Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3833

Search results for: low temperature heat sources

3833 Natural and Mixed Convection Heat Transfer Cooling of Discrete Heat Sources Placed Near the Bottom on a PCB

Authors: Tapano Kumar Hotta, S P Venkateshan

Abstract:

Steady state experiments have been conducted for natural and mixed convection heat transfer, from five different sized protruding discrete heat sources, placed at the bottom position on a PCB and mounted on a vertical channel. The characteristic length ( Lh ) of heat sources vary from 0.005 to 0.011 m. The study has been done for different range of Reynolds number and modified Grashof number. From the experiment, the surface temperature distribution and the Nusselt number of discrete heat sources have been obtained and the effects of Reynold number and Richardson number on them have been discussed. The objective is to find the rate of heat dissipation from heat sources, by placing them at the bottom position on a PCB and to compare both modes of cooling of heat sources.

Keywords: Discrete heat source, mixed convection, natural convection, vertical channel

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1820
3832 Combining Molecular Statics with Heat Transfer Finite Difference Method for Analysis of Nanoscale Orthogonal Cutting of Single-Crystal Silicon Temperature Field

Authors: Zone-Ching Lin, Meng-Hua Lin, Ying-Chih Hsu

Abstract:

This paper uses quasi-steady molecular statics model and diamond tool to carry out simulation temperature rise of nanoscale orthogonal cutting single-crystal silicon. It further qualitatively analyzes temperature field of silicon workpiece without considering heat transfer and considering heat transfer. This paper supposes that the temperature rise of workpiece is mainly caused by two heat sources: plastic deformation heat and friction heat. Then, this paper develops a theoretical model about production of the plastic deformation heat and friction heat during nanoscale orthogonal cutting. After the increased temperature produced by these two heat sources are added up, the acquired total temperature rise at each atom of the workpiece is substituted in heat transfer finite difference equation to carry out heat transfer and calculates the temperature field in each step and makes related analysis.

Keywords: Quasi-steady molecular statics, Nanoscale orthogonal cutting, Finite difference, Temperature.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1745
3831 Influence of Flash Temperature on Exergetical Performance of Organic Flash Cycle

Authors: Kyoung Hoon Kim, Chul Ho Han

Abstract:

Organic Flash Cycle (OFC) has potential of improving efficiency for recovery of low temperature heat sources mainly due to reducing temperature mismatch in the heat exchanger. In this work exergetical performance analysis of ORC is conducted for recovery of low grade heat source. Effects of system parameters such as flash evaporation temperature or heating temperature are theoretically investigated on the exergy destructions (anergies) at various components of the system as well as exergy efficiency. Results show that exergy efficiency has a peak with respect to the flash temperature, and the optimum flash temperature increases with the heating temperature. The component where the largest exergy destruction occurs varies with the flash temperature or heating temperature.

Keywords: Organic flash cycle (OFC), low grade heat source, exergy, anergy, flash temperature.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1616
3830 Applying Different Working Fluids in a Combined Power and Ejector Refrigeration Cycle with Low Temperature Heat Sources

Authors: Samad Jafarmadar, Amin Habibzadeh

Abstract:

A power and cooling cycle, which combines the organic Rankine cycle and the ejector refrigeration cycle supplied by waste heat energy sources, is discussed in this paper. 13 working fluids including wet, dry, and isentropic fluids are studied in order to find their performances on the combined cycle. Various operating conditions’ effects on the proposed cycle are examined by fixing power/refrigeration ratio. According to the results, dry and isentropic fluids have better performance compared with wet fluids.

Keywords: Combined power and refrigeration cycle, low temperature heat sources, organic rankine cycle, working fluids.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 487
3829 Efficiency of Compact Organic Rankine Cycle System with Rotary-Vane-Type Expander for Low-Temperature Waste Heat Recovery

Authors: Musthafah b. Mohd.Tahir, Noboru Yamada, Tetsuya Hoshino

Abstract:

This paper describes the experimental efficiency of a compact organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system with a compact rotary-vane-type expander. The compact ORC system can be used for power generation from low-temperature heat sources such as waste heat from various small-scale heat engines, fuel cells, electric devices, and solar thermal energy. The purpose of this study is to develop an ORC system with a low power output of less than 1 kW with a hot temperature source ranging from 60°C to 100°C and a cold temperature source ranging from 10°C to 30°C. The power output of the system is rather less due to limited heat efficiency. Therefore, the system should have an economically optimal efficiency. In order to realize such a system, an efficient and low-cost expander is indispensable. An experimental ORC system was developed using the rotary-vane-type expander which is one of possible candidates of the expander. The experimental results revealed the expander performance for various rotation speeds, expander efficiencies, and thermal efficiencies. Approximately 30 W of expander power output with 48% expander efficiency and 4% thermal efficiency with a temperature difference between the hot and cold sources of 80°C was achieved.

