Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1497

Search results for: motor for washing machine

1497 Analysis of the Result for the Accelerated Life Cycle Test of the Motor for Washing Machine by Using Acceleration Factor

Authors: Youn-Sung Kim, Jin-Ho Jo, Mi-Sung Kim, Jae-Kun Lee

Abstract:

Accelerated life cycle test is applied to various products or components in order to reduce the time of life cycle test in industry. It must be considered for many test conditions according to the product characteristics for the test and the selection of acceleration parameter is especially very important. We have carried out the general life cycle test and the accelerated life cycle test by applying the acceleration factor (AF) considering the characteristics of brushless DC (BLDC) motor for washing machine. The final purpose of this study is to verify the validity by analyzing the results of the general life cycle test and the accelerated life cycle test. It will make it possible to reduce the life test time through the reasonable accelerated life cycle test.

Keywords: Accelerated life cycle test, reliability test, motor for washing machine, brushless dc motor test.

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1496 A Study on the Accelerated Life Cycle Test Method of the Motor for Home Appliances by Using Acceleration Factor

Authors: Youn-Sung Kim, Mi-Sung Kim, Jae-Kun Lee

Abstract:

This paper deals with the accelerated life cycle test method of the motor for home appliances that demand high reliability. Life Cycle of parts in home appliances also should be 10 years because life cycle of the home appliances such as washing machine, refrigerator, TV is at least 10 years. In case of washing machine, the life cycle test method of motor is advanced for 3000 cycle test (1cycle = 2hours). However, 3000 cycle test incurs loss for the time and cost. Objectives of this study are to reduce the life cycle test time and the number of test samples, which could be realized by using acceleration factor for the test time and reduction factor for the number of sample.

Keywords: Accelerated life cycle test, motor reliability test, motor for washing machine, BLDC motor.

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1495 Conceptual Design of a Customer Friendly Variable Volume and Variable Spinning Speed Washing Machine

Authors: C. A. Akaash Emmanuel Raj, V. R. Sanal Kumar

Abstract:

In this paper using smart materials we have proposed a specially manufactured variable volume spin tub for loading clothes for negating the vibration to a certain extent for getting better operating performance. Additionally, we have recommended a variable spinning speed rotor for handling varieties of garments for an efficient washing, aiming for increasing the life span of both the garments and the machine. As a part of the conflicting dynamic constraints and demands of the customer friendly design optimization of a lucrative and cosmetic washing machine we have proposed a drier and a desalination system capable to supply desirable heat and a pleasing fragrance to the garments. We thus concluded that while incorporating variable volume and variable spinning speed tub integrated with a drier and desalination system, the washing machine could meet the varieties of domestic requirements of the customers cost-effectively.

Keywords: Customer friendly washing machine, drier design, quick cloth cleaning, variable tub volume washing machine, variable spinning speed washing machine.

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1494 Optimization of Tolerance Grades of a Bearing and Shaft Assembly in a Washing Machine with Regard to Fatigue Life

Authors: M. Cangi, T. Dolar, C. Ersoy, Y. E. Aydogdu, A. I. Aydeniz, A. Mugan

Abstract:

The drum is one of the critical parts in a washing machine in which the clothes are washed and spin by the rotational movement. It is activated by the drum shaft which is attached to an electric motor and subjected to dynamic loading. Being one of the critical components, failures of the drum require costly repairs of dynamic components. In this study, tolerance bands between the drum shaft and its two bearings were examined to develop a relationship between the fatigue life of the shaft and the interaction tolerances. Optimization of tolerance bands was completed in consideration of the fatigue life of the shaft as the cost function. The following methodology is followed: multibody dynamic model of a washing machine was constructed and used to calculate dynamic loading on the components. Then, these forces were used in finite element analyses to calculate the stress field in critical components which was used for fatigue life predictions. The factors affecting the fatigue life were examined to find optimum tolerance grade for a given test condition. Numerical results were verified by experimental observations.

Keywords: Fatigue life, finite element analysis, tolerance analysis, optimization.

