Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Search results for: bin packing

19 A New Self-stabilizing Algorithm for Maximal 2-packing

Authors: Zhengnan Shi

Abstract:

In the self-stabilizing algorithmic paradigm, each node has a local view of the system, in a finite amount of time the system converges to a global state with desired property. In a graph G = (V, E), a subset S C V is a 2-packing if Vi c V: IN[i] n SI <1. In this paper, an ID-based, constant space, self-stabilizing algorithm that stabilizes to a maximal 2-packing in an arbitrary graph is proposed. It is shown that the algorithm stabilizes in 0(n3) moves under any scheduler (daemon). Specifically, it is shown that the algorithm stabilizes in linear time-steps under a synchronous daemon where every privileged node moves at each time-step.

Keywords: self-stabilization, 2-packing, distributed computing, fault tolerance, graph algorithms

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18 The Applications of Toyota Production System to Reduce Wastes in Agricultural Products Packing Process: A Study of Onion Packing Plant

Authors: Paisarn Larpsomboonchai

Abstract:

Agro-industry is one of major industries that have strong impacts on national economic incomes, growth, stability, and sustainable development. Moreover, this industry also has strong influences on social, cultural and political issues. Furthermore, this industry, as producing primary and secondary products, is facing challenges from such diverse factors such as demand inconsistency, intense international competition, technological advancements and new competitors. In order to maintain and to improve industry’s competitiveness in both domestics and international markets, science and technology are key factors. Besides hard sciences and technologies, modern industrial engineering concepts such as Just in Time (JIT) Total Quality Management (TQM), Quick Response (QR), Supply Chain Management (SCM) and Lean can be very effective to support to increase efficiency and effectiveness of these agricultural products on world stage. Onion is one of Thailand’s major export products which bring back national incomes. But, it is also facing challenges in many ways. This paper focused its interests in onion packing process and its related activities such as storage and shipment from one of major packing plant and storage in Mae Wang District, Chiang Mai, Thailand, by applying Toyota Production System (TPS) or Lean concepts, to improve process capability throughout the entire packing and distribution process which will be profitable for the whole onion supply chain. And it will be beneficial to other related agricultural products in Thailand and other ASEAN countries.

Keywords: Lean Concepts, Lean in Agro-industries Activities, Packing Process, Toyota Production System (TPS), Waste Reduction.

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17 Bee Colony Optimization Applied to the Bin Packing Problem

Authors: Kenza Aida Amara, Bachir Djebbar

Abstract:

We treat the two-dimensional bin packing problem which involves packing a given set of rectangles into a minimum number of larger identical rectangles called bins. This combinatorial problem is NP-hard. We propose a pretreatment for the oriented version of the problem that allows the valorization of the lost areas in the bins and the reduction of the size problem. A heuristic method based on the strategy first-fit adapted to this problem is presented. We present an approach of resolution by bee colony optimization. Computational results express a comparison of the number of bins used with and without pretreatment.

Keywords: Bee colony optimization, bin packing, heuristic algorithm, pretreatment.

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16 Geometry Design Supported by Minimizing and Visualizing Collision in Dynamic Packing

Authors: Johan Segeborn, Johan S. Carlson, Robert Bohlin, Rikard Söderberg

Abstract:

This paper presents a method to support dynamic packing in cases when no collision-free path can be found. The method, which is primarily based on path planning and shrinking of geometries, suggests a minimal geometry design change that results in a collision-free assembly path. A supplementing approach to optimize geometry design change with respect to redesign cost is described. Supporting this dynamic packing method, a new method to shrink geometry based on vertex translation, interweaved with retriangulation, is suggested. The shrinking method requires neither tetrahedralization nor calculation of medial axis and it preserves the topology of the geometry, i.e. holes are neither lost nor introduced. The proposed methods are successfully applied on industrial geometries.

Keywords: Dynamic packing, path planning, shrinking.

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15 An Augmented Beam-search Based Algorithm for the Strip Packing Problem

Authors: Hakim Akeb, Mhand Hifi

Abstract:

In this paper, the use of beam search and look-ahead strategies for solving the strip packing problem (SPP) is investigated. Given a strip of fixed width W, unlimited length L, and a set of n circular pieces of known radii, the objective is to determine the minimum length of the initial strip that packs all the pieces. An augmented algorithm which combines beam search and a look-ahead strategies is proposed. The look-ahead is used in order to evaluate the nodes at each level of the tree search. The best nodes are then retained for branching. The computational investigation showed that the proposed augmented algorithm is able to improve the best known solutions of the literature on most instances used.

