Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: Coefficient of performance

13 Numerical Study of the Influence of the Primary Stream Pressure on the Performance of the Ejector Refrigeration System Based on Heat Exchanger Modeling

Authors: Elhameh Narimani, Mikhail Sorin, Philippe Micheau, Hakim Nesreddine

Abstract:

Numerical models of the heat exchangers in ejector refrigeration system (ERS) were developed and validated with the experimental data. The models were based on the switched heat exchangers model using the moving boundary method, which were capable of estimating the zones’ lengths, the outlet temperatures of both sides and the heat loads at various experimental points. The developed models were utilized to investigate the influence of the primary flow pressure on the performance of an R245fa ERS based on its coefficient of performance (COP) and exergy efficiency. It was illustrated numerically and proved experimentally that increasing the primary flow pressure slightly reduces the COP while the exergy efficiency goes through a maximum before decreasing.

Keywords: Coefficient of performance, ejector refrigeration system, exergy efficiency, heat exchangers modeling, moving boundary method.

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12 Solar-Powered Adsorption Cooling System: A Case Study on the Climatic Conditions of Al Minya

Authors: El-Sadek H. Nour El-deen, K. Harby

Abstract:

Energy saving and environment friendly applications are turning out to be one of the most important topics nowadays. In this work, a simulation analysis using TRNSYS software has been carried out to study the benefit of employing a solar adsorption cooling system under the climatic conditions of Al-Minya city, Egypt. A theoretical model was carried out on a two bed adsorption cooling system employing granular activated carbon-HFC-404A as working pair. Temporal and averaged history of solar collector, adsorbent beds, evaporator and condenser has been shown. System performance in terms of daily average cooling capacity and average coefficient of performance around the year has been investigated. The results showed that maximum yearly average coefficient of performance (COP) and cooling capacity are about 0.26 and 8 kW respectively. The maximum value of the both average cooling capacity and COP cyclic is directly proportional to the maximum solar radiation. The system performance was found to be increased with the average ambient temperature. Finally, the proposed solar powered adsorption cooling systems can be used effectively under Al-Minya climatic conditions.

Keywords: Adsorption, solar energy, environment, cooling, Egypt.

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11 Experimental Analysis of the Influence of Water Mass Flow Rate on the Performance of a CO2 Direct-Expansion Solar Assisted Heat Pump

Authors: Sabrina N. Rabelo, Tiago de F. Paulino, Willian M. Duarte, Samer Sawalha, Luiz Machado

Abstract:

Energy use is one of the main indicators for the economic and social development of a country, reflecting directly in the quality of life of the population. The expansion of energy use together with the depletion of fossil resources and the poor efficiency of energy systems have led many countries in recent years to invest in renewable energy sources. In this context, solar-assisted heat pump has become very important in energy industry, since it can transfer heat energy from the sun to water or another absorbing source. The direct-expansion solar assisted heat pump (DX-SAHP) water heater system operates by receiving solar energy incident in a solar collector, which serves as an evaporator in a refrigeration cycle, and the energy reject by the condenser is used for water heating. In this paper, a DX-SAHP using carbon dioxide as refrigerant (R744) was assembled, and the influence of the variation of the water mass flow rate in the system was analyzed. The parameters such as high pressure, water outlet temperature, gas cooler outlet temperature, evaporator temperature, and the coefficient of performance were studied. The mainly components used to assemble the heat pump were a reciprocating compressor, a gas cooler which is a countercurrent concentric tube heat exchanger, a needle-valve, and an evaporator that is a copper bare flat plate solar collector designed to capture direct and diffuse radiation. Routines were developed in the LabVIEW and CoolProp through MATLAB software’s, respectively, to collect data and calculate the thermodynamics properties. The range of coefficient of performance measured was from 3.2 to 5.34. It was noticed that, with the higher water mass flow rate, the water outlet temperature decreased, and consequently, the coefficient of performance of the system increases since the heat transfer in the gas cooler is higher. In addition, the high pressure of the system and the CO2 gas cooler outlet temperature decreased. The heat pump using carbon dioxide as a refrigerant, especially operating with solar radiation has been proven to be a renewable source in an efficient system for heating residential water compared to electrical heaters reaching temperatures between 40 °C and 80 °C.