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1493 On the Efficiency of a Double-Cone Gravitational Motor and Generator

Authors: Barenten Suciu, Akio Miyamura

Abstract:

In this paper, following the study-case of an inclined plane gravitational machine, efficiency of a double-cone gravitational motor and generator is evaluated. Two types of efficiency ratios, called translational efficiency and rotational efficiency, are defined relative to the intended duty of the gravitational machine, which can be either the production of translational kinetic energy, or rotational kinetic energy. One proved that, for pure rolling movement of the double- cone, in the absence of rolling friction, the total mechanical energy is conserved. In such circumstances, as the motion of the double-cone progresses along rails, the translational efficiency decreases and the rotational efficiency increases, in such way that sum of the rotational and translational efficiencies remains unchanged and equal to 1. Results obtained allow a comparison of the gravitational machine with other types of motor-generators, in terms of the achievable efficiency.

Keywords: Truncated double-cone, friction, rolling and sliding, efficiency, gravitational motor and generator.

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1492 The Effect of Pulsator on Washing Performance in a Front-Loading Washer

Authors: Eung Ryeol Seo, Hee Tae Lim, Eunsuk Bang, Soon Cheol Kweon, Jeoung-Kyo Jeoung, Ji-Hoon Choic

Abstract:

The object of this study is to investigate the effect of pulsator on washing performance quantitatively for front-loading washer. The front-loading washer with pulsator shows washing performance improvement of 18% and the particle-based body simulation technique has been applied to figure out the relation between washing performance and mechanical forces exerted on textile during washing process. As a result, the mechanical forces, such as collision force and strain force, acting on the textile have turned out to be about twice numerically. The washing performance improvement due to additional pulsate system has been utilized for customers to save 50% of washing time.

Keywords: Front-loading washer, mechanical force, fabric movement, pulsator, time saving.

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1491 Motor Imagery Signal Classification for a Four State Brain Machine Interface

Authors: Hema C. R., Paulraj M. P., S. Yaacob, A. H. Adom, R. Nagarajan

Abstract:

Motor imagery classification provides an important basis for designing Brain Machine Interfaces [BMI]. A BMI captures and decodes brain EEG signals and transforms human thought into actions. The ability of an individual to control his EEG through imaginary mental tasks enables him to control devices through the BMI. This paper presents a method to design a four state BMI using EEG signals recorded from the C3 and C4 locations. Principle features extracted through principle component analysis of the segmented EEG are analyzed using two novel classification algorithms using Elman recurrent neural network and functional link neural network. Performance of both classifiers is evaluated using a particle swarm optimization training algorithm; results are also compared with the conventional back propagation training algorithm. EEG motor imagery recorded from two subjects is used in the offline analysis. From overall classification performance it is observed that the BP algorithm has higher average classification of 93.5%, while the PSO algorithm has better training time and maximum classification. The proposed methods promises to provide a useful alternative general procedure for motor imagery classification

Keywords: Motor Imagery, Brain Machine Interfaces, Neural Networks, Particle Swarm Optimization, EEG signal processing.

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1490 FEA- Aided Design, Optimization and Development of an Axial Flux Motor for Implantable Ventricular Assist Device

Authors: Neethu S., Shinoy K.S., A.S. Shajilal

Abstract:

This paper presents the optimal design and development of an axial flux motor for blood pump application. With the design objective of maximizing the motor efficiency and torque, different topologies of AFPM machine has been examined. Selection of optimal magnet fraction, Halbach arrangement of rotor magnets and the use of Soft Magnetic Composite (SMC) material for the stator core results in a novel motor with improved efficiency and torque profile. The results of the 3D Finite element analysis for the novel motor have been shown.

Keywords: Axial flux motor, Finite Element Methods, Halbach array, Left Ventricular Assist Device, Soft magnetic composite.

