Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2700

Search results for: optimization strategy

2700 A Query Optimization Strategy for Autonomous Distributed Database Systems

Authors: Dina K. Badawy, Dina M. Ibrahim, Alsayed A. Sallam

Abstract:

Distributed database is a collection of logically related databases that cooperate in a transparent manner. Query processing uses a communication network for transmitting data between sites. It refers to one of the challenges in the database world. The development of sophisticated query optimization technology is the reason for the commercial success of database systems, which complexity and cost increase with increasing number of relations in the query. Mariposa, query trading and query trading with processing task-trading strategies developed for autonomous distributed database systems, but they cause high optimization cost because of involvement of all nodes in generating an optimal plan. In this paper, we proposed a modification on the autonomous strategy K-QTPT that make the seller’s nodes with the lowest cost have gradually high priorities to reduce the optimization time. We implement our proposed strategy and present the results and analysis based on those results.

Keywords: Autonomous strategies, distributed database systems, high priority, query optimization.

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2699 Strategy for Optimal Configuration Design of Existing Structures by Topology and Shape Optimization Tools

Authors: Waqas Saleem, Fan Yuqing

Abstract:

A strategy is implemented to find the improved configuration design of an existing aircraft structure by executing topology and shape optimizations. Structural analysis of the Initial Design Space is performed in ANSYS under the loads pertinent to operating and ground conditions. By using the FEA results and data, an initial optimized layout configuration is attained by exploiting nonparametric topology optimization in TOSCA software. Topological optimized surfaces are then smoothened and imported in ANSYS to develop the geometrical features. Nodes at the critical locations of resulting voids are selected for sketching rough profiles. Rough profiles are further refined and CAD feasible geometric features are generated. The modified model is then analyzed under the same loadings and constraints as defined for topology optimization. Shape at the peak stress concentration areas are further optimized by exploiting the shape optimization in TOSCA.shape module. The harmonized stressed model with the modified surfaces is then imported in CATIA to develop the final design.

Keywords: Structural optimization, Topology optimization, Shape optimization, Tail fin

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2698 An Optimization Tool-Based Design Strategy Applied to Divide-by-2 Circuits with Unbalanced Loads

Authors: Agord M. Pinto Jr., Yuzo Iano, Leandro T. Manera, Raphael R. N. Souza

Abstract:

This paper describes an optimization tool-based design strategy for a Current Mode Logic CML divide-by-2 circuit. Representing a building block for output frequency generation in a RFID protocol based-frequency synthesizer, the circuit was designed to minimize the power consumption for driving of multiple loads with unbalancing (at transceiver level). Implemented with XFAB XC08 180 nm technology, the circuit was optimized through MunEDA WiCkeD tool at Cadence Virtuoso Analog Design Environment ADE.

Keywords: Divide-by-2 circuit, CMOS technology, PLL phase locked-loop, optimization tool, CML current mode logic, RF transceiver.

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2697 An Effective Decision-Making Strategy Based on Multi-Objective Optimization for Commercial Vehicles in Highway Scenarios

Authors: Weiming Hu, Xu Li, Xiaonan Li, Zhong Xu, Li Yuan, Xuan Dong

Abstract:

Maneuver decision-making plays a critical role in high-performance intelligent driving. This paper proposes a risk assessment-based decision-making network (RADMN) to address the problem of driving strategy for the commercial vehicle. RADMN integrates two networks, aiming at identifying the risk degree of collision and rollover and providing decisions to ensure the effectiveness and reliability of driving strategy. In the risk assessment module, risk degrees of the backward collision, forward collision and rollover are quantified for hazard recognition. In the decision module, a deep reinforcement learning based on multi-objective optimization (DRL-MOO) algorithm is designed, which comprehensively considers the risk degree and motion states of each traffic participant. To evaluate the performance of the proposed framework, Prescan/Simulink joint simulation was conducted in highway scenarios. Experimental results validate the effectiveness and reliability of the proposed RADMN. The output driving strategy can guarantee the safety and provide key technical support for the realization of autonomous driving of commercial vehicles.

Keywords: Decision-making strategy, risk assessment, multi-objective optimization, commercial vehicle.