Keywords: Combinatorial optimization, cutting and packing, beam search, heuristic, look-ahead strategy.

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14 Packing Theory for Natural and Crushed Aggregate to Obtain the Best Mix of Aggregate: Research and Development

Authors: Mohammed H. Mohammed, Mats Emborg, Roland Pusch, Sven Knutsson

Abstract:

Concrete performance is strongly affected by the particle packing degree since it determines the distribution of the cementitious component and the interaction of mineral particles. By using packing theory designers will be able to select optimal aggregate materials for preparing concrete with low cement content, which is beneficial from the point of cost. Optimum particle packing implies minimizing porosity and thereby reducing the amount of cement paste needed to fill the voids between the aggregate particles, taking also the rheology of the concrete into consideration. For reaching good fluidity superplasticizers are required. The results from pilot tests at Luleå University of Technology (LTU) show various forms of the proposed theoretical models, and the empirical approach taken in the study seems to provide a safer basis for developing new, improved packing models.

Keywords: Aggregate mix, Computer program, Concrete mix design, Models of packing.

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13 Optimization by Ant Colony Hybryde for the Bin-Packing Problem

Authors: Ben Mohamed Ahemed Mohamed, Yassine Adnan

Abstract:

The problem of bin-packing in two dimensions (2BP) consists in placing a given set of rectangular items in a minimum number of rectangular and identical containers, called bins. This article treats the case of objects with a free orientation of 90Ôùª. We propose an approach of resolution combining optimization by colony of ants (ACO) and the heuristic method IMA to resolve this NP-Hard problem.

Keywords: Ant colony algorithm, bin-packing problem, heuristics methods.

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12 Application of Robotics to Assemble a Used Fuel Container in the Canadian Used Fuel Packing Plant

Authors: Dimitrie Marinceu

Abstract:

The newest Canadian Used Fuel Container (UFC)- (called also “Mark II”) modifies the design approach for its Assembly Robotic Cell (ARC) in the Canadian Used (Nuclear) Fuel Packing Plant (UFPP). Some of the robotic design solutions are presented in this paper. The design indicates that robots and manipulators are expected to be used in the Canadian UFPP. As normally, the UFPP design will incorporate redundancy of all equipment to allow expedient recovery from any postulated upset conditions. Overall, this paper suggests that robot usage will have a significant positive impact on nuclear safety, quality, productivity, and reliability.

Keywords: Used fuel packing plant, robotic assembly cell, used fuel container, deep geological repository.

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11 Influence of Fiber Packing on Transverse Plastic Properties of Metal Matrix Composites

Authors: Mohammad Tahaye Abadi

Abstract:

The present paper concerns with the influence of fiber packing on the transverse plastic properties of metal matrix composites. A micromechanical modeling procedure is used to predict the effective mechanical properties of composite materials at large tensile and compressive deformations. Microstructure is represented by a repeating unit cell (RUC). Two fiber arrays are considered including ideal square fiber packing and random fiber packing defined by random sequential algorithm. The micromechanical modeling procedure is implemented for graphite/aluminum metal matrix composite in which the reinforcement behaves as elastic, isotropic solids and the matrix is modeled as an isotropic elastic-plastic solid following the von Mises criterion with isotropic hardening and the Ramberg-Osgood relationship between equivalent true stress and logarithmic strain. The deformation is increased to a considerable value to evaluate both elastic and plastic behaviors of metal matrix composites. The yields strength and true elastic-plastic stress are determined for graphite/aluminum composites.

Keywords: Fiber packing, metal matrix composites, micromechanics, plastic deformation, random

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10 Automated Buffer Box Assembly Cell Concept for the Canadian Used Fuel Packing Plant

Authors: Dimitrie Marinceu, Alan Murchison

Abstract:

The Canadian Used Fuel Container (UFC) is a mid-size hemispherical headed copper coated steel container measuring 2.5 meters in length and 0.5 meters in diameter containing 48 used fuel bundles. The contained used fuel produces significant gamma radiation requiring automated assembly processes to complete the assembly. The design throughput of 2,500 UFCs per year places constraints on equipment and hot cell design for repeatability, speed of processing, robustness and recovery from upset conditions. After UFC assembly, the UFC is inserted into a Buffer Box (BB). The BB is made from adequately pre-shaped blocks (lower and upper block) and Highly Compacted Bentonite (HCB) material. The blocks are practically ‘sandwiching’ the UFC between them after assembly. This paper identifies one possible approach for the BB automatic assembly cell and processes. Automation of the BB assembly will have a significant positive impact on nuclear safety, quality, productivity, and reliability.