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1489 Design Consideration of a Plastic Shredder in Recycling Processes

Authors: Tolulope A. Olukunle

Abstract:

Plastic waste management has emerged as one of the greatest challenges facing developing countries. This paper describes the design of various components of a plastic shredder. This machine is widely used in industries and recycling plants. The introduction of plastic shredder machine will promote reduction of post-consumer plastic waste accumulation and serves as a system for wealth creation and empowerment through conversion of waste into economically viable products. In this design research, a 10 kW electric motor with a rotational speed of 500 rpm was chosen to drive the shredder. A pulley size of 400 mm is mounted on the electric motor at a distance of 1000 mm away from the shredder pulley. The shredder rotational speed is 300 rpm.

Keywords: Design, machine, plastic waste, recycling.

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1488 Design of 3-Step Skew BLAC Motor for Better Performance in Electric Power Steering System

Authors: Design of 3-Step Skew BLAC Motor for Better Performance in Electric Power Steering System

Abstract:

In Electric Power Steering (EPS), spoke type Brushless AC (BLAC) motors offer distinct advantages over other electric motor types in terms torque smoothness, reliability and efficiency. This paper deals with the shape optimization of spoke type BLAC motor, in order to reduce cogging torque. This paper examines 3 steps skewing rotor angle, optimizing rotor core edge and rotor overlap length for reducing cogging torque in spoke type BLAC motor. The methods were applied to existing machine designs and their performance was calculated using finite- element analysis (FEA). Prototypes of the machine designs were constructed and experimental results obtained. It is shown that the FEA predicted the cogging torque to be nearly reduce using those methods.

Keywords: EPS, 3-Step skewing, spoke type BLAC, cogging torque, FEA, optimization.

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1487 Matlab/Simulink-Based Transient Stability Analysis Of A Sensorless Synchronous Reluctance Motor

Authors: Mostafa.A. Fellani, Daw .E. Abaid

Abstract:

This paper deals with stability analysis for synchronous reluctance motors drive. Special attention is paid to the transient performance with variations in motor's parameters such as Ld and Rs. A study of the dynamic control using d-q model is presented first in order to clarify the stability of the motor drive system. Based on the experimental parameters of the synchronous reluctance motor, this paper gives some simulation results using MATLAB/SIMULINK software packages. It is concluded that the motor parameters, especially Ld, affect the estimator stability and hence the whole drive system.

Keywords: Dynamic Simulation, MATLAB, PWM-inverter, Reluctance Machine, Sensorless Control

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1486 Simulation of Static Frequency Converter for Synchronous Machine Operation and Investigation of Shaft Voltage

Authors: Arun Kumar Datta, M. A. Ansari, N. R. Mondal, B. V. Raghavaiah, Manisha Dubey, Shailendra Jain

Abstract:

This study is carried out to understand the effects of Static frequency converter (SFC) on large machine. SFC has a feature of four quadrant operations. By virtue of this it can be implemented to run a synchronous machine either as a motor or alternator. This dual mode operation helps a single machine to start & run as a motor and then it can be converted as an alternator whenever required. One such dual purpose machine is taken here for study. This machine is installed at a laboratory carrying out short circuit test on high power electrical equipment. SFC connected with this machine is broadly described in this paper. The same SFC has been modeled with the MATLAB/Simulink software. The data applied on this virtual model are the actual parameters from SFC and synchronous machine. After running the model, simulated machine voltage and current waveforms are validated with the real measurements. Processing of these waveforms is done through Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) which reveals that the waveforms are not sinusoidal rather they contain number of harmonics. These harmonics are the major cause of generating shaft voltage. It is known that bearings of electrical machine are vulnerable to current flow through it due to shaft voltage. A general discussion on causes of shaft voltage in perspective with this machine is presented in this paper.

Keywords: Alternators, AC-DC power conversion, capacitive coupling, electric discharge machining, frequency converter, Fourier transforms, inductive coupling, simulation, Shaft voltage, synchronous machines, static excitation, thyristor.