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2696 Opportunities and Optimization of the Our Eyes Initiative as the Strategy for Counter-Terrorism in ASEAN

Authors: Chastiti Mediafira Wulolo, Tri Legionosuko, Suhirwan, Yusuf

Abstract:

Terrorism and radicalization have become a common threat to every nation in this world. As a part of the asymmetric warfare threat, terrorism and radicalization need a complex strategy as the problem solver. One such way is by collaborating with the international community. The Our Eyes Initiative (OEI), for example, is a cooperation pact in the field of intelligence information exchanges related to terrorism and radicalization initiated by the Indonesian Ministry of Defence. The pact has been signed by Indonesia, Philippines, Malaysia, Brunei Darussalam, Thailand, and Singapore. This cooperation mostly engages military acts as a central role, but it still requires the involvement of various parties such as the police, intelligence agencies and other government institutions. This paper will use a qualitative content analysis method to address the opportunity and enhance the optimization of OEI. As the result, it will explain how OEI takes the opportunities as the strategy for counter-terrorism by building it up as the regional cooperation, building the legitimacy of government and creating the legal framework of the information sharing system.

Keywords: Our Eyes Initiative, terrorism, counter-terrorism, ASEAN, cooperation, strategy.

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2695 Hybrid Gravity Gradient Inversion-Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for Motion Planning of Mobile Robots

Authors: Meng Wu

Abstract:

Motion planning is a common task required to be fulfilled by robots. A strategy combining Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and gravity gradient inversion algorithm is proposed for motion planning of mobile robots. In this paper, in order to realize optimal motion planning strategy, the cost function in ACO is designed based on gravity gradient inversion algorithm. The obstacles around mobile robot can cause gravity gradient anomalies; the gradiometer is installed on the mobile robot to detect the gravity gradient anomalies. After obtaining the anomalies, gravity gradient inversion algorithm is employed to calculate relative distance and orientation between mobile robot and obstacles. The relative distance and orientation deduced from gravity gradient inversion algorithm is employed as cost function in ACO algorithm to realize motion planning. The proposed strategy is validated by the simulation and experiment results.

Keywords: Motion planning, gravity gradient inversion algorithm, ant colony optimization.

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2694 Structural Design Strategy of Double-Eccentric Butterfly Valve using Topology Optimization Techniques

Authors: Jun-Oh Kim, Seol-Min Yang, Seok-Heum Baek, Sangmo Kang

Abstract:

In this paper, the shape design process is briefly discussed emphasizing the use of topology optimization in the conceptual design stage. The basic idea is to view feasible domains for sensitivity region concepts. In this method, the main process consists of two steps: as the design moves further inside the feasible domain using Taguchi method, and thus becoming more successful topology optimization, the sensitivity region becomes larger. In designing a double-eccentric butterfly valve, related to hydrodynamic performance and disc structure, are discussed where the use of topology optimization has proven to dramatically improve an existing design and significantly decrease the development time of a shape design. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis results demonstrate the validity of this approach.

Keywords: Double-eccentric butterfly valve, CFD, Topology optimization

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2693 Bee Colony Optimization Applied to the Bin Packing Problem

Authors: Kenza Aida Amara, Bachir Djebbar

Abstract:

We treat the two-dimensional bin packing problem which involves packing a given set of rectangles into a minimum number of larger identical rectangles called bins. This combinatorial problem is NP-hard. We propose a pretreatment for the oriented version of the problem that allows the valorization of the lost areas in the bins and the reduction of the size problem. A heuristic method based on the strategy first-fit adapted to this problem is presented. We present an approach of resolution by bee colony optimization. Computational results express a comparison of the number of bins used with and without pretreatment.

Keywords: Bee colony optimization, bin packing, heuristic algorithm, pretreatment.

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2692 Marketing Strategy Analysis of Boon Rawd Brewery Company

Authors: Sinee Sankrusme

Abstract:

Boon Rawd Brewery is a beer company based in Thailand that has an exemplary image, both as a good employer and a well-managed company with a strong record of social responsibility. The most famous of the company’s products is Singha beer. To study the company’s marketing strategy, a case study analysis was conducted together with qualitative research methods. The study analyzed the marketing strategy of Boon Rawd Brewery before the liberalization of the liquor market in 2000. The company’s marketing strategies consisted of the following: product line strategy, product development strategy, block channel strategy, media strategy, trade strategy, and consumer incentive strategy. Additionally, the company employed marketing mix strategy based on the 4Ps: product, price, promotion and place (of distribution).

Keywords: Beer, Boon Rawd Brewery Company, Marketing Strategy.

