Search results for: multiwall carbon nanotubes
821 Mercury Removing Capacity of Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes as Detected by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy: Kinetic & Equilibrium Studies
Authors: Yasser M. Moustafa, Rania E. Morsi, Mohammed Fathy
Multiwall carbon nanotubes, prepared by chemical vapor deposition, have an average diameter of 60-100 nm as shown by High Resolution Transmittance Electron Microscope, HR-TEM. The Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were further characterized using X-ray Diffraction and Raman Spectroscopy. Mercury uptake capacity of MWCNTs was studied using batch adsorption method at different concentration ranges up to 150 ppm. Mercury concentration (before and after the treatment) was measured using cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy. The effect of time, concentration, pH and adsorbent dose were studied. MWCNT were found to perform complete absorption in the sub-ppm concentrations (parts per billion levels) while for high concentrations, the adsorption efficiency was 92% at the optimum conditions; 0.1 g of the adsorbent at 150 ppm mercury (II) solution. The adsorption of mercury on MWCNTs was found to follow the Freundlich adsorption isotherm and the pseudo-second order kinetic model.
Keywords: Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, Hydride System, Mercury Removing, Multi Wall Carbon Nanotubes.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2313
820 Carbon Nanotubes with Magnetic Particles
Authors: Svitlana Kopyl, Vladimir Bystrov, Mikhail Maiorov, Manuel Valente, Igor Bdikin, Antonio C.M. Sousa
Abstract:Magnetic carbon nanotubes composites were obtained by filling carbon nanotubes with paramagnetic iron oxide particles. Detailed investigation of magnetic behaviour of resulting composites was done at different temperatures. Measurements indicate that these functionalized nanotubes are superparamagnetic at room temperature; however, no superparamagnetism was observed at 125 K and 80 K. The blocking temperature TB was estimated at 145 K. These magnetic carbon nanotubes have the potential of being used in a wide range of applications, in particular, the production of nanofluids, which can be controlled and steered by appropriate magnetic fields.
Keywords: carbon nanotubes, magnetic nanoparticles, magnetization, nanofluidsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2556
819 Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes Using Nitric Acid Oxidation and DBD Plasma
Authors: M. Vesali Naseh, A. A. Khodadadi, Y. Mortazavi, O. Alizadeh Sahraei, F. Pourfayaz, S. Mosadegh Sedghi
Abstract:In this study, multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were modified with nitric acid chemically and by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma in an oxygen-based atmosphere. Used carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were prepared by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) floating catalyst method. For removing amorphous carbon and metal catalyst, MWNTs were exposed to dry air and washed with hydrochloric acid. Heating purified CNTs under helium atmosphere caused elimination of acidic functional groups. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) shows formation of oxygen containing groups such as C=O and COOH. Brunauer, Emmett, Teller (BET) analysis revealed that functionalization causes generation of defects on the sidewalls and opening of the ends of CNTs. Results of temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and gas chromatography(GC) indicate that nitric acid treatment create more acidic groups than plasma treatment.
Keywords: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), chemical treatment, functionalization, plasma.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5614
818 Electrochemical Performance of Carbon Nanotube Based Supercapacitor
Authors: Jafar Khan Kasi, Ajab Khan Kasi, Muzamil Bokhari
Carbon nanotube is one of the most attractive materials for the potential applications of nanotechnology due to its excellent mechanical, thermal, electrical and optical properties. In this paper we report a supercapacitor made of nickel foil electrodes, coated with multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) thin film using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. Chemical vapor deposition method was used for the growth of MWCNTs and ethanol was used as a hydrocarbon source. High graphitic multiwall carbon nanotube was found at 750oC analyzing by Raman spectroscopy. We observed the electrochemical performance of supercapacitor by cyclic voltammetry. The electrodes of supercapacitor fabricated from MWCNTs exhibit considerably small equivalent series resistance (ESR), and a high specific power density. Electrophoretic deposition is an easy method in fabricating MWCNT electrodes for high performance supercapacitor.