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1485 Volume Density of Power of Multivector Electric Machine

Authors: Aldan A. Sapargaliyev, Yerbol A. Sapargaliyev

Abstract:

Since the invention, the electric machine (EM) can be defined as oEM – one-vector electric machine, as it works due to one-vector inductive coupling with use of one-vector electromagnet. The disadvantages of oEM are large size and limited efficiency at low and medium power applications. This paper describes multi-vector electric machine (mEM) based on multi-vector inductive coupling, which is characterized by the increased surface area of ​​the inductive coupling per EM volume, with a reduced share of inefficient and energy-consuming part of the winding, in comparison with oEM’s. Particularly, it is considered, calculated and compared the performance of three different electrical motors and their power at the same volumes and rotor frequencies. It is also presented the result of calculation of correlation between power density and volume for oEM and mEM. The method of multi-vector inductive coupling enables mEM to possess 1.5-4.0 greater density of power per volume and significantly higher efficiency, in comparison with today’s oEM, especially in low and medium power applications. mEM has distinct advantages, when used in transport vehicles such as electric cars and aircrafts.

Keywords: Electric machine, electric motor, electromagnet, efficiency of electric motor.

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1484 Motor Imaginary Signal Classification Using Adaptive Recursive Bandpass Filter and Adaptive Autoregressive Models for Brain Machine Interface Designs

Authors: Vickneswaran Jeyabalan, Andrews Samraj, Loo Chu Kiong

Abstract:

The noteworthy point in the advancement of Brain Machine Interface (BMI) research is the ability to accurately extract features of the brain signals and to classify them into targeted control action with the easiest procedures since the expected beneficiaries are of disabled. In this paper, a new feature extraction method using the combination of adaptive band pass filters and adaptive autoregressive (AAR) modelling is proposed and applied to the classification of right and left motor imagery signals extracted from the brain. The introduction of the adaptive bandpass filter improves the characterization process of the autocorrelation functions of the AAR models, as it enhances and strengthens the EEG signal, which is noisy and stochastic in nature. The experimental results on the Graz BCI data set have shown that by implementing the proposed feature extraction method, a LDA and SVM classifier outperforms other AAR approaches of the BCI 2003 competition in terms of the mutual information, the competition criterion, or misclassification rate.

Keywords: Adaptive autoregressive, adaptive bandpass filter, brain machine Interface, EEG, motor imaginary.

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1483 EEG-Based Fractal Analysis of Different Motor Imagery Tasks using Critical Exponent Method

Authors: Montri Phothisonothai, Masahiro Nakagawa

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to characterize the spontaneous Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals of four different motor imagery tasks and to show hereby a possible solution for the present binary communication between the brain and a machine ora Brain-Computer Interface (BCI). The processing technique used in this paper was the fractal analysis evaluated by the Critical Exponent Method (CEM). The EEG signal was registered in 5 healthy subjects,sampling 15 measuring channels at 1024 Hz.Each channel was preprocessed by the Laplacian space ltering so as to reduce the space blur and therefore increase the spaceresolution. The EEG of each channel was segmented and its Fractaldimension (FD) calculated. The FD was evaluated in the time interval corresponding to the motor imagery and averaged out for all the subjects (each channel). In order to characterize the FD distribution,the linear regression curves of FD over the electrodes position were applied. The differences FD between the proposed mental tasks are quantied and evaluated for each experimental subject. The obtained results of the proposed method are a substantial fractal dimension in the EEG signal of motor imagery tasks and can be considerably utilized as the multiple-states BCI applications.

Keywords: electroencephalogram (EEG), motor imagery tasks, mental tasks, biomedical signals processing, human-machine interface, fractal analysis, critical exponent method (CEM).