Keywords: Organic Rankine cycle, Thermodynamic cycle, Thermal efficiency, Turbine efficiency, Waste heat recovery, Powergeneration, Low temperature heat engine.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3255
3828 Effect of Flow Holes on Heat Release Performance of Extruded-type Heat Sink

Authors: Jung Hyun Kim, Gyo Woo Lee

Abstract:

In this study, the enhancement of the heat release performance of an extruded-type heat sink to prepare the large-capacity solar inverter thru the flow holes in the base plate near the heat sources was investigated. Optimal location and number of the holes in the baseplate were determined by using a commercial computation program. The heat release performance of the shape-modified heat sink was measured experimentally and compared with that of the simulation. The heat sink with 12 flow holes in the 18-mm-thick base plate has a 8.1% wider heat transfer area, a 2.5% more mass flow of air, and a 2.7% higher heat release rate than those of the original heat sink. Also, the surface temperature of the base plate was lowered 1.5oC by the holes.

Keywords: Heat Sink, Forced Convection, Heat Transfer, Performance Evaluation, Flow Holes.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1521
3827 Simultaneous Determination of Reference Free-Stream Temperature and Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient

Authors: Giho Jeong, Sooin Jeong, Kuisoon Kim

Abstract:

It is very important to determine reference temperature when convective temperature because it should be used to calculate the temperature potential. This paper deals with the development of a new method that can determine heat transfer coefficient and reference free stream temperature simultaneously, based on transient heat transfer experiments with using two narrow band thermo-tropic liquid crystals (TLC's). The method is validated through error analysis in terms of the random uncertainties in the measured temperatures. It is shown how the uncertainties in heat transfer coefficient and free stream temperature can be reduced. The general method described in this paper is applicable to many heat transfer models with unknown free stream temperature.

Keywords: Heat transfer coefficient, Thermo-tropic LiquidCrystal (TLC), Free stream temperature.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1393
3826 Numerical Study of Heat Release of the Symmetrically Arranged Extruded-Type Heat Sinks

Authors: Man Young Kim, Gyo Woo Lee

Abstract:

In this numerical study, we want to present the design of highly efficient extruded-type heat sink. The symmetrically arranged extruded-type heat sinks are used instead of a single extruded or swaged-type heat sink. In this parametric study, the maximum temperatures, the base temperatures between heaters, and the heat release rates were investigated with respect to the arrangements of heat sources, air flow rates, and amounts of heat input. Based on the results we believe that the use of both side of heat sink is to be much better for release the heat than the use of single side. Also from the results, it is believed that the symmetric arrangement of heat sources is recommended to achieve a higher heat transfer from the heat sink.

Keywords: Heat Sink, Forced Convection, Heat Transfer, Performance Evaluation, Symmetrically Arranged.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1397
3825 Heat Stress Monitor by Using Low-Cost Temperature and Humidity Sensors

Authors: Kiattisak Batsungnoen, Thanatchai Kulworawanichpong

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to develop a cost-effective WBGT heat stress monitor which provides precise heat stress measurement. The proposed device employs SHT15 and DS18B20 as a temperature and humidity sensors, respectively, incorporating with ATmega328 microcontroller. The developed heat stress monitor was calibrated and adjusted to that of the standard temperature and humidity sensors in the laboratory. The results of this study illustrated that the mean percentage error and the standard deviation from the measurement of the globe temperature was 2.33 and 2.71 respectively, while 0.94 and 1.02 were those of the dry bulb temperature, 0.79 and 0.48 were of the wet bulb temperature, and 4.46 and 1.60 were of the relative humidity sensor. This device is relatively low-cost and the measurement error is acceptable.