Keywords: Carbon nanotube, chemical vapor deposition, catalyst, charge, cyclic voltammetry.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2352
817 Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Ultrasonication on Dispersion and Mechanical Performance of Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotube-Cement Mortar Composites
Authors: S. Alrekabi, A. Cundy, A. Lampropoulos, I. Savina
Abstract:Due to their remarkable mechanical properties, multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are considered by many researchers to be a highly promising filler and reinforcement agent for enhanced performance cementitious materials. Currently, however, achieving an effective dispersion of MWCNTs remains a major challenge in developing high performance nano-cementitious composites, since carbon nanotubes tend to form large agglomerates and bundles as a consequence of Van der Waals forces. In this study, effective dispersion of low concentrations of MWCNTs at 0.01%, 0.025%, and 0.05% by weight of cement in the composite was achieved by applying different sonication conditions in combination with the use of polycarboxylate ether as a surfactant. UV-Visible spectroscopy and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to assess the dispersion of MWCNTs in water, while the dispersion states of MWCNTs within the cement composites and their surface interactions were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A high sonication intensity applied over a short time period significantly enhanced the dispersion of MWCNTs at initial mixing stages, and 0.025% of MWCNTs wt. of cement, caused 86% and 27% improvement in tensile strength and compressive strength respectively, compared with a plain cement mortar.
Keywords: Dispersion, multiwall carbon nanotubes, mechanical performance, sonication conditions.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1730
816 Investigation of New Method to Achieve Well Dispersed Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Al Matrix Composites
Authors: A.H.Javadi, Sh.Mirdamadi, M.A.Faghisani, S.Shakhesi
Abstract:Nanostructured materials have attracted many researchers due to their outstanding mechanical and physical properties. For example, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) or carbon nanofibres (CNFs) are considered to be attractive reinforcement materials for light weight and high strength metal matrix composites. These composites are being projected for use in structural applications for their high specific strength as well as functional materials for their exciting thermal and electrical characteristics. The critical issues of CNT-reinforced MMCs include processing techniques, nanotube dispersion, interface, strengthening mechanisms and mechanical properties. One of the major obstacles to the effective use of carbon nanotubes as reinforcements in metal matrix composites is their agglomeration and poor distribution/dispersion within the metallic matrix. In order to tap into the advantages of the properties of CNTs (or CNFs) in composites, the high dispersion of CNTs (or CNFs) and strong interfacial bonding are the key issues which are still challenging. Processing techniques used for synthesis of the composites have been studied with an objective to achieve homogeneous distribution of carbon nanotubes in the matrix. Modified mechanical alloying (ball milling) techniques have emerged as promising routes for the fabrication of carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced metal matrix composites. In order to obtain a homogeneous product, good control of the milling process, in particular control of the ball movement, is essential. The control of the ball motion during the milling leads to a reduction in grinding energy and a more homogeneous product. Also, the critical inner diameter of the milling container at a particular rotational speed can be calculated. In the present work, we use conventional and modified mechanical alloying to generate a homogenous distribution of 2 wt. % CNT within Al powders. 99% purity Aluminium powder (Acros, 200mesh) was used along with two different types of multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNTs) having different aspect ratios to produce Al-CNT composites. The composite powders were processed into bulk material by compaction, and sintering using a cylindrical compaction and tube furnace. Field Emission Scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and Vickers macro hardness tester were used to evaluate CNT dispersion, powder morphology, CNT damage, phase analysis, mechanical properties and crystal size determination. Despite the success of ball milling in dispersing CNTs in Al powder, it is often accompanied with considerable strain hardening of the Al powder, which may have implications on the final properties of the composite. The results show that particle size and morphology vary with milling time. Also, by using the mixing process and sonication before mechanical alloying and modified ball mill, dispersion of the CNTs in Al matrix improves.