Keywords: Water mass flow rate, R-744, heat pump, solar evaporator, water heater.

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10 Thermodynamic Analysis of an Ejector-Absorption Refrigeration Cycle with Using NH3-H2O

Authors: Samad Jafarmadar, Amin Habibzadeh, Mohammad Mehdi Rashidi, Sayed Sina Rezaei, Abbas Aghagoli

Abstract:

In this paper, the ejector-absorption refrigeration cycle is presented. This article deals with the thermodynamic simulation and the first and second law analysis of an ammonia-water. The effects of parameters such as condenser, absorber, generator, and evaporator temperatures have been investigated. The influence of the various operating parameters on the performance coefficient and exergy efficiency of this cycle has been studied. The results show that when the temperature of different parts increases, the performance coefficient and the exergy efficiency of the cycle decrease, except for evaporator and generator, that causes an increase in coefficient of performance (COP). According to the results, absorber and ejector have the highest exergy losses in the studied conditions.

Keywords: Absorption refrigeration, COP, ejector, exergy efficiency.

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9 Production of Ultra-Low Temperature by the Vapor Compression Refrigeration Cycles with Environment Friendly Working Fluids

Authors: Sameh Frikha, Mohamed Salah Abid

Abstract:

We investigate the performance of an integrated cascade (IC) refrigeration system which uses environment friendly zeotropic mixtures. Computational calculation has been carried out by varying pressure level at the evaporator and the condenser of the system. Effects of mass flow rate of the refrigerant on the coefficient of performance (COP) are presented. We show that the integrated cascade system produces ultra-low temperatures in the evaporator by using environment friendly zeotropic mixture.

Keywords: Coefficient of Performance, Environment friendly zeotropic mixture, Integrated cascade, Ultra low temperature, Vapor compression refrigeration cycles.

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8 Energy Saving Potential with Improved Concrete in Ice Rink Floor Designs

Authors: Ehsan B. Haghighi, Pavel Makhnatch, Jörgen Rogstam

Abstract:

The ice rink floor is the largest heat exchanger in an ice rink. The important part of the floor consists of concrete, and the thermophysical properties of this concrete have strong influence on the energy usage of the ice rink. The thermal conductivity of concrete can be increased by using iron ore as ballast. In this study, the Transient Plane Source (TPS) method showed an increase up to 58.2% of thermal conductivity comparing the improved concrete to standard concrete. Moreover, two alternative ice rink floor designs are suggested to incorporate the improved concrete. A 2D simulation was developed to investigate the temperature distribution in the conventional and the suggested designs. The results show that the suggested designs reduce the temperature difference between the ice surface and the brine by 1-4˚C, when comparing with convectional designs at equal heat flux. This primarily leads to an increased coefficient of performance (COP) in the primary refrigeration cycle and secondly to a decrease in the secondary refrigerant pumping power. The suggested designs have great potential to reduce the energy usage of ice rinks. Depending on the load scenario in the ice rink, the saving potential lies in the range of 3-10% of the refrigeration system energy usage. This calculation is based on steady state conditions and the potential with improved dynamic behavior is expected to increase the potential saving.

Keywords: Concrete, iron ore, ice rink, energy saving.

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7 Thermodynamic Performance of a Combined Power and Ejector Refrigeration Cycle

Authors: Hyung Jong Ko, Kyoung Hoon Kim

Abstract:

In this study thermodynamic performance analysis of a combined organic Rankine cycle and ejector refrigeration cycle is carried out for use of low-grade heat source in the form of sensible energy. Special attention is paid to the effects of system parameters including the turbine inlet temperature and turbine inlet pressure on the characteristics of the system such as ratios of mass flow rate, net work production, and refrigeration capacity as well as the coefficient of performance and exergy efficiency of the system. Results show that for a given source the coefficient of performance increases with increasing of the turbine inlet pressure. However, the exergy efficiency has an optimal condition with respect to the turbine inlet pressure.

Keywords: Coefficient of performance, ejector refrigeration cycle, exergy efficiency, low-grade energy, organic rankine cycle.