Keywords: Heat stress monitor, WBGT, Temperature and Humidity Sensors.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2213
3824 Simulation on the Performance of Carbon Dioxide and HFC-125 Heat Pumpsfor Medium-and High-Temperature Heating

Authors: Young-Jin Baikand, Minsung Kim

Abstract:

In order to compare the performance of the carbon dioxide and HFC-125 heat pumps for medium-and high-temperature heating, both heat pump cycles were optimized using a simulation method. To fairly compare the performance of the cycles by using different working fluids, each cycle was optimized from the viewpoint of heating COP by two design parameters. The first is the gas cooler exit temperature and the other is the ratio of the overall heat conductance of the gas cooler to the combined overall heat conductance of the gas cooler and the evaporator. The inlet and outlet temperatures of secondary fluid of the gas cooler were fixed at 40/90°C and 40/150°C.The results shows that the HFC-125 heat pump has 6% higher heating COP than carbon dioxide heat pump when the heat sink exit temperature is fixed at 90ºC, while the latter outperforms the former when the heat sink exit temperature is fixed at 150ºC under the simulation conditions considered in the present study.

Keywords: Carbon dioxide, HFC-125, trans critical, heat pump.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1406
3823 Heat transfer Characteristics of Fin-and-Tube heat Exchanger under Condensing Conditions

Authors: Abdenour Bourabaa, Mohamed Saighi, Said El Metenani

Abstract:

In the present work an investigation of the effects of the air frontal velocity, relative humidity and dry air temperature on the heat transfer characteristics of plain finned tube evaporator has been conducted. Using an appropriate correlation for the air side heat transfer coefficient the temperature distribution along the fin surface was calculated using a dimensionless temperature distribution. For a constant relative humidity and bulb temperature, it is found that the temperature distribution decreases with increasing air frontal velocity. Apparently, it is attributed to the condensate water film flowing over the fin surface. When dry air temperature and face velocity are being kept constant, the temperature distribution decreases with the increase of inlet relative humidity. An increase in the inlet relative humidity is accompanied by a higher amount of moisture on the fin surface. This results in a higher amount of latent heat transfer which involves higher fin surface temperature. For the influence of dry air temperature, the results here show an increase in the dimensionless temperature parameter with a decrease in bulb temperature. Increasing bulb temperature leads to higher amount of sensible and latent heat transfer when other conditions remain constant.

Keywords: Fin efficiency, heat and mass transfer, dehumidifying conditions, finned tube heat exchangers.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1911
3822 Effect of Sintering Temperature Curve in Wick Manufactured for Loop Heat Pipe

Authors: Shen-Chun Wu, Chuo-Jeng Huang, Wun-Hong Yang, Jy-Cheng Chang, Chien-Chun Kung

Abstract:

This investigation examines the effect of the sintering temperature curve in manufactured nickel powder capillary structure (wick) for a loop heat pipe (LHP). The sintering temperature curve is composed of a region of increasing temperature; a region of constant temperature and a region of declining temperature. The most important region is that in which the temperature increases, as an index in the stage in which the temperature increases. The wick of nickel powder is manufactured in the stage of fixed sintering temperature and the time between the stage of constant temperature and the stage of falling temperature. When the slope of the curve in the region of increasing temperature is unity (equivalent to 10 °C/min), the structure of the wick is complete and the heat transfer performance is optimal. The result of experiment test demonstrates that the heat transfer performance is optimal at 320W; the minimal total thermal resistance is approximately 0.18°C/W, and the heat flux is 17W/cm2; the internal parameters of the wick are an effective pore radius of 3.1 μm, a permeability of 3.25×10-13m2 and a porosity of 71%.

Keywords: Loop heat pipe (LHP), capillary structure (wick), sintered temperature curve.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1908
3821 Impact of Viscous and Heat Relaxation Loss on the Critical Temperature Gradients of Thermoacoustic Stacks

Authors: Zhibin Yu, Artur J. Jaworski, Abdulrahman S. Abduljalil

Abstract:

A stack with a small critical temperature gradient is desirable for a standing wave thermoacoustic engine to obtain a low onset temperature difference (the minimum temperature difference to start engine-s self-oscillation). The viscous and heat relaxation loss in the stack determines the critical temperature gradient. In this work, a dimensionless critical temperature gradient factor is obtained based on the linear thermoacoustic theory. It is indicated that the impedance determines the proportion between the viscous loss, heat relaxation losses and the power production from the heat energy. It reveals the effects of the channel dimensions, geometrical configuration and the local acoustic impedance on the critical temperature gradient in stacks. The numerical analysis shows that there exists a possible optimum combination of these parameters which leads to the lowest critical temperature gradient. Furthermore, several different geometries have been tested and compared numerically.