Keywords: multiwall carbon nanotube, Aluminum matrixcomposite, dispersion, mechanical alloying, sinteringProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2202
815 Carbon Nanotubes Synthesized Using Sugar Cane as a Percursor
Authors: Vanessa Romanovicz, Beatriz A. Berns, Stephen D. Carpenter, Deyse Carpenter
This article deals with the carbon nanotubes (CNT) synthesized from a novel precursor, sugar cane and Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO). The objective was to produce CNTs to be used as catalyst supports for Proton Exchange Membranes. The influence of temperature, inert gas flow rate and concentration of the precursor is presented. The CNTs prepared were characterized using TEM, XRD, Raman Spectroscopy, and the surface area determined by BET. The results show that it is possible to form CNT from sugar cane by pyrolysis and the CNTs are the type multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The MWCNTs are short and closed at the two ends with very small surface area of SBET= 3.691m,/g.
Keywords: Carbon nanotubes, sugar cane, fuel cell, catalyst support.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3152
814 Effect of Amine-Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes on the Properties of CNT-PAN Composite Nanofibers
Authors: O. Eren, N. Ucar, A. Onen, N. Kızıldag, O. F. Vurur, N. Demirsoy, I. Karacan
PAN nanofibers reinforced with amine functionalized carbon nanotubes. The effect of amine functionalization and the effect of concentration of CNT on the conductivity and mechanical and morphological properties of composite nanofibers were examined. 1%CNT-NH2 loaded PAN/CNT nanofiber showed the best mechanical properties. Conductivity increased with the incorporation of carbon nanotubes. While an increase of concentration of CNT increases the diameter of nanofiber, the use of functionalized CNT results to decrease of diameter of nanofiber.
Keywords: Amine functionalized carbon nanotube, electrospinning, nanofiber, polyacrylonitrile.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4084
813 Raman Spectroscopy of Carbon Nanostructures in Strong Magnetic Field
Authors: M. Kalbac, T. Verhagen, K. Drogowska, J. Vejpravova
One- and two-dimensional carbon nanostructures with sp2 hybridization of carbon atoms (single walled carbon nanotubes and graphene) are promising materials in future electronic and spintronics devices due to specific character of their electronic structure. In this paper we present a comparative study of graphene and single-wall carbon nanotubes by Raman spectro-microscopy in strong magnetic field. This unique method allows to study changes in electronic band structure of the two types of carbon nanostructures induced by a strong magnetic field.
Keywords: Carbon nanostructures, magnetic field, Raman spectroscopy.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2182
812 Production of Carbon Nanotubes by Iron Catalyst
Authors: Ezgi Dündar-Tekkaya, Nilgün Karatepe
Abstract:Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with their high mechanical, electrical, thermal and chemical properties are regarded as promising materials for many different potential applications. Having unique properties they can be used in a wide range of fields such as electronic devices, electrodes, drug delivery systems, hydrogen storage, textile etc. Catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) is a common method for CNT production especially for mass production. Catalysts impregnated on a suitable substrate are important for production with chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Iron catalyst and MgO substrate is one of most common catalyst-substrate combination used for CNT. In this study, CNTs were produced by CCVD of acetylene (C2H2) on magnesium oxide (MgO) powder substrate impregnated by iron nitrate (Fe(NO3)3•9H2O) solution. The CNT synthesis conditions were as follows: at synthesis temperatures of 500 and 800°C multiwall and single wall CNTs were produced respectively. Iron (Fe) catalysts were prepared by with Fe:MgO ratio of 1:100, 5:100 and 10:100. The duration of syntheses were 30 and 60 minutes for all temperatures and catalyst percentages. The synthesized materials were characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy.
Keywords: Carbon nanotube, catalyst, catalytic chemical vapordeposition, ironProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2797
811 Optical Fiber Sensor for Detection of Carbon Nanotubes
Authors: C. I. L. Justino, A. C. Freitas, T. A. P. Rocha-Santos, A. C. Duarte
Abstract:This work relates the development of an optical fiber (OF) sensor for the detection and quantification of single walled carbon nanotubes in aqueous solutions. The developed OF displays a compact design, it requires less expensive materials and equipment as well as low volume of sample (0.2 mL). This methodology was also validated by the comparison of its analytical performance with that of a standard methodology based on ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The developed OF sensor follows the general SDS calibration proposed for OF sensors as a more suitable calibration fitting compared with classical calibrations.
