Ghorab


Local generated and distributed system for thermal and electrical energy is sighted in the near future to reduce transmission losses instead of the centralized system. Distributed Energy Resources (DER) is designed at different sizes (small and medium) and it is incorporated in energy distribution between the hubs. The energy generated from each technology at each hub should meet the local energy demands. Economic and environmental enhancement can be achieved when there are interaction and energy exchange between the hubs. Network energy system and CO2 optimization between different six hubs presented Canadian community level are investigated in this study. Three different scenarios of technology systems are studied to meet both thermal and electrical demand loads for the six hubs. The conventional system is used as the first technology system and a reference case study. The conventional system includes boiler to provide the thermal energy, but the electrical energy is imported from the utility grid. The second technology system includes combined heat and power (CHP) system to meet the thermal demand loads and part of the electrical demand load. The third scenario has integration systems of CHP and Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) where the thermal waste energy from the CHP system is used by ORC to generate electricity. General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) is used to model DER system optimization based on energy economics and CO2 emission analyses. The results are compared with the conventional energy system. The results show that scenarios 2 and 3 provide an annual total cost saving of 21.3% and 32.3 %, respectively compared to the conventional system (scenario 1). Additionally, Scenario 3 (CHP & ORC systems) provides 32.5% saving in CO2 emission compared to conventional system subsequent case 2 (CHP system) with a value of 9.3%.  

Keywords: Distributed energy resources, network energy system, optimization, microgeneration system.

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9 Performance Analysis of Organic Rankine Cycle Technology to Exploit Low-Grade Waste Heat to Power Generation in Indian Industry

Authors: Bipul Krishna Saha, Basab Chakraborty, Ashish Alex Sam, Parthasarathi Ghosh


The demand for energy is cumulatively increasing with time.  Since the availability of conventional energy resources is dying out gradually, significant interest is being laid on searching for alternate energy resources and minimizing the wastage of energy in various fields.  In such perspective, low-grade waste heat from several industrial sources can be reused to generate electricity. The present work is to further the adoption of the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) technology in Indian industrial sector.  The present paper focuses on extending the previously reported idea to the next level through a comparative review with three different working fluids using practical data from an Indian industrial plant. For comprehensive study in the simulation platform of Aspen Hysys®, v8.6, the waste heat data has been collected from a current coke oven gas plant in India.  A parametric analysis of non-regenerative ORC and regenerative ORC is executed using the working fluids R-123, R-11 and R-21 for subcritical ORC system.  The primary goal is to determine the optimal working fluid considering various system parameters like turbine work output, obtained system efficiency, irreversibility rate and second law efficiency under applied multiple heat source temperature (160 °C- 180 °C).  Selection of the turbo-expanders is one of the most crucial tasks for low-temperature applications in ORC system. The present work is an attempt to make suitable recommendation for the appropriate configuration of the turbine. In a nutshell, this study justifies the proficiency of integrating the ORC technology in Indian perspective and also finds the appropriate parameter of all components integrated in ORC system for building up an ORC prototype.

Keywords: Organic rankine cycle, regenerative organic rankine cycle, waste heat recovery, Indian industry.

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8 Simulation of Solar Assisted Absorption Cooling and Electricity Generation along with Thermal Storage

Authors: Faezeh Mosallat, Eric L. Bibeau, Tarek El Mekkawy


Parabolic solar trough systems have seen limited deployments in cold northern climates as they are more suitable for electricity production in southern latitudes. A numerical dynamic model is developed to simulate troughs installed in cold climates and validated using a parabolic solar trough facility in Winnipeg. The model is developed in Simulink and will be utilized to simulate a trigeneration system for heating, cooling and electricity generation in remote northern communities. The main objective of this simulation is to obtain operational data of solar troughs in cold climates and use the model to determine ways to improve the economics and address cold weather issues. In this paper the validated Simulink model is applied to simulate a solar assisted absorption cooling system along with electricity generation using Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) and thermal storage. A control strategy is employed to distribute the heated oil from solar collectors among the above three systems considering the temperature requirements. This modelling provides dynamic performance results using measured meteorological data recorded every minute at the solar facility location. The purpose of this modeling approach is to accurately predict system performance at each time step considering the solar radiation fluctuations due to passing clouds. Optimization of the controller in cold temperatures is another goal of the simulation to for example minimize heat losses in winter when energy demand is high and solar resources are low. The solar absorption cooling is modeled to use the generated heat from the solar trough system and provide cooling in summer for a greenhouse which is located next to the solar field. The results of the simulation are presented for a summer day in Winnipeg which includes comparison of performance parameters of the absorption cooling and ORC systems at different heat transfer fluid (HTF) temperatures.