Keywords: Critical temperature gradient, heat relaxation, stack, viscous effect.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1563
3820 Heat Transfer Analysis of Rectangular Channel Plate Heat Sink

Authors: Zhang Lei, Liu Min, Liu Botao

Abstract:

In order to improve the simulation effects of space cold black environment, this paper described a rectangular channel plate heat sink. By using fluid mechanics theory and finite element method, the internal fluid flow and heat transfer in heat sink was numerically simulated to analyze the impact of channel structural on fluid flow and heat transfer. The result showed that heat sink temperature uniformity is well, and the impact of channel structural on the heat sink temperature uniformity is not significant. The channel depth and spacing are important factors which affect the fluid flow and heat transfer in the heat sink. The two factors of heat transfer and resistance need to be considered comprehensively to determine the optimal flow structure parameters.

Keywords: heat transfer, heat sink, numerical simulation

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1597
3819 Numerical Simulation and Analysis on Liquid Nitrogen Spray Heat Exchanger

Authors: Wenjing Ding, Weiwei Shan, Zijuan, Wang, Chao He

Abstract:

Liquid spray heat exchanger is the critical equipment of temperature regulating system by gaseous nitrogen which realizes the environment temperature in the range of -180 ℃~+180 ℃. Liquid nitrogen is atomized into smaller liquid drops through liquid nitrogen sprayer and then contacts with gaseous nitrogen to be cooled. By adjusting the pressure of liquid nitrogen and gaseous nitrogen, the flowrate of liquid nitrogen is changed to realize the required outlet temperature of heat exchanger. The temperature accuracy of shrouds is ±1 ℃. Liquid nitrogen spray heat exchanger is simulated by CATIA, and the numerical simulation is performed by FLUENT. The comparison between the tests and numerical simulation is conducted. Moreover, the results help to improve the design of liquid nitrogen spray heat exchanger.

Keywords: Liquid nitrogen spray, temperature regulating system, heat exchanger, numerical simulation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 753
3818 An Accurate Prediction of Surface Temperature History in a Supersonic Flight

Authors: A. M. Tahsini, S. A. Hosseini

Abstract:

In the present study, the surface temperature history of the adaptor part in a two-stage supersonic launch vehicle is accurately predicted. The full Navier-Stokes equations are used to estimate the aerodynamic heat flux and the one-dimensional heat conduction in solid phase is used to compute the temperature history. The instantaneous surface temperature is used to improve the applied heat flux, to improve the accuracy of the results.

Keywords: Aerodynamic heating, Heat conduction, Numerical simulation, Supersonic flight, Launch vehicle.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1483
3817 Cascaded Transcritical/Supercritical CO2 Cycles and Organic Rankine Cycles to Recover Low-Temperature Waste Heat and LNG Cold Energy Simultaneously

Authors: Haoshui Yu, Donghoi Kim, Truls Gundersen

Abstract:

Low-temperature waste heat is abundant in the process industries, and large amounts of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) cold energy are discarded without being recovered properly in LNG terminals. Power generation is an effective way to utilize low-temperature waste heat and LNG cold energy simultaneously. Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs) and CO2 power cycles are promising technologies to convert low-temperature waste heat and LNG cold energy into electricity. If waste heat and LNG cold energy are utilized simultaneously in one system, the performance may outperform separate systems utilizing low-temperature waste heat and LNG cold energy, respectively. Low-temperature waste heat acts as the heat source and LNG regasification acts as the heat sink in the combined system. Due to the large temperature difference between the heat source and the heat sink, cascaded power cycle configurations are proposed in this paper. Cascaded power cycles can improve the energy efficiency of the system considerably. The cycle operating at a higher temperature to recover waste heat is called top cycle and the cycle operating at a lower temperature to utilize LNG cold energy is called bottom cycle in this study. The top cycle condensation heat is used as the heat source in the bottom cycle. The top cycle can be an ORC, transcritical CO2 (tCO2) cycle or supercritical CO2 (sCO2) cycle, while the bottom cycle only can be an ORC due to the low-temperature range of the bottom cycle. However, the thermodynamic path of the tCO2 cycle and sCO2 cycle are different from that of an ORC. The tCO2 cycle and the sCO2 cycle perform better than an ORC for sensible waste heat recovery due to a better temperature match with the waste heat source. Different combinations of the tCO2 cycle, sCO2 cycle and ORC are compared to screen the best configurations of the cascaded power cycles. The influence of the working fluid and the operating conditions are also investigated in this study. Each configuration is modeled and optimized in Aspen HYSYS. The results show that cascaded tCO2/ORC performs better compared with cascaded ORC/ORC and cascaded sCO2/ORC for the case study.