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2691 Optimal Generation Expansion Planning Strategy with Carbon Trading

Authors: Tung-Sheng Zhan, Chih-Cheng Kao, Chin-Der Yang, Jong-Ian Tsai

Abstract:

Fossil fuel-firing power plants dominate electric power generation in Taiwan, which are also the major contributor to Green House gases (GHG). CO2 is the most important greenhouse gas that cause global warming. This paper penetrates the relationship between carbon trading for GHG reduction and power generation expansion planning (GEP) problem for the electrical utility. The Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) Algorithm is presented to deal with the generation expansion planning strategy of the utility with independent power providers (IPPs). The utility has to take both the IPPs- participation and environment impact into account when a new generation unit is considering expanded from view of supply side.

Keywords: Carbon Trading, CO2 Emission, GenerationExpansion Planning (GEP), Green House gases (GHG), ParticleSwarm Optimization (PSO).

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2690 The Link between Financial and Overall Corporate Strategies

Authors: Jaroslav Pavlíček

Abstract:

Company strategy expresses a basic idea of how to reach company objectives. A whole range of models of strategic management are used in practice. The concept of strategic management should fulfill some basic requirements to make it applicable for both the typical, but also more specific company environment. The financial strategy plays an important role in corporate strategy. The paper develops a methodology of strategic model implementing into the category of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Furthermore, the methodology recommends procedures while solving an up-to-date worldwide task of the definition of the company strategy and its financial strategy.

Keywords: corporate strategy, financial strategy, corporate planning

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2689 Simulation of Obstacle Avoidance for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles in a Dynamic Environment Using Q-Learning

Authors: Andreas D. Jansson

Abstract:

The availability of inexpensive, yet competent hardware allows for increased level of automation and self-optimization in the context of Industry 4.0. However, such agents require high quality information about their surroundings along with a robust strategy for collision avoidance, as they may cause expensive damage to equipment or other agents otherwise. Manually defining a strategy to cover all possibilities is both time-consuming and counter-productive given the capabilities of modern hardware. This paper explores the idea of a model-free self-optimizing obstacle avoidance strategy for multiple autonomous agents in a simulated dynamic environment using the Q-learning algorithm.

Keywords: Autonomous vehicles, industry 4.0, multi-agent system, obstacle avoidance, Q-learning, simulation.

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2688 Minimizing Risk Costs through Optimal Responses in NPD Projects

Authors: Chan-Sik Kim, Jong-Seong Kim, Se Won Lee, Hoo-Gon Choi

Abstract:

In rapidly changing market environment, firms are investing a lot of time and resources into new product development (NPD) projects to make profit and to obtain competitive advantage. However, failure rate of NPD projects is becoming high due to various internal and external risks which hinder successful NPD projects. To reduce the failure rate, it is critical that risks have to be managed effectively and efficiently through good strategy, and treated by optimal responses to minimize risk cost. Four strategies are adopted to handle the risks in this study. The optimal responses are characterized by high reduction of risk costs with high efficiency. This study suggests a framework to decide the optimal responses considering the core risks, risk costs, response efficiency and response costs for successful NPD projects. Both binary particles warm optimization (BPSO) and multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) methods are mainly used in the framework. Although several limitations exist in use for real industries, the frame work shows good strength for handling the risks with highly scientific ways through an example.

Keywords: NPD projects, risk cost, strategy, optimal responses, Particle Swarm Optimization.

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2687 A Short Reflection on the Strengths and Weaknesses of Simulation Optimization

Authors: P. Vazan, P. Tanuska

Abstract:

The paper provides the basic overview of simulation optimization. The procedure of its practical using is demonstrated on the real example in simulator Witness. The simulation optimization is presented as a good tool for solving many problems in real praxis especially in production systems. The authors also characterize their own experiences and they mention the strengths and weakness of simulation optimization.

Keywords: discrete event simulation, simulation optimization, Witness

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2686 Hybrid Adaptive Modeling to Enhance Robustness of Real-Time Optimization

Authors: Hussain Syed Asad, Richard Kwok Kit Yuen, Gongsheng Huang

Abstract:

Real-time optimization has been considered an effective approach for improving energy efficient operation of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. In model-based real-time optimization, model mismatches cannot be avoided. When model mismatches are significant, the performance of the real-time optimization will be impaired and hence the expected energy saving will be reduced. In this paper, the model mismatches for chiller plant on real-time optimization are considered. In the real-time optimization of the chiller plant, simplified semi-physical or grey box model of chiller is always used, which should be identified using available operation data. To overcome the model mismatches associated with the chiller model, hybrid Genetic Algorithms (HGAs) method is used for online real-time training of the chiller model. HGAs combines Genetic Algorithms (GAs) method (for global search) and traditional optimization method (i.e. faster and more efficient for local search) to avoid conventional hit and trial process of GAs. The identification of model parameters is synthesized as an optimization problem; and the objective function is the Least Square Error between the output from the model and the actual output from the chiller plant. A case study is used to illustrate the implementation of the proposed method. It has been shown that the proposed approach is able to provide reliability in decision making, enhance the robustness of the real-time optimization strategy and improve on energy performance.