Keywords: Absorption cooling, parabolic solar trough, remote community, organic Rankine cycle.

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7 Modelling of Organic Rankine Cycle for Waste Heat Recovery Process in Supercritical Condition

Authors: Jahedul Islam Chowdhury, Bao Kha Nguyen, David Thornhill, Roy Douglas, Stephen Glover


Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is the most commonly used method for recovering energy from small sources of heat. The investigation of the ORC in supercritical condition is a new research area as it has a potential to generate high power and thermal efficiency in a waste heat recovery system. This paper presents a steady state ORC model in supercritical condition and its simulations with a real engine’s exhaust data. The key component of ORC, evaporator, is modelled using finite volume method, modelling of all other components of the waste heat recovery system such as pump, expander and condenser are also presented. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effects of mass flow rate and evaporator outlet temperature on the efficiency of the waste heat recovery process. Additionally, the necessity of maintaining an optimum evaporator outlet temperature is also investigated. Simulation results show that modification of mass flow rate is the key to changing the operating temperature at the evaporator outlet.

Keywords: Organic Rankine cycle, supercritical condition, steady state model, waste heat recovery.

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6 A Second Law Assessment of Organic Rankine Cycle Depending on Source Temperature

Authors: Kyoung Hoon Kim


Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) has potential in reducing fossil fuels and relaxing environmental problems. In this work performance analysis of ORC is conducted based on the second law of thermodynamics for recovery of low temperature heat source from 100oC to 140oC using R134a as the working fluid. Effects of system parameters such as turbine inlet pressure or source temperature are theoretically investigated on the exergy destructions (anergies) at various components of the system as well as net work production or exergy efficiency. Results show that the net work or exergy efficiency has a peak with respect to the turbine inlet pressure when the source temperature is low, however, increases monotonically with increasing turbine inlet pressure when the source temperature is high.

Keywords: Organic Rankine cycle (ORC), low temperature heat source, exergy, source temperature.

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5 A Design of the Organic Rankine Cycle for the Low Temperature Waste Heat

Authors: K. Fraňa, M. Müller


A presentation of the design of the Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) with heat regeneration and superheating processes is a subject of this paper. The maximum temperature level in the ORC is considered to be 110°C and the maximum pressure varies up to 2.5MPa. The selection process of the appropriate working fluids, thermal design and calculation of the cycle and its components are described. With respect to the safety, toxicity, flammability, price and thermal cycle efficiency, the working fluid selected is R134a. As a particular example, the thermal design of the condenser used for the ORC engine with a theoretical thermal power of 179 kW was introduced. The minimal heat transfer area for a completed condensation was determined to be approximately 520m2

Keywords: Organic Rankine Cycle, thermal efficiency, working fluids.

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4 Optimal Green Facility Planning - Implementation of Organic Rankine Cycle System for Factory Waste Heat Recovery

Authors: Chun-Wei Lin, Yu-Lin Chen


As global industry developed rapidly, the energy demand also rises simultaneously. In the production process, there’s a lot of energy consumed in the process. Formally, the energy used in generating the heat in the production process. In the total energy consumption, 40% of the heat was used in process heat, mechanical work, chemical energy and electricity. The remaining 50% were released into the environment. It will cause energy waste and environment pollution. There are many ways for recovering the waste heat in factory. Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system can produce electricity and reduce energy costs by recovering the waste of low temperature heat in the factory. In addition, ORC is the technology with the highest power generating efficiency in low-temperature heat recycling. However, most of factories executives are still hesitated because of the high implementation cost of the ORC system, even a lot of heat are wasted. Therefore, this study constructs a nonlinear mathematical model of waste heat recovery equipment configuration to maximize profits. A particle swarm optimization algorithm is developed to generate the optimal facility installation plan for the ORC system.