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6 Performance of Heat Pump Dryer for Kaffir Lime Leaves and Quality of Dried Products under Different Temperatures and Media

Authors: N. Poomsa-ad, K. Deejing, L. Wiset

Abstract:

This research is to study the performance of heat pump dryer for drying of kaffir lime leaves under different media and to compare the color values and essential oil content of final products after drying. In the experiments, kaffir lime leaves were dried in the closed-loop system at drying temperatures of 40, 50 and 60 oC. The drying media used in this study were hot air, CO2 and N2 gases. The velocity of drying media in the drying chamber was 0.4 m/s with bypass ratio of 30%. The initial moisture content of kaffir lime leaves was approximately 180-190 % d.b. It was dried until down to a final moisture content of 10% d.b. From the experiments, the results showed that drying rate, the coefficient of performance (COP) and specific energy consumption (SEC) depended on drying temperature. While drying media did not affect on drying rate. The time for kaffir lime leaves drying at 40, 50 and 60 oC was 10, 5 and 3 hours, respectively. The performance of the heat pump system decreased with drying temperature in the range of 2.20-3.51. In the aspect of final product color, the greenness and overall color had a great change under drying temperature at 60 oC rather than drying at 40 and 50 oC. When compared among drying media, the greenness and overall color of product dried with hot air at 60 oC had a great change rather than dried with CO2 and N2.

Keywords: airless drying, drying rate, essential oil content

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5 Optimization of R507A-R23 Cascade Refrigeration System using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: A. D. Parekh, P. R. Tailor, H.R Jivanramajiwala

Abstract:

The present work deals with optimization of cascade refrigeration system using eco friendly refrigerants pair R507A and R23. R507A is azeotropic mixture composed of HFC refrigerants R125/R143a (50%/50% by wt.). R23 is a single component HFC refrigerant used as replacement to CFC refrigerant R13 in low temperature applications. These refrigerants have zero ozone depletion potential and are non-flammable. Optimization of R507AR23 cascade refrigeration system performance parameters such as minimum work required, refrigeration effect, coefficient of performance and exergetic efficiency was carried out in terms of eight operating parameters- combinations using Genetic Algorithm tool. The eight operating parameters include (1) low side evaporator temperature (2) high side condenser temperature (3) temperature difference in the cascade heat exchanger (4) low side condenser temperature (5) low side degree of subcooling (6) high side degree of subcooling (7) low side degree of superheating (8) high side degree of superheating. Results show that for minimum work system should operate at high temperature in low side evaporator, low temperature in high side condenser, low temperature difference in cascade condenser, high temperature in low side condenser and low degree of subcooling and superheating in both side. For maximum refrigeration effect system should operate at high temperature in low side evaporator, high temperature in high side condenser, high temperature difference in cascade condenser, low temperature in low side condenser and higher degree of subcooling in LT and HT side. For maximum coefficient of performance and exergetic efficiency, system should operate at high temperature in low side evaporator, low temperature in high side condenser, low temperature difference in cascade condenser, high temperature in low side condenser and higher degree of subcooling and superheating in low side of the system.

Keywords: Cascade refrigeration system, Genetic Algorithm, R507A, R23,

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4 Thermodynamic Analysis of a Novel Thermal Driven Refrigeration System

Authors: Linghui Zhu, Junjie Gu

Abstract:

Thermal-driven refrigeration systems have attracted increasing research and development interest in recent years. These systems do not cause ozone depletion and can reduce demand on electricity. The main objective of this work is to perform theoretical analyses of a thermal-driven refrigeration system using a new sorbent-sorptive pair as the working pair. The active component of sorbent is sodium thiocyanate (NaSCN). Ammonia (NH3) is chosen as sorptive. Based on the thermodynamic properties of the working solution, a mathematical model is introduced to analyze the system characteristics and performance. The results are used to compare with other thermal-driven refrigeration systems. It is shown that the advantages provided by this system over other absorption units include lower generator and evaporator temperatures, a higher coefficient of performance (COP). The COP is about 10 percent higher than the ones for the NH3-H2O system working at the same conditions.