Keywords: Used fuel packing plant, automatic assembly cell, used fuel container, buffer box, deep geological repository.

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9 Packing and Covering Radii of Linear Error-Block Codes

Authors: Rabiˆı DARITI, El Mamoun SOUIDI

Abstract:

Linear error-block codes are a natural generalization of linear error correcting codes. The purpose of this paper is to generalize some results on the packing and the covering radii to the error-block case. We study their properties when a code undergoes some specific modifications and combinations with another code. We give a few bounds on the packing and the covering radii of these codes.

Keywords: Linear error-block codes, π-distance, Correction capacity, Packing radius, Covering radius.

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8 Minimum Fluidization Velocities of Binary-Solid Mixtures: Model Comparison

Authors: Mohammad Asif

Abstract:

An accurate prediction of the minimum fluidization velocity is a crucial hydrodynamic aspect of the design of fluidized bed reactors. Common approaches for the prediction of the minimum fluidization velocities of binary-solid fluidized beds are first discussed here. The data of our own careful experimental investigation involving a binary-solid pair fluidized with water is presented. The effect of the relative composition of the two solid species comprising the fluidized bed on the bed void fraction at the incipient fluidization condition is reported and its influence on the minimum fluidization velocity is discussed. In this connection, the capability of packing models to predict the bed void fraction is also examined.

Keywords: Bed void fraction, Binary solid mixture, Minimumfluidization velocity, Packing models

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7 Optimizing Allocation of Two Dimensional Irregular Shapes using an Agent Based Approach

Authors: Ramin Halavati, Saeed B. Shouraki, Mahdieh Noroozian, Saman H. Zadeh

Abstract:

Packing problems arise in a wide variety of application areas. The basic problem is that of determining an efficient arrangement of different objects in a region without any overlap and with minimal wasted gap between shapes. This paper presents a novel population based approach for optimizing arrangement of irregular shapes. In this approach, each shape is coded as an agent and the agents' reproductions and grouping policies results in arrangements of the objects in positions with least wasted area between them. The approach is implemented in an application for cutting sheets and test results on several problems from literature are presented.

Keywords: Optimization, Bin Packing, Agent Based Systems.

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6 Structural Characteristics of Three-Dimensional Random Packing of Aggregates with Wide Size Distribution

Authors: Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan, Naga Shashidhar

Abstract:

The mechanical properties of granular solids are dependent on the flow of stresses from one particle to another through inter-particle contact. Although some experimental methods have been used to study the inter-particle contacts in the past, preliminary work with these techniques indicated that they do not have the necessary resolution to distinguish between those contacts that transmit the load and those that do not, especially for systems with a wide distribution of particle sizes. In this research, computer simulations are used to study the nature and distribution of contacts in a compact with wide particle size distribution, representative of aggregate size distribution used in asphalt pavement construction. The packing fraction, the mean number of contacts and the distribution of contacts were studied for different scenarios. A methodology to distinguish and compute the fraction of load-bearing particles and the fraction of space-filling particles (particles that do not transmit any force) is needed for further investigation.

Keywords: Computer simulation, three-dimensional particlepacking, coordination number, asphalt concrete, aggregates.

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5 Automation of Packing Cell in Fresh Fish Facilities

Authors: Omid Mirmotahari, Yngvar Berg, Mats Hovin

Abstract:

The problem discussed in this paper involves packing fresh fish fileet of the northern Cod into a standard square container. The fish is first cleaned and split and then collected on a belt ready to be stacked in a container. The aim of our work is to pack the fish into the container with constraints on the amount of overlap allowed for the fileets. The current focus is to design a packing cell that can be real-time and of practical use, while finding the optimal solution to the degree of overlap and minimise the unused space of the container.

Keywords: Facilities Planning and Management, Intelligent Systems, Manufacturing Systems, Operations Research, Production Planning and Control.

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4 Production Planning and Measuring Method for Non Patterned Production System Using Stock Cutting Model

Authors: S. Homrossukon, D. Aromstain

Abstract:

The simple methods used to plan and measure non patterned production system are developed from the basic definition of working efficiency. Processing time is assigned as the variable and used to write the equation of production efficiency. Consequently, such equation is extensively used to develop the planning method for production of interest using one-dimensional stock cutting problem. The application of the developed method shows that production efficiency and production planning can be determined effectively.