Keywords: Green facility planning, organic rankine cycle, particle swarm optimization, waste heat recovery.

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3 Solar Energy Collection using a Double-layer Roof

Authors: S. Kong Wang


The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficiency of a double-layer roof in collecting solar energy as an application to the areas such as raising high-end temperature of organic Rankine cycle (ORC). The by-product of the solar roof is to reduce building air-conditioning loads. The experimental apparatus are arranged to evaluate the effects of the solar roof in absorbing solar energy. The flow channel is basically formed by an aluminum plate on top of a plywood plate. The geometric configurations in which the effects of absorbing energy is analyzed include: a bare uncovered aluminum plate, a glass-covered aluminum plate, a glass-covered/black-painted aluminum plate, a plate with variable lengths, a flow channel with stuffed material (in an attempt on enhancement of heat conduction), and a flow channel with variable slanted angles. The experimental results show that the efficiency of energy collection varies from 0.6 % to 11 % for the geometric configurations mentioned above. An additional study is carried out using CFD simulation to investigate the effects of fins on the aluminum plate. It shows that due to vastly enhanced heat conduction, the efficiency can reach ~23 % if 50 fins are installed on the aluminum plate. The study shows that a double-layer roof can efficiently absorb solar energy and substantially reduce building air-conditioning loads. On the high end of an organic Rankine cycle, a solar pond is used to replace the warm surface water of the sea as OTEC (ocean thermal energy conversion) is the driving energy for the ORC. The energy collected from the double-layered solar roof can be pumped into the pond and raise the pond temperature as the pond surface area is equivalently increased by nearly one-fourth of the total area of the double-layer solar roof. The effect of raising solar pond temperature is especially prominent if the double-layer solar roofs are installed in a community area.

Keywords: solar energy collection, double-layer solar roof, energy conservation, ORC, OTEC

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2 Effects of Superheating on Thermodynamic Performance of Organic Rankine Cycles

Authors: Kyoung Hoon Kim


Recently ORC(Organic Rankine Cycle) has attracted much attention due to its potential in reducing consumption of fossil fuels and its favorable characteristics to exploit low-grade heat sources. In this work thermodynamic performance of ORC with superheating of vapor is comparatively assessed for various working fluids. Special attention is paid to the effects of system parameters such as the evaporating temperature and the turbine inlet temperature on the characteristics of the system such as maximum possible work extraction from the given source, volumetric flow rate per 1 kW of net work and quality of the working fluid at turbine exit as well as thermal and exergy efficiencies. Results show that for a given source the thermal efficiency increases with decrease of the superheating but exergy efficiency may have a maximum value with respect to the superheating of the working fluid. Results also show that in selection of working fluid it is required to consider various criteria of performance characteristics as well as thermal efficiency.

Keywords: organic Rankine cycle (ORC), low-grade energysource, Patel-Teja equation, thermodynamic performance

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1 Efficiency of Compact Organic Rankine Cycle System with Rotary-Vane-Type Expander for Low-Temperature Waste Heat Recovery

Authors: Musthafah b. Mohd.Tahir, Noboru Yamada, Tetsuya Hoshino


This paper describes the experimental efficiency of a compact organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system with a compact rotary-vane-type expander. The compact ORC system can be used for power generation from low-temperature heat sources such as waste heat from various small-scale heat engines, fuel cells, electric devices, and solar thermal energy. The purpose of this study is to develop an ORC system with a low power output of less than 1 kW with a hot temperature source ranging from 60°C to 100°C and a cold temperature source ranging from 10°C to 30°C. The power output of the system is rather less due to limited heat efficiency. Therefore, the system should have an economically optimal efficiency. In order to realize such a system, an efficient and low-cost expander is indispensable. An experimental ORC system was developed using the rotary-vane-type expander which is one of possible candidates of the expander. The experimental results revealed the expander performance for various rotation speeds, expander efficiencies, and thermal efficiencies. Approximately 30 W of expander power output with 48% expander efficiency and 4% thermal efficiency with a temperature difference between the hot and cold sources of 80°C was achieved.

Keywords: Organic Rankine cycle, Thermodynamic cycle, Thermal efficiency, Turbine efficiency, Waste heat recovery, Powergeneration, Low temperature heat engine.

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