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1482 Design and Construction of the Semi-Automatic Sliced Ginger Machine

Authors: J. Chatthong, W. Boonchouytan, R. Burapa

Abstract:

The purpose of study was to design and construction the semi-automatic sliced ginger machine for reduce production times in sheet and slice ginger procedure furthermore, reduced amount of labor of slides and cutting method. Take consider into clean and safety of workers and consumers. The principle of machines, used 1 horsepower motor, rotation speed of sliced blade 967 rpm, the diameter of sliced dish 310 mm, consists of 2 blades for sheet cutting ginger and the power from motor which transfer to rotate the sliced blade roller, rotation speed 440 rpm. The slice cutter roller was sliced ginger from sheet ginger to line ginger. The conveyer could adjustment level of motors, used to the beginning area that sheet ginger was transference to the roller for sheet and sliced cutting in next process. The cover of sliced cutting had channel for 1 tuber of ginger. The semi-automatic sliced ginger machine could produced sheet ginger 81.8 kg/h (6.2 times of labor) and line ginger 17.9 kg/h (2.5 times of labor) compare with, labor work could produced sheet ginger 13.2 kg/h and line ginger 7.1 kg/h, and when timekeeper, the total times of semi auto machine 30.86 kg/h and labor 4.6 kg/h, there for the semi auto machine was 6.7 times of labor. The semiautomatic sliced ginger machine convenient, easy for use and maintain, in addition to reduce fatigue of body and seriousness from works; must be used high skill, and protection accident in slicing procedure. Beside, machine could used with other vegetables for example potato, carrot .etc

Keywords: Sliced Machine, Sliced Ginger, Line Ginger

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1481 Diagnosis of Static, Dynamic and Mixed Eccentricity in Line Start Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor by Using FEM

Authors: Mohamed Moustafa Mahmoud Sedky

Abstract:

In Line start permanent magnet synchronous motor,  eccentricity is a common fault that can make it necessary to remove  the motor from the production line. However, because the motor may  be inaccessible, diagnosing the fault is not easy. This paper presents  an FEM that identifies different models, static eccentricity, dynamic  eccentricity, and mixed eccentricity, at no load and full load. The  method overcomes the difficulty of applying FEMs to transient  behavior. It simulates motor speed, torque and flux density  distribution along the air gap for SE,DE, and ME. This paper  represents the various effects of different eccentricitiestypes on the  transient performance.

Keywords: Line Start Permanent magnet, synchronous machine, Static Eccentricity, Dynamic Eccentricity, Mixed Eccentricity.

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1480 Forensic Medical Capacities of Research of Saliva Stains on Physical Evidence after Washing

Authors: Saule Mussabekova

Abstract:

Recent advances in genetics have allowed increasing acutely the capacities of the formation of reliable evidence in conducting forensic examinations. Thus, traces of biological origin are important sources of information about a crime. Currently, around the world, sexual offenses have increased, and among them are those in which the criminals use various detergents to remove traces of their crime. A feature of modern synthetic detergents is the presence of biological additives - enzymes. Enzymes purposefully destroy stains of biological origin. To study the nature and extent of the impact of modern washing powders on saliva stains on the physical evidence, specially prepared test specimens of different types of tissues to which saliva was applied have been examined. Materials and Methods: Washing machines of famous manufacturers of household appliances have been used with different production characteristics and advertised brands of washing powder for test washing. Over 3,500 experimental samples were tested. After washing, the traces of saliva were identified using modern research methods of forensic medicine. Results: The influence was tested and the dependence of the use of different washing programs, types of washing machines and washing powders in the process of establishing saliva trace and identify of the stains on the physical evidence while washing was revealed. The results of experimental and practical expert studies have shown that in most cases it is not possible to draw the conclusions in the identification of saliva traces on physical evidence after washing. This is a consequence of the effect of biological additives and other additional factors on traces of saliva during washing. Conclusions: On the basis of the results of the study, the feasibility of saliva traces of the stains on physical evidence after washing is established. The use of modern molecular genetic methods makes it possible to partially solve the problems arising in the study of unlaundered evidence. Additional study of physical evidence after washing facilitates detection and investigation of sexual offenses against women and children.

Keywords: Saliva research, modern synthetic detergents, laundry detergents, forensic medicine.