Keywords: Optical fiber sensor, single-walled carbon nanotubes, SDS calibration model, UV-Vis spectroscopyProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1572
810 Role of Dispersion of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes on Compressive Strength of Cement Paste
Authors: Jyoti Bharj, Sarabjit Singh, Subhash Chander, Rabinder Singh
The outstanding mechanical properties of Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have generated great interest for their potential as reinforcements in high performance cementitious composites. The main challenge in research is the proper dispersion of carbon nanotubes in the cement matrix. The present work discusses the role of dispersion of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the compressive strength characteristics of hydrated Portland IS 1489 cement paste. Cement-MWCNT composites with different mixing techniques were prepared by adding 0.2% (by weight) of MWCNTs to Portland IS 1489 cement. Rectangle specimens of size approximately 40mm × 40mm ×160mm were prepared and curing of samples was done for 7, 14, 28 and 35days. An appreciable increase in compressive strength with both techniques; mixture of MWCNTs with cement in powder form and mixture of MWCNTs with cement in hydrated form 7 to 28 days of curing time for all the samples was observed.
Keywords: Carbon Nanotubes, Portland Cement, Composite, Compressive Strength.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2975
809 Fabrication of Carbon Doped TiO2 Nanotubes via In-situ Anodization of Ti-foil in Acidic Medium
Authors: Asma M. Milad, Mohammad B. Kassim, Wan R. Daud
Abstract:Highly ordered TiO2 nanotube (TNT) arrays were fabricated onto a pre-treated titanium foil by anodic oxidation with a voltage of 20V in phosphoric acid/sodium fluoride electrolyte. A pretreatment of titanium foil involved washing with acetone, isopropanol, ethanol and deionized water. Carbon doped TiO2 nanotubes (C-TNT) was fabricated 'in-situ' with the same method in the presence of polyvinyl alcohol and urea as carbon sources. The affects of polyvinyl alcohol concentration and oxidation time on the composition, morphology and structure of the C-TN were studied by FE-SEM, EDX and XRD techniques. FESEM images of the nanotubes showed uniform arrays of C-TNTs. The density and microstructures of the nanotubes were greatly affected by the content of PVA. The introduction of the polyvinyl alcohol into the electrolyte increases the amount of C content inside TiO2 nanotube arrays uniformly. The influence of carbon content on the photo-current of C-TNT was investigated and the I-V profiles of the nanotubes were established. The preliminary results indicated that the 'in-situ' doping technique produced a superior quality nanotubes compared to post doping techniques.
Keywords: Anodization, photoelectrochemical cell, 'in-situ', post doping, thin film, and titania nanotube arrays.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2482
808 Induction Melting as a Fabrication Route for Aluminum-Carbon Nanotubes Nanocomposite
Authors: Muhammad Shahid, Muhammad Mansoor
Increasing demands of contemporary applications for high strength and lightweight materials prompted the development of metal-matrix composites (MMCs). After the discovery of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in 1991 (revealing an excellent set of mechanical properties) became one of the most promising strengthening materials for MMC applications. Additionally, the relatively low density of the nanotubes imparted high specific strengths, making them perfect strengthening material to reinforce MMCs. In the present study, aluminum-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (Al-MWCNTs) composite was prepared in an air induction furnace. The dispersion of the nanotubes in molten aluminum was assisted by inherent string action of induction heating at 790°C. During the fabrication process, multifunctional fluxes were used to avoid oxidation of the nanotubes and molten aluminum. Subsequently, the melt was cast in to a copper mold and cold rolled to 0.5 mm thickness. During metallographic examination using a scanning electron microscope, it was observed that the nanotubes were effectively dispersed in the matrix. The mechanical properties of the composite were significantly increased as compared to pure aluminum specimen i.e. the yield strength from 65 to 115 MPa, the tensile strength from 82 to 125 MPa and hardness from 27 to 30 HV for pure aluminum and Al-CNTs composite, respectively. To recognize the associated strengthening mechanisms in the nanocomposites, three foremost strengthening models i.e. shear lag model, Orowan looping and Hall-Petch have been critically analyzed; experimental data were found to be closely satisfying the shear lag model.