Keywords: Energy performance, hybrid adaptive modeling, hybrid genetic algorithms, real-time optimization, heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning.

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2685 A Mahalanobis Distance-based Diversification and Nelder-Mead Simplex Intensification Search Scheme for Continuous Ant Colony Optimization

Authors: Sasadhar Bera, Indrajit Mukherjee

Abstract:

Ant colony optimization (ACO) and its variants are applied extensively to resolve various continuous optimization problems. As per the various diversification and intensification schemes of ACO for continuous function optimization, researchers generally consider components of multidimensional state space to generate the new search point(s). However, diversifying to a new search space by updating only components of the multidimensional vector may not ensure that the new point is at a significant distance from the current solution. If a minimum distance is not ensured during diversification, then there is always a possibility that the search will end up with reaching only local optimum. Therefore, to overcome such situations, a Mahalanobis distance-based diversification with Nelder-Mead simplex-based search scheme for each ant is proposed for the ACO strategy. A comparative computational run results, based on nine nonlinear standard test problems, confirms that the performance of ACO is improved significantly with the integration of the proposed schemes in the ACO.

Keywords: Ant Colony Optimization, Diversification Scheme, Intensification, Mahalanobis Distance, Nelder-Mead Simplex.

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2684 Economic Load Dispatch with Daily Load Patterns and Generator Constraints by Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: N. Phanthuna V. Phupha N. Rugthaicharoencheep, S. Lerdwanittip

Abstract:

This paper presents an optimization technique to economic load dispatch (ELD) problems with considering the daily load patterns and generator constraints using a particle swarm optimization (PSO). The objective is to minimize the fuel cost. The optimization problem is subject to system constraints consisting of power balance and generation output of each units. The application of a constriction factor into PSO is a useful strategy to ensure convergence of the particle swarm algorithm. The proposed method is able to determine, the output power generation for all of the power generation units, so that the total constraint cost function is minimized. The performance of the developed methodology is demonstrated by case studies in test system of fifteen-generation units. The results show that the proposed algorithm scan give the minimum total cost of generation while satisfying all the constraints and benefiting greatly from saving in power loss reduction

Keywords: Particle Swarm Optimization, Economic Load Dispatch, Generator Constraints.

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2683 Genetic Algorithm Optimization of the Economical, Ecological and Self-Consumption Impact of the Energy Production of a Single Building

Authors: Ludovic Favre, Thibaut M. Schafer, Jean-Luc Robyr, Elena-Lavinia Niederhäuser

Abstract:

This paper presents an optimization method based on genetic algorithm for the energy management inside buildings developed in the frame of the project Smart Living Lab (SLL) in Fribourg (Switzerland). This algorithm optimizes the interaction between renewable energy production, storage systems and energy consumers. In comparison with standard algorithms, the innovative aspect of this project is the extension of the smart regulation over three simultaneous criteria: the energy self-consumption, the decrease of greenhouse gas emissions and operating costs. The genetic algorithm approach was chosen due to the large quantity of optimization variables and the non-linearity of the optimization function. The optimization process includes also real time data of the building as well as weather forecast and users habits. This information is used by a physical model of the building energy resources to predict the future energy production and needs, to select the best energetic strategy, to combine production or storage of energy in order to guarantee the demand of electrical and thermal energy. The principle of operation of the algorithm as well as typical output example of the algorithm is presented.

Keywords: Building’s energy, control system, energy management, modelling, genetic optimization algorithm, renewable energy, greenhouse gases, energy storage.

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2682 Futures Trading: Design of a Strategy

Authors: Jan Zeman

Abstract:

The paper describes the futures trading and aims to design the speculators trading strategy. The problem is formulated as the decision making task and such as is solved. The solution of the task leads to complex mathematical problems and the approximations of the decision making is demanded. Two kind of approximation are used in the paper: Monte Carlo for the multi-step prediction and iteration spread in time for the optimization. The solution is applied to the real-market data and the results of the off-line experiments are presented.