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1479 Rotor Side Speed Control Methods Using MATLAB/Simulink for Wound Induction Motor

Authors: Rajesh Kumar, Roopali Dogra, Puneet Aggarwal

Abstract:

In recent advancements in electric machine and drives, wound rotor motor is extensively used. The merit of using wound rotor induction motor is to control speed/torque characteristics by inserting external resistance. Wound rotor induction motor can be used in the cases such as (a) low inrush current, (b) load requiring high starting torque, (c) lower starting current is required, (d) loads having high inertia, and (e) gradual built up of torque. Examples include conveyers, cranes, pumps, elevators, and compressors. This paper includes speed control of wound induction motor using MATLAB/Simulink for rotor resistance and slip power recovery method. The characteristics of these speed control methods are hence analyzed.

Keywords: Wound rotor induction motor, MATLAB/Simulink, rotor resistance method, slip power recovery method.

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1478 Comparison of Different PWM Switching Modes of BLDC Motor as Drive Train of Electric Vehicles

Authors: A. Tashakori, M. Ektesabi

Abstract:

Electric vehicle (EV) is one of the effective solutions to control emission of greenhouses gases in the world. It is of interest for future transportation due to its sustainability and efficiency by automotive manufacturers. Various electrical motors have been used for propulsion system of electric vehicles in last decades. In this paper brushed DC motor, Induction motor (IM), switched reluctance motor (SRM) and brushless DC motor (BLDC) are simulated and compared. BLDC motor is recommended for high performance electric vehicles. PWM switching technique is implemented for speed control of BLDC motor. Behavior of different modes of PWM speed controller of BLDC motor are simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK. BLDC motor characteristics are compared and discussed for various PWM switching modes under normal and inverter fault conditions. Comparisons and discussions are verified through simulation results.

Keywords: BLDC motor, PWM switching technique, in-wheel technology, electric vehicle.

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1477 Design a Line Start synchronous Motor and Analysis Effect of the Rotor Structure on the Efficiency

Authors: Abdolamir Nekoubin

Abstract:

The line start permanent magnet motor (LSPMM) combines a permanent magnet rotor for a better motor efficiency during synchronous running with an induction motor squirrel cage rotor to permit the motor starting by direct coupling to power source. In this paper effect of the rotor structure on a line start synchronous permanent magnet motor (LSPMM) is analyzed. LSPMM motor with three different structures for rotor is designed by using RMxprt software; efficiency and line current of LSPMM motor for different structures in full-load condition have been presented. The results indicate that with correct choosing of rotor structure, maximum efficiency can be found.

Keywords: Permanent magnets, LSPMM motor, rotor.

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1476 Fault Detection of Broken Rotor Bars Using Stator Current Spectrum for the Direct Torque Control Induction Motor

Authors: Ridha Kechida, Arezki Menacer, Abdelhamid Benakcha

Abstract:

The numerous qualities of squirrel cage induction machines enhance their use in industry. However, various faults can occur, such as stator short-circuits and rotor failures. In this paper, we use a technique based on the spectral analysis of stator current in order to detect the fault in the machine: broken rotor bars. Thus, the number effect of the breaks has been highlighted. The effect is highlighted by considering the machine controlled by the Direct Torque Control (DTC). The key to fault detection is the development of a simplified dynamic model of a squirrel cage induction motor taking account the broken bars fault and the stator current spectrum analysis (FFT).

Keywords: Rotor faults, diagnosis, induction motor, DTC, statorcurrent spectrum.

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1475 Experimental Technique for Vibration Reduction of a Motor Pumpin Medical Device

Authors: Young Kuen Cho, Dae Won Lee, Young-Jin Jung, Sung Kuk Kim, Dong-Hyun Seo, Chang-Yong Ko, Han Sung Kim

Abstract:

Many medical devices are driven by motor pumps. Some researchers reported that the vibration mainly affected medical devices using a motor pump. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of stiffness and damping coefficient in a 3-dimensional (3D) model of a motor pump and spring. In the present paper, experimental and mathematical tests for the moments of inertia of the 3D model and the material properties were investigated by an INSTRON machine. The response surfaces could be generated by using 3D multi-body analysis and the design of experiment method. It showed that differences in contours of the response surface were clearly found for the particular area. Displacement of the center of the motor pump was decreased at K≈2000 N/M, C≈12.5 N-sec/M. However, the frequency was increased at K≈2000 N/M, C≈15 N-sec/M. In this study, this study suggested experimental technique for vibration reduction for a motor pump in medical device. The combined method suggested in this study will greatly contribute to design of medical devices concerning vibration and noise intervention.