Keywords: Absorption; Ammonia-Sodium thiocyanate, Exergy, coefficient of performance (COP)

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3 Study on Using the Ground as A Heat Sink for A 12,000-Btu/h Modified Air Conditioner

Authors: W. Permchart, S. Tanatvanit

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of the experimental tests of the cooling performance of a 12,000-Btu/h modified air conditioner (referred to as M-AC) that use the ground as a heat sink of a condenser. In the tests, cooling capacity of M-AC with an optimal length of a condensing coil as well as life expectancy of copper coil buried underground were investigated. The lengths of copper coil fabricated and used as condenser coil of M-AC were set at 67, 50, 40 and 30 m whereas that of a 12,000-Btu/h conventional split-type air conditioner (referred to as C-AC) was about 22 m. The results showed that the ground can absorb heat rejected from a condenser of M-AC. The coefficient of performance (COP) of C-AC was about 2.5 whereas those of M-AC were found to be higher. It was found that the values of COP of M-AC with condensing coils of 67, 50 and 40 m long were about 6.9, 5.5 and 3.3, respectively, while that of 30-m-long one was found to be about 2.1. The electrical consumptions of M-AC were found lower than that of C-AC in the range of 11.5 – 15.5%. Additionally, life expectancy of underground condensing coil of M-AC was found to be over 7 years.

Keywords: Air conditioner, condenser, copper coil, ground.

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2 Thermodynamic Analysis of Activated Carbon- CO2 based Adsorption Cooling Cycles

Authors: Skander Jribi, Anutosh Chakraborty, Ibrahim I. El-Sharkawy, Bidyut Baran Saha, Shigeru Koyama

Abstract:

Heat powered solid sorption is a feasible alternative to electrical vapor compression refrigeration systems. In this paper, activated carbon (powder type Maxsorb and fiber type ACF-A10)- CO2 based adsorption cooling cycles are studied using the pressuretemperature- concentration (P-T-W) diagram. The specific cooling effect (SCE) and the coefficient of performance (COP) of these two cooling systems are simulated for the driving heat source temperatures ranging from 30 ºC to 90 ºC in terms of different cooling load temperatures with a cooling source temperature of 25 ºC. It is found from the present analysis that Maxsorb-CO2 couple shows higher cooling capacity and COP. The maximum COPs of Maxsorb-CO2 and ACF(A10)-CO2 based cooling systems are found to be 0.15 and 0.083, respectively. The main innovative feature of this cooling cycle is the ability to utilize low temperature waste heat or solar energy using CO2 as the refrigerant, which is one of the best alternative for applications where flammability and toxicity are not allowed.

Keywords: Activated carbon, Adsorption cooling system, Carbon dioxide, Performance evaluation.

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1 Effect of Valve Pressure Drop in Exergy Analysis of C2+ Recovery Plants Refrigeration Cycles

Authors: B. Tirandazi, M. Mehrpooya, A. Vatani

Abstract:

This paper provides an exergy analysis of the multistage refrigeration cycle used for C2+ recovery plant. The behavior of an industrial refrigeration cycle with refrigerant propane has been investigated by the exergy method. A computational model based on the exergy analysis is presented for the investigation of the effects of the valves on the exergy losses, the second law of efficiency, and the coefficient of performance (COP) of a vapor compression refrigeration cycle. The equations of exergy destruction and exergetic efficiency for the main cycle components such as evaporators, condensers, compressors, and expansion valves are developed. The relations for the total exergy destruction in the cycle and the cycle exergetic efficiency are obtained. An ethane recovery unit with its refrigeration cycle has been simulated to prepare the exergy analysis. Using a typical actual work input value; the exergetic efficiency of the refrigeration cycle is determined to be 39.90% indicating a great potential for improvements. The simulation results reveal that the exergetic efficiencies of the heat exchanger and expansion sections get the lowest rank among the other compartments of refrigeration cycle. Refrigeration calculations have been carried out through the analysis of T–S and P–H diagrams where coefficient of performance (COP) was obtained as 1.85. The novelty of this article includes the effect and sensitivity analysis of molar flow, pressure drops and temperature on the exergy efficiency and coefficient of performance of the cycle.

Keywords: exergy; Valve; CRP; refrigeration cycle; propane refrigerant; C2+ Recovery; Ethane Recovery;.

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