Keywords: Carbon nanotubes, induction melting, nanocomposite, strengthening mechanism.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1363
807 Enhanced Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production on TiO2 by Using Carbon Materials
Authors: Bashir Ahmmad, Kensaku Kanomata, Fumihiko Hirose
The effect of carbon materials on TiO2 for the photocatalytic hydrogen gas production from water / alcohol mixtures was investigated. Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), carbon nanofiber (CNF), fullerene (FLN), graphite (GP), and graphite silica (GS) were used as co-catalysts by directly mixing with TiO2. Drastic synergy effects were found with increase in the amount of hydrogen gas by a factor of ca. 150 and 100 for SWNTs and GS with TiO2, respectively. Moreover, the increment factor of hydrogen production reached to 180, when the mixture of SWNTs and TiO2 were smashed in an agate mortar before photocatalytic reactions. The order of H2 gas production for these carbon materials was SWNTs > GS >> MWNTs > FLN > CNF > GP. To maximize the hydrogen production from SWNTs/TiO2, various parameters of experimental condition were changed. Also, a comparison between Pt/TiO2, SWNTs/TiO2 and GS/TiO2 was made for the amount of H2 gas production. Finally, the recyclability of SWNTs/TiO2or GS/TiO2 was tested.
Keywords: Photocatalysis, carbon materials, alcohol reforming, hydrogen production, titanium oxide.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3822
806 Low Temperature Ethanol Gas Sensor based on SnO2/MWNTs Nanocomposite
Authors: O. Alizadeh Sahraei, A. Khodadadi, Y. Mortazavi, M. Vesali Naseh, S. Mosadegh
Abstract:A composite made of plasma functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) coated with SnO2 was synthesized by sonochemical precipitation method. Thick layer of this nanocomposite material was used as ethanol sensor at low temperatures. The composite sensitivity for ethanol has increased by a factor of 2 at room temperature and by a factor of 13 at 250°C in comparison to that of pure SnO2. SEM image of nanocomposite material showed MWNTs were embedded in SnO2 matrix and also a higher surface area was observed in the presence of functionalized MWNTs. Greatly improved sensitivity of the composite material to ethanol can be attributed to new gas accessing passes through MWNTs and higher specific surface area.
Keywords: Carbon nanotube, Functionalized, Gas sensor, Low temperature, Nanocomposite, Tin oxide.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2219
805 Surface Activation of Carbon Nanotubes Generating a Chemical Interaction in Epoxy Nanocomposite
Authors: Mohamed Eldessouki, Ebraheem Shady, Yasser Gowayed
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are known for having high elastic properties with high surface area that promote them as good candidates for reinforcing polymeric matrices. In composite materials, CNTs lack chemical bonding with the surrounding matrix which decreases the possibility of better stress transfer between the components. In this work, a chemical treatment for activating the surface of the multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) was applied and the effect of this functionalization on the elastic properties of the epoxy nanocomposites was studied. Functional amino-groups were added to the surface of the CNTs and it was evaluated to be about 34% of the total weight of the CNTs. Elastic modulus was found to increase by about 40% of the neat epoxy resin at CNTs’ weight fraction of 0.5%. The elastic modulus was found to decrease after reaching a certain concentration of CNTs which was found to be 1% wt. The scanning electron microscopic pictures showed the effect of the CNTs on the crack propagation through the sample by forming stress concentrated spots at the nanocomposite samples.
Keywords: Carbon nanotubes functionalization, crack propagation, elastic modulus, epoxy nanocomposites.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1655
804 Nanocomputing Memory Devices Formed from Carbon Nanotubes and Metallofulleres
Authors: Richard K. F. Lee, James M. Hill
In this paper, we summarize recent work of the authors on nanocomputing memory devices. We investigate two memory devices, each comprising a charged metallofullerene and carbon nanotubes. The first device involves two open nanotubes of the same radius that are joined by a centrally located nanotube of a smaller radius. A metallofullerene is then enclosed inside the structure. The second device also involves a etallofullerene that is located inside a closed carbon nanotube. Assuming the Lennard-Jones interaction energy and the continuum approximation, for both devices, the metallofullerene has two symmetrically placed equal minimum energy positions. On one side the metallofullerene represents the zero information state and by applying an external electrical field, it can overcome the energy barrier, and pass from one end of the tube to the other, where the metallofullerene then represents the one information state.