Keywords: LNG cold energy, low-temperature waste heat, organic Rankine cycle, supercritical CO2 cycle, transcritical CO2 cycle.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 783
3816 A Review of Heat Pipe Heat Exchangers Activity in Asia

Authors: Ehsan Firouzfar, Maryam Attaran

Abstract:

Heat pipes are two-phase heat transfer devices with high effective thermal conductivity. Due to the high heat transport capacity, heat exchanger with heat pipes has become much smaller than traditional heat exchangers in handling high heat fluxes. With the working fluid in a heat pipe, heat can be absorbed on the evaporator region and transported to the condenser region where the vapour condenses releasing the heat to the cooling media. Heat pipe technology has found increasing applications in enhancing the thermal performance of heat exchangers in microelectranics, energy saving in HVAC systems for operating rooms,surgery centers, hotels, cleanrooms etc, temperature regulation systems for the human body and other industrial sectors. Development activity in heat pipe and thermosyphon technology in asia in recent years is surveyed. Some new results obtained in Australia and other countries are also included.

Keywords: Heat pipe heat exchanger, Thermosyphone, effectiveness, HVAC system, energy saving, temperature regulation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3346
3815 Modeling the Effect of Spacer Orientation on Heat Transfer in Membrane Distillation

Authors: M. Shakaib, M. Ehtesham-ul Haq, I. Ahmed, R.M. Yunus

Abstract:

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations carried out in this paper show that spacer orientation has a major influence on temperature patterns and on the heat transfer rates. The local heat flux values significantly vary from high to very low values at each filament when spacer touches the membrane surface. The heat flux profile is more uniform when spacer filaments are not in contact with the membrane thus making this arrangement more beneficial. The temperature polarization is also found to be less in this case when compared to the empty channel.

Keywords: heat transfer, membrane distillation, spacer, temperature polarization.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1465
3814 Estimation of Natural Convection Heat Transfer from Plate-Fin Heat Sinks in a Closed Enclosure

Authors: Han-Taw Chen, Chung-Hou Lai, Tzu-Hsiang Lin, Ge-Jang He

Abstract:

This study applies the inverse method and three- dimensional CFD commercial software in conjunction with the experimental temperature data to investigate the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of the plate-fin heat sink in a closed rectangular enclosure for various values of fin height. The inverse method with the finite difference method and the experimental temperature data is applied to determine the heat transfer coefficient. The k-ε turbulence model is used to obtain the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics within the fins. To validate the accuracy of the results obtained, the comparison of the average heat transfer coefficient is made. The calculated temperature at selected measurement locations on the plate-fin is also compared with experimental data.

Keywords: Inverse method, FLUENT, k-ε model, Heat transfer characteristics, Plate-fin heat sink.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3492
3813 Numerical Simulation of Heat Exchanger Area of R410A-R23 and R404A-R508B Cascade Refrigeration System at Various Evaporating and Condensing Temperature

Authors: A. D. Parekh, P. R. Tailor

Abstract:

Capacity and efficiency of any refrigerating system diminish rapidly as the difference between the evaporating and condensing temperature is increased by reduction in the evaporator temperature. The single stage vapour compression refrigeration system is limited to an evaporator temperature of -40 0C. Below temperature of -40 0C the either cascade refrigeration system or multi stage vapour compression system is employed. Present work describes thermal design of main three heat exchangers namely condenser (HTS), cascade condenser and evaporator (LTS) of R404A-R508B and R410A-R23 cascade refrigeration system. Heat transfer area of condenser (HTS), cascade condenser and evaporator (LTS) for both systems have been compared and the effect of condensing and evaporating temperature on heat-transfer area for both systems have been studied under same operating condition. The results shows that the required heat-transfer area of condenser and cascade condenser for R410A-R23 cascade system is lower than the R404A-R508B cascade system but heat transfer area of evaporator is similar for both the system. The heat transfer area of condenser and cascade condenser decreases with increase in condensing temperature (Tc), whereas the heat transfer area of cascade condenser and evaporator increases with increase in evaporating temperature (Te).