Keywords: Production Planning, Parallel Machine, Production Measurement, Cutting and Packing.

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3 Numerical Simulation of the Flowing of Ice Slurry in Seawater Pipe of Polar Ships

Authors: Li Xu, Huanbao Jiang, Zhenfei Huang, Lailai Zhang

Abstract:

In recent years, as global warming, the sea-ice extent of North Arctic undergoes an evident decrease and Arctic channel has attracted the attention of shipping industry. Ice crystals existing in the seawater of Arctic channel which enter the seawater system of the ship with the seawater were found blocking the seawater pipe. The appearance of cooler paralysis, auxiliary machine error and even ship power system paralysis may be happened if seriously. In order to reduce the effect of high temperature in auxiliary equipment, seawater system will use external ice-water to participate in the cooling cycle and achieve the state of its flow. The distribution of ice crystals in seawater pipe can be achieved. As the ice slurry system is solid liquid two-phase system, the flow process of ice-water mixture is very complex and diverse. In this paper, the flow process in seawater pipe of ice slurry is simulated with fluid dynamics simulation software based on k-ε turbulence model. As the ice packing fraction is a key factor effecting the distribution of ice crystals, the influence of ice packing fraction on the flowing process of ice slurry is analyzed. In this work, the simulation results show that as the ice packing fraction is relatively large, the distribution of ice crystals is uneven in the flowing process of the seawater which has such disadvantage as increase the possibility of blocking, that will provide scientific forecasting methods for the forming of ice block in seawater piping system. It has important significance for the reliability of the operating of polar ships in the future.

Keywords: Ice slurry, seawater pipe, ice packing fraction, numerical simulation.

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2 Workstation Design Based On Ergonomics in Animal Feed Packing Process

Authors: Pirutchada Musigapong, Wantanee Phanprasit

Abstract:

The intention of this study to design the probability optimized sewing sack-s workstation based on ergonomics for productivity improvement and decreasing musculoskeletal disorders. The physical dimensions of two workers were using to design the new workstation. The physical dimensions are (1) sitting height, (2) mid shoulder height sitting, (3) shoulder breadth, (4) knee height, (5) popliteal height, (6) hip breadth and (7) buttock-knee length. The 5th percentile of buttock knee length sitting (51 cm), the 50th percentile of mid shoulder height sitting (62 cm) and the 95th percentile of popliteal height (43 cm) and hip breadth (45 cm) applied to design the workstation for sewing sack-s operator and the others used to adjust the components of this workstation. The risk assessment by RULA before and after using the probability optimized workstation were 7 and 7 scores and REBA scores were 11 and 5, respectively. Body discomfort-abnormal index was used to assess muscle fatigue of operators before adjustment workstation found that neck muscles, arm muscles area, muscles on the back and the lower back muscles fatigue. Therefore, the extension and flexion exercise was applied to relief musculoskeletal stresses. The workers exercised 15 minutes before the beginning and the end of work for 5 days. After that, the capability of flexion and extension muscles- workers were increasing in 3 muscles (arm, leg, and back muscles).

Keywords: Animal feed, anthropometry, ergonomics, sewing sack, workstation design.

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1 Rain Cell Ratio Technique in Path Attenuation for Terrestrial Radio Links

Authors: Peter Odero Akuon

Abstract:

A rain cell ratio model is proposed that computes attenuation of the smallest rain cell which represents the maximum rain rate value i.e. the cell size when rainfall rate is exceeded 0.01% of the time, R0.01 and predicts attenuation for other cells as the ratio with this maximum. This model incorporates the dependence of the path factor r on the ellipsoidal path variation of the Fresnel zone at different frequencies. In addition, the inhomogeneity of rainfall is modeled by a rain drop packing density factor. In order to derive the model, two empirical methods that can be used to find rain cell size distribution Dc are presented. Subsequently, attenuation measurements from different climatic zones for terrestrial radio links with frequencies F in the range 7-38 GHz are used to test the proposed model. Prediction results show that the path factor computed from the rain cell ratio technique has improved reliability when compared with other path factor and effective rain rate models, including the current ITU-R 530-15 model of 2013.

Keywords: Packing density of rain drops, prediction model, rain attenuation, rain cell ratio technique.

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