Keywords: futures trading, decision making

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2681 Innovation Strategy in Slovak Businesses

Authors: V. Lendel, M. Varmus

Abstract:

The aim of the paper is based on detailed analysis of literary sources and carried out research to develop a model development and implementation of innovation strategy in the business. The paper brings the main results of the authors conducted research on a sample of 462 respondents that shows the current situation in the Slovak enterprises in the use of innovation strategy. Carried out research and analysis provided the base for a model development and implementation of innovation strategy in the business, which is in the paper in detail, step by step explained with emphasis on the implementation process. Implementing the innovation strategy is described a separate model. Paper contains recommendations for successful implementation of innovation strategy in the business. These recommendations should serve mainly business managers as valuable tool in implementing the innovation strategy.

Keywords: innovation, innovation strategy, innovative management, innovative potential

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2680 Particle Swarm Optimization with Reduction for Global Optimization Problems

Authors: Michiharu Maeda, Shinya Tsuda

Abstract:

This paper presents an algorithm of particle swarm optimization with reduction for global optimization problems. Particle swarm optimization is an algorithm which refers to the collective motion such as birds or fishes, and a multi-point search algorithm which finds a best solution using multiple particles. Particle swarm optimization is so flexible that it can adapt to a number of optimization problems. When an objective function has a lot of local minimums complicatedly, the particle may fall into a local minimum. For avoiding the local minimum, a number of particles are initially prepared and their positions are updated by particle swarm optimization. Particles sequentially reduce to reach a predetermined number of them grounded in evaluation value and particle swarm optimization continues until the termination condition is met. In order to show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, we examine the minimum by using test functions compared to existing algorithms. Furthermore the influence of best value on the initial number of particles for our algorithm is discussed.

Keywords: Particle swarm optimization, Global optimization, Metaheuristics, Reduction.

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2679 Effect of Information System Strategies on Supply Chain Strategies and Supply Chain Performance

Authors: M. Torabizadeh, M. Khatami Rad, A. Noshadi

Abstract:

In order to achieve competitive advantage and better performance of firm, supply chain management (SCM) strategy should support and drive forward business strategy. It means that supply chain should be aligned with business strategy, at the same time supply chain (SC) managers need to use appropriate information system (IS) solution to support their strategy, which would lead to stay competitive. There are different kinds of IS strategies which enable managers to meet the SC requirement by selecting the best IS strategy. Therefore, it is important to align IS strategies and practices with SC strategies and practices, which could help us to plan for an IS application that supports and enhances a SCMS. In this study, aligning IS with SC in strategy level is considered. The main aim of this paper is to align the various IS strategies with SCM strategies and demonstrate their impact on SC and firm performance.

Keywords: Information system strategy, alignment, firm performance, supply chain strategy.

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2678 Simulated Annealing Application for Structural Optimization

Authors: Farhad Kolahan, M. Hossein Abolbashari, Samaeddin Mohitzadeh

Abstract:

Several methods are available for weight and shape optimization of structures, among which Evolutionary Structural Optimization (ESO) is one of the most widely used methods. In ESO, however, the optimization criterion is completely case-dependent. Moreover, only the improving solutions are accepted during the search. In this paper a Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm is used for structural optimization problem. This algorithm differs from other random search methods by accepting non-improving solutions. The implementation of SA algorithm is done through reducing the number of finite element analyses (function evaluations). Computational results show that SA can efficiently and effectively solve such optimization problems within short search time.

Keywords: Simulated annealing, Structural optimization, Compliance, C.V. product.

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2677 Reliability-Based Topology Optimization Based on Evolutionary Structural Optimization

Authors: Sang-Rak Kim, Jea-Yong Park, Won-Goo Lee, Jin-Shik Yu, Seog-Young Han

Abstract:

This paper presents a Reliability-Based Topology Optimization (RBTO) based on Evolutionary Structural Optimization (ESO). An actual design involves uncertain conditions such as material property, operational load and dimensional variation. Deterministic Topology Optimization (DTO) is obtained without considering of the uncertainties related to the uncertainty parameters. However, RBTO involves evaluation of probabilistic constraints, which can be done in two different ways, the reliability index approach (RIA) and the performance measure approach (PMA). Limit state function is approximated using Monte Carlo Simulation and Central Composite Design for reliability analysis. ESO, one of the topology optimization techniques, is adopted for topology optimization. Numerical examples are presented to compare the DTO with RBTO.

Keywords: Evolutionary Structural Optimization, PerformanceMeasure Approach, Reliability-Based Topology Optimization, Reliability Index Approach.