Keywords: Carbon nanotube, continuous approach, energy barrier, Lennard-Jones potential, metallofullerene, nanomemory device.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1319
803 Characterization of Biodegradable Nanocomposites with Poly (Lactic Acid) and Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
Authors: Md F. Mina, Mohammad D.H. Beg, Muhammad R. Islam, Abu K. M. M. Alam A. Nizam, Rosli M. Younus
Abstract:In this study, structural, mechanical, thermal and electrical properties of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) nanocomposites with low-loaded (0-1.5 wt%) untreated, heat and nitric acid treated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were studied. Among the composites, untreated 0.5 wt % MWCNTs and acid-treated 1.0 wt% MWCNTs reinforced PLA show the tensile strength and modulus values higher than the others. These two samples along with pure PLA exhibit the stable orthorhombic α-form, whilst other samples reveal the less stable orthorhombic β-form, as demonstrated by X-ray diffraction study. Differential scanning calorimetry reveals the evolution of the mentioned different phases by controlled cooling and discloses an enhancement of PLA crystallization by nanotubes incorporation. Thermogravimetric analysis shows that the MWCNTs loaded sample degraded faster than PLA. Surface resistivity of the nanocomposites is found to be dropped drastically by a factor of 1013 with a low loading of MWCNTs (1.5 wt%).
Keywords: Crystallization, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, nanocomposites, Poly (lactic acid).Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2322
802 A Review on Thermal Conductivity of Bio-Based Carbon Nanotubes
Authors: Gloria A. Adewumi, Andrew C. Eloka-Eboka, Freddie L. Inambao
Bio-based carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have received considerable research attention due to their comparative advantages of high level stability, simplistic use, low toxicity and overall environmental friendliness. New potentials for improvement in heat transfer applications are presented due to their high aspect ratio, high thermal conductivity and special surface area. Phonons have been identified as being responsible for thermal conductivities in carbon nanotubes. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of heat conduction in CNTs involves investigating the difference between the varieties of phonon modes and knowing the kinds of phonon modes that play the dominant role. In this review, a reference to a different number of studies is made and in addition, the role of phonon relaxation rate mainly controlled by boundary scattering and three-phonon Umklapp scattering process was investigated. Results show that the phonon modes are sensitive to a number of nanotube conditions such as: diameter, length, temperature, defects and axial strain. At a low temperature (<100K) the thermal conductivity increases with increasing temperature. A small nanotube size causes phonon quantization which is evident in the thermal conductivity at low temperatures.
Keywords: Carbon nanotubes, phonons, thermal conductivity, umklapp process.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1568
801 Investigation of Gas Phase Composition During Carbon Nanotube Production
Authors: S. Yaglikci, B. Salgara, F. Soysal, B. Cicek
Abstract:Chemical vapor deposition method was used to produce carbon nanotubes on an iron based catalyst from acetylene. Gas-phase samples collected from the different positions of the tubular reactor were analyzed by GC/MS. A variety of species ranging from hydrogen to naphthalene were observed and changes in their concentrations were plotted against the reactor position. Briefly benzene, toluene, styrene, indene and naphthalene were the main higher molecular weight species and vinylacetylene and diacetylene were the important intermediates. Nanotube characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy.