Keywords: Motor pump, Spring, Vibration reduction, Medicaldevices, Moment of Inertia

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1474 Induction Motor Analysis Using LabVIEW

Authors: E. Ramprasath, P. Manojkumar, P. Veena

Abstract:

Proposed paper dealt with the modelling and analysis of induction motor based on the mathematical expression using the graphical programming environment of Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench (LabVIEW). Induction motor modelling with the mathematical expression enables the motor to be simulated with the various required parameters. Owing to the invention of variable speed drives study about the induction motor characteristics became complex. In this simulation motor internal parameter such as stator resistance and reactance, rotor resistance and reactance, phase voltage, frequency and losses will be given as input. By varying the speed of motor corresponding parameters can be obtained they are input power, output power, efficiency, torque induced, slip and current.

Keywords: Induction motor, LabVIEW software, modelling and analysis, electrical and mechanical characteristics of motor.

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1473 Simulation of a Double-Sided Axial Flux Brushless Dc Two-Phase Motor Dynamics

Authors: Abdolamir Nekoubin

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to analyze the performance of a double-sided axial flux permanent magnet brushless DC (AFPM BLDC) motor with two-phase winding. To study the motor operation, a mathematical dynamic model has been proposed for motor, which became the basis for simulations that were performed using MATLAB/SIMULINK software package. The results of simulations were presented in form of the waveforms of selected quantities and the electromechanical characteristics performed by the motor. The calculation results show that the two-phase motor version develops smooth torque and reaches high efficiency. The twophase motor can be applied where more smooth torque is required. Finally a study on the influence of switching angle on motor performance shows that when advance switching technique is used, the motor operates with the highest efficiency.

Keywords: brushless DC motor, inverter, switching angle.

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1472 Control of Biofilm Formation and Inorganic Particle Accumulation on Reverse Osmosis Membrane by Hypochlorite Washing

Authors: Masaki Ohno, Cervinia Manalo, Tetsuji Okuda, Satoshi Nakai, Wataru Nishijima

Abstract:

Reverse osmosis (RO) membranes have been widely used for desalination to purify water for drinking and other purposes. Although at present most RO membranes have no resistance to chlorine, chlorine-resistant membranes are being developed. Therefore, direct chlorine treatment or chlorine washing will be an option in preventing biofouling on chlorine-resistant membranes. Furthermore, if particle accumulation control is possible by using chlorine washing, expensive pretreatment for particle removal can be removed or simplified. The objective of this study was to determine the effective hypochlorite washing condition required for controlling biofilm formation and inorganic particle accumulation on RO membrane in a continuous flow channel with RO membrane and spacer. In this study, direct chlorine washing was done by soaking fouled RO membranes in hypochlorite solution and fluorescence intensity was used to quantify biofilm on the membrane surface. After 48 h of soaking the membranes in high fouling potential waters, the fluorescence intensity decreased to 0 from 470 using the following washing conditions: 10 mg/L chlorine concentration, 2 times/d washing interval, and 30 min washing time. The chlorine concentration required to control biofilm formation decreased as the chlorine concentration (0.5–10 mg/L), the washing interval (1–4 times/d), or the washing time (1–30 min) increased. For the sample solutions used in the study, 10 mg/L chlorine concentration with 2 times/d interval, and 5 min washing time was required for biofilm control. The optimum chlorine washing conditions obtained from soaking experiments proved to be applicable also in controlling biofilm formation in continuous flow experiments. Moreover, chlorine washing employed in controlling biofilm with suspended particles resulted in lower amounts of organic (0.03 mg/cm2) and inorganic (0.14 mg/cm2) deposits on the membrane than that for sample water without chlorine washing (0.14 mg/cm2 and 0.33 mg/cm2, respectively). The amount of biofilm formed was 79% controlled by continuous washing with 10 mg/L of free chlorine concentration, and the inorganic accumulation amount decreased by 58% to levels similar to that of pure water with kaolin (0.17 mg/cm2) as feed water. These results confirmed the acceleration of particle accumulation due to biofilm formation, and that the inhibition of biofilm growth can almost completely reduce further particle accumulation. In addition, effective hypochlorite washing condition which can control both biofilm formation and particle accumulation could be achieved.