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2676 A Mean–Variance–Skewness Portfolio Optimization Model

Authors: Kostas Metaxiotis

Abstract:

Portfolio optimization is one of the most important topics in finance. This paper proposes a mean–variance–skewness (MVS) portfolio optimization model. Traditionally, the portfolio optimization problem is solved by using the mean–variance (MV) framework. In this study, we formulate the proposed model as a three-objective optimization problem, where the portfolio's expected return and skewness are maximized whereas the portfolio risk is minimized. For solving the proposed three-objective portfolio optimization model we apply an adapted version of the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGAII). Finally, we use a real dataset from FTSE-100 for validating the proposed model.

Keywords: Evolutionary algorithms, portfolio optimization, skewness, stock selection.

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2675 Optimization Based Obstacle Avoidance

Authors: R. Dariani, S. Schmidt, R. Kasper

Abstract:

Based on a non-linear single track model which describes the dynamics of vehicle, an optimal path planning strategy is developed. Real time optimization is used to generate reference control values to allow leading the vehicle alongside a calculated lane which is optimal for different objectives such as energy consumption, run time, safety or comfort characteristics. Strict mathematic formulation of the autonomous driving allows taking decision on undefined situation such as lane change or obstacle avoidance. Based on position of the vehicle, lane situation and obstacle position, the optimization problem is reformulated in real-time to avoid the obstacle and any car crash.

Keywords: Autonomous driving, Obstacle avoidance, Optimal control, Path planning.

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2674 Elitist Self-Adaptive Step-Size Search in Optimum Sizing of Steel Structures

Authors: Oğuzhan Hasançebi, Saeid Kazemzadeh Azad

Abstract:

This paper covers application of an elitist selfadaptive
step-size search (ESASS) to optimum design of steel
skeletal structures. In the ESASS two approaches are considered for
improving the convergence accuracy as well as the computational
efficiency of the original technique namely the so called selfadaptive
step-size search (SASS). Firstly, an additional randomness
is incorporated into the sampling step of the technique to preserve
exploration capability of the algorithm during the optimization.
Moreover, an adaptive sampling scheme is introduced to improve the
quality of final solutions. Secondly, computational efficiency of the
technique is accelerated via avoiding unnecessary analyses during the
optimization process using an upper bound strategy. The numerical
results demonstrate the usefulness of the ESASS in the sizing
optimization problems of steel truss and frame structures.

Keywords: Structural design optimization, optimal sizing, metaheuristics, self-adaptive step-size search, steel trusses, steel frames.}

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2673 The Performance of Alternating Top-Bottom Strategy for Successive Over Relaxation Scheme on Two Dimensional Boundary Value Problem

Authors: M. K. Hasan, Y. H. Ng, J. Sulaiman

Abstract:

This paper present the implementation of a new ordering strategy on Successive Overrelaxation scheme on two dimensional boundary value problems. The strategy involve two directions alternatingly; from top and bottom of the solution domain. The method shows to significantly reduce the iteration number to converge. Four numerical experiments were carried out to examine the performance of the new strategy.

Keywords: Two dimensional boundary value problems, Successive Overrelaxation scheme, Alternating Top-Bottom strategy, fast convergence

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2672 Deixis and Personalization in Ad Slogans

Authors: Anne A. Christopher

Abstract:

This study examines the use of the persuasive strategy of deixis and personalization in advertising slogans. This rhetorical/ stylistic and linguistic strategy has been found to be widely used in advertising slogans for over a century. A total of five hundred advertising slogans of multinational companies in both product and service sectors were obtained. The analysis reveals the 3 main components of this strategy as being deictic words, absolute uniqueness and personal pronouns. The percentage and mean of the use of the 3 components are tabulated. The findings show that advertisers have used this persuasive strategy in creative ways to persuade consumers to buy their products and services.

Keywords: Advertising slogans, deixis, personalization, persuasive strategy.

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2671 Non-Stationary Stochastic Optimization of an Oscillating Water Column

Authors: María L. Jalón, Feargal Brennan

Abstract:

A non-stationary stochastic optimization methodology is applied to an OWC (oscillating water column) to find the design that maximizes the wave energy extraction. Different temporal cycles are considered to represent the long-term variability of the wave climate at the site in the optimization problem. The results of the non-stationary stochastic optimization problem are compared against those obtained by a stationary stochastic optimization problem. The comparative analysis reveals that the proposed non-stationary optimization provides designs with a better fit to reality. However, the stationarity assumption can be adequate when looking at averaged system response.

Keywords: Non-stationary stochastic optimization, oscillating water column, temporal variability, wave energy.

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