Keywords: Heat-transfer area, R410A, R404A, R508B, R23, Refrigeration system, Thermal design

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2129
3812 Numerical and Infrared Mapping of Temperature in Heat Affected Zone during Plasma Arc Cutting of Mild Steel

Authors: Dalvir Singh, Somnath Chattopadhyaya

Abstract:

During welding or flame cutting of metals, the prediction of heat affected zone (HAZ) is critical. There is need to develop a simple mathematical model to calculate the temperature variation in HAZ and derivative analysis can be used for this purpose. This study presents analytical solution for heat transfer through conduction in mild steel plate. The homogeneous and nonhomogeneous boundary conditions are single variables. The full field analytical solutions of temperature measurement, subjected to local heating source, are derived first by method of separation of variables followed with the experimental visualization using infrared imaging. Based on the present work, it is suggested that appropriate heat input characteristics controls the temperature distribution in and around HAZ.

Keywords: Conduction Heat Transfer, Heat Affected Zone (HAZ), Infra-Red Imaging, Numerical Method, Orthogonal Function, Plasma Arc Cutting, Separation of Variables, Temperature Measurement.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1397
3811 Performance Analysis of Absorption Power Cycle under Different Source Temperatures

Authors: Kyoung Hoon Kim

Abstract:

The absorption power generation cycle based on the ammonia-water mixture has attracted much attention for efficient recovery of low-grade energy sources. In this paper a thermodynamic performance analysis is carried out for a Kalina cycle using ammonia-water mixture as a working fluid for efficient conversion of low-temperature heat source in the form of sensible energy. The effects of the source temperature on the system performance are extensively investigated by using the thermodynamic models. The results show that the source temperature as well as the ammonia mass fraction affects greatly on the thermodynamic performance of the cycle.

Keywords: Ammonia-water mixture, Kalina cycle, low-grade heat source, source temperature.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2076
3810 Modelling of Organic Rankine Cycle for Waste Heat Recovery Process in Supercritical Condition

Authors: Jahedul Islam Chowdhury, Bao Kha Nguyen, David Thornhill, Roy Douglas, Stephen Glover

Abstract:

Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is the most commonly used method for recovering energy from small sources of heat. The investigation of the ORC in supercritical condition is a new research area as it has a potential to generate high power and thermal efficiency in a waste heat recovery system. This paper presents a steady state ORC model in supercritical condition and its simulations with a real engine’s exhaust data. The key component of ORC, evaporator, is modelled using finite volume method, modelling of all other components of the waste heat recovery system such as pump, expander and condenser are also presented. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effects of mass flow rate and evaporator outlet temperature on the efficiency of the waste heat recovery process. Additionally, the necessity of maintaining an optimum evaporator outlet temperature is also investigated. Simulation results show that modification of mass flow rate is the key to changing the operating temperature at the evaporator outlet.

Keywords: Organic Rankine cycle, supercritical condition, steady state model, waste heat recovery.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2796
3809 Quebec Elementary Pre-service Teachers’ Conceptual Representations about Heat and Temperature

Authors: Abdeljalil Métioui

Abstract:

This article identifies the conceptual representations of 128 students enrolled in elementary pre-service teachers’ education in the Province of Quebec, Canada (ages 19-24). To construct their conceptual representations relatively to notions of heat and temperature, we use a qualitative research approach. For that, we distributed them a questionnaire including four questions. The result demonstrates that these students tend to view the temperature as a measure of the hotness of an object or person. They also related the sensation of cold (or warm) to the difference in temperature, and for their majority, the physical change of the matter does not require a constant temperature. These representations are inaccurate relatively to the scientific views, and we will see that they are relevant to the design of teaching strategies based on conceptual conflict.

Keywords: Conceptual representations, heat, temperature, pre-service teachers, elementary school.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 319
3808 Analytic and Finite Element Solutions for Temperature Profiles in Welding using Varied Heat Source Models

Authors: Djarot B. Darmadi, John Norrish, Anh Kiet Tieu

Abstract:

Solutions for the temperature profile around a moving heat source are obtained using both analytic and finite element (FEM) methods. Analytic and FEM solutions are applied to study the temperature profile in welding. A moving heat source is represented using both point heat source and uniform distributed disc heat source models. Analytic solutions are obtained by solving the partial differential equation for energy conservation in a solid, and FEM results are provided by simulating welding using the ANSYS software. Comparison is made for quasi steady state conditions. The results provided by the analytic solutions are in good agreement with results obtained by FEM.