Keywords: Biofouling control, hypochlorite, reverse osmosis, washing condition optimization.

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1471 Sliding-Mode Control of Synchronous Reluctance Motor

Authors: Mostafa.A. Fellani, Dawo.E. Abaid

Abstract:

This paper presents a controller design technique for Synchronous Reluctance Motor to improve its dynamic performance with fast response and high accuracy. The sliding mode control is the most attractive and suitable method to use for this purpose, since it is simple in design and for its insensitivity to parameter variations or external disturbances. When this method implemented it yields fast dynamic response without overshoot and a zero steady-state error. The current loop control with decentralized sliding mode is presented in this paper. The mathematical model for the synchronous machine, the inverter and the controller is developed. The stability of the sliding mode controller is analyzed. Simulation of synchronous reluctance motor and the controller with PWM-inverter has been curried out, using the SIMULINK software package of MATLAB. Simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the approach.

Keywords: Dynamic Simulation, MATLAB, PWM-inverter, Reluctance Machine, Sliding-mode.

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1470 Design and Analysis of Fault Tolerate feature of n-Phase Induction Motor Drive

Authors: G. Renuka Devi

Abstract:

This paper presents design and analysis of fault tolerate feature of n-phase induction motor drive. The n-phase induction motor (more than 3-phases) has a number of advantages over conventional 3-phase induction motor, it has low torque pulsation with increased torque density, more fault tolerant feature, low current ripple with increased efficiency. When increasing the number of phases, it has reduced current per phase without increasing per phase voltage, resulting in an increase in the total power rating of n-phase motors in the same volume machine. In this paper, the theory of operation of a multi-phase induction motor is discussed. The detailed study of d-q modeling of n-phase induction motors is elaborated. The d-q model of n-phase (5, 6, 7, 9 and 12) induction motors is developed in a MATLAB/Simulink environment. The steady state and dynamic performance of the multi-phase induction motor is studied under varying load conditions. Comparison of 5-phase induction is presented under normal and fault conditions.

Keywords: d-q model, dynamic Response, fault tolerant feature, matlab/simulink, multi-phase induction motor, transient response.

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1469 Direct Torque Control - DTC of Induction Motor Used for Piloting a Centrifugal Pump Supplied by a Photovoltaic Generator

Authors: S. Abouda, F. Nollet, A. Chaari, N. Essounbouli, Y. Koubaa

Abstract:

In this paper we propose the study of a centrifugal pump control system driven by a three-phase induction motor, which is supplied by a PhotoVoltaic PV generator. The system includes solar panel, a DC / DC converter equipped with its MPPT control, a voltage inverter to three-phase Pulse Width Modulation - PWM and a centrifugal pump driven by a three phase induction motor. In order to control the flow of the centrifugal pump, a Direct Torque Control - DTC of the induction machine is used. To illustrate the performances of the control, simulation results are carried out using Matlab/Simulink.

Keywords: Photovoltaic generators, Maximum power point tracking (MPPT), DC/DC converters, Induction motor, Direct torque control (DTC).

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1468 Steady State Thermal Analysis and Design of a Cooling System in an AFPM Motor

Authors: K. Sarrafan, A. Darabi

Abstract:

In this paper, the steady-state temperature of a sample 500 KW two rotor one stator Non-slotted axial flux permanent magnet motor is calculated using the finite element simulator software package. Due to the high temperature in various parts of the machine, especially at stator winding, a cooling system is designed for the motor and the temperature is recalculated. The results show that the temperature obtained for the parts is within the permissible range.

Keywords: Axial Flux, Cooling System, Permanent Magnet, Thermal Analysis.

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