Keywords: Analytic solution, FEM, Temperature profile, HeatSource Model

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1794
3807 Numerical Simulation of R410a-R23 and R404A-R508B Cascade Refrigeration System

Authors: A. D. Parekh, P. R. Tailor, Tejendra Patel

Abstract:

Capacity and efficiency of any refrigerating system diminish rapidly as the difference between the evaporating and condensing temperature is increased by a reduction in the evaporator temperature. The single stage vapour compression refrigeration system using various refrigerants are limited to an evaporator temperature of -40 0C. Below temperature of -40 0C the either cascade refrigeration system or multi stage vapour compression system is employed. Present work describes thermal design of condenser (HTS), cascade condenser and evaporator (LTS) of R404A-R508B and R410A-R23 cascade refrigeration system. Heat transfer area of condenser, cascade condenser and evaporator for both systems are compared and the effect of condenser and evaporator temperature on heat-transfer area for both systems is studied under same operating condition. The results shows that the required heat-transfer area of condenser and cascade condenser for R410A-R23 cascade system is lower than the R404A-R508B cascade system but heat transfer area of evaporator is similar for both the system. The heat transfer area of condenser and cascade condenser decreases with increase in condenser temperature (Tc), whereas the heat transfer area of cascade condenser and evaporator increases with increase in evaporator temperature (Te).

Keywords: Heat-transfer area, R410A, R404A, R508B, R23, Refrigeration system, Thermal design

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4193
3806 Study of Temperature Distribution in Coolant Channel of Nuclear Power with Fuel Cylinder Element Using Fluent Software

Authors: Elham Zamiri

Abstract:

In this research, we have focused on numeral simulation of a fuel rod in order to examine distribution of heat temperature in components of fuel rod by Fluent software by providing steady state, single phase fluid flow, frequency heat flux in a fuel rod in nuclear reactor to numeral simulation. Results of examining different layers of a fuel rod consist of fuel layer, gap, pod, and fluid cooling flow, also examining thermal properties and fluids such as heat transition rate and pressure drop. The obtained results through analytical method and results of other sources have been compared and have appropriate correspondence. Results show that using heavy water as cooling fluid along with few layers of gas and pod have the ability of reducing the temperature from above 300 C to 70 C. This investigation is developable for any geometry and material used in the nuclear reactor.

Keywords: Nuclear fuel fission, numberal simulation, fuel rod, reactor, fluent software.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 358
3805 Study of Natural Convection Heat Transfer of Plate-Fin Heat Sink in a Closed Enclosure

Authors: Han-Taw Chen, Tzu-Hsiang Lin, Chung-Hou Lai

Abstract:

The present study applies the inverse method and three-dimensional CFD commercial software in conjunction with the experimental temperature data to investigate the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of the plate-fin heat sink in a rectangular closed enclosure. The inverse method with the finite difference method and the experimental temperature data is applied to determine the approximate heat transfer coefficient. Later, based on the obtained results, the zero-equation turbulence model is used to obtain the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics between two fins. T0 validate the accuracy of the results obtained, the comparison of the heat transfer coefficient is made. The obtained temperature at selected measurement locations of the fin is also compared with experimental data. The effect of the height of the rectangular enclosure on the obtained results is discussed.

Keywords: Inverse method, FLUENT, Plate-fin heat sink, Heat transfer characteristics.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2015
3804 Transient Heat Transfer of a Spiral Fin

Authors: Sen-Yung Lee, Li-Kuo Chou, Chao-Kuang Chen

Abstract:

In this study, the problem of temperature transient response of a spiral fin, with its end insulated, is analyzed with base end subjected to a variation of fluid temperature. The hybrid method of Laplace transforms/Adomian decomposed method-Padé, is applied to the temperature transient response of the fin, the result of the temperature distribution and the heat flux at the base of the spiral fin are obtained, show a good agreement in the physical phenomenon.

Keywords: Laplace transforms/Adomian decomposed method- Padé, transient response, heat transfer.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1062