Keywords: Carbon nanotubes, chemical vapor deposition, GC/MS, species profileProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1768
800 Carbon Nanotubes–A Successful Hydrogen Storage Medium
Authors: Vijaya Ilango, Avika Gupta
Hydrogen fuel is a zero-emission fuel which uses electrochemical cells or combustion in internal engines, to power vehicles and electric devices. Methods of hydrogen storage for subsequent use span many approaches, including high pressures, cryogenics and chemical compounds that reversibly release H2 upon heating. Most research into hydrogen storage is focused on storing hydrogen as a lightweight, compact energy carrier for mobile applications. With the accelerating demand for cleaner and more efficient energy sources, hydrogen research has attracted more attention in the scientific community. Until now, full implementation of a hydrogen-based energy system has been hindered in part by the challenge of storing hydrogen gas, especially onboard an automobile. New techniques being researched may soon make hydrogen storage more compact, safe and efficient. In this overview, few hydrogen storage methods and mechanism of hydrogen uptake in carbon nanotubes are summarized.
Keywords: Carbon nanotubes, Chemisorption, Hydrogen storage, Physisorption.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3026
799 Implication of the Exchange-Correlation on Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes
Authors: A. Abdikian
Using the linearized quantum hydrodynamic model (QHD) and by considering the role of quantum parameter (Bohm’s potential) and electron exchange-correlation potential in conjunction with Maxwell’s equations, electromagnetic wave propagation in a single-walled carbon nanotubes was studied. The electronic excitations are described. By solving the mentioned equations with appropriate boundary conditions and by assuming the low-frequency electromagnetic waves, two general expressions of dispersion relations are derived for the transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) modes, respectively. The dispersion relations are analyzed numerically and it was found that the dependency of dispersion curves with the exchange-correlation effects (which have been ignored in previous works) in the low frequency would be limited. Moreover, it has been realized that asymptotic behaviors of the TE and TM modes are similar in single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The results show that by adding the function of electron exchange-correlation potential lead to the phenomena and make to extend the validity range of QHD model. The results can be important in the study of collective phenomena in nanostructures.
Keywords: Transverse magnetic, transverse electric, quantum hydrodynamic model, electron exchange-correlation potential, single-wall carbon nanotubes.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 760
798 Functionalization and Characterization of Carbon Nanotubes/ Polypropylene Nanocomposite
Authors: Mokhtar Awang, Wei-Vern Hor, Ehsan Mohammadpour, M Zaki Abdullah, Faiz Ahmad
Abstract:Chemical and physical functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) has been commonly practiced to achieve better dispersion of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in polymer matrix. This work describes various functionalization methods (acidtreatment, non-ionic surfactant treatment with TritonX-100), fabrication of MWCNT/PP nanocomposites via melt blending and characterization of mechanical properties. Microscopy analysis (FESEM, TEM, XPS) showed effective purification of MWCNTs under acid treatment, and better dispersion under both chemical and physical functionalization techniques combined, in their respective order. Tensile tests showed increase in tensile strength for the nanocomposites that contain MWCNTs up to 2 wt%. A decrease in tensile strength was seen in samples that contain 4 wt% of MWCNTs for both raw and Triton X-100 functionalized, signifying MWCNT degradation/rebundling at composition with higher content of MWCNTs. For the acid-treated MWCNTs, however, the tensile results showed slight improvement even at 4wt%, indicating effective dispersion of MWCNTs.
Keywords: Multi walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT), functionalization, dispersion, nanocompositeProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2239
797 Strengthening RC Columns Using Carbon Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites Modified with Carbon Nanotubes
Authors: Mohammad R. Irshidat, Mohammed H. Al-Saleh, Mahmoud Al-Shoubaki
This paper investigates the viability of using carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites modified with carbon nanotubes to strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) columns. Six RC columns was designed and constructed according to ASCE standards. The columns were wrapped using carbon fiber sheets impregnated with either neat epoxy or CNTs modified epoxy. These columns were then tested under concentric axial loading. Test results show that; compared to the unwrapped specimens; wrapping concrete columns with carbon fiber sheet embedded in CNTs modified epoxy resulted in an increase in its axial load resistance, maximum displacement, and toughness values by 24%, 109% and 232%, respectively. These results reveal that adding CNTs into epoxy resin enhanced the confinement effect, specifically, increased the axial load resistance, maximum displacement, and toughness values by 11%, 6%, and 19%, respectively compared with columns strengthening with carbon fiber sheet embedded in neat epoxy.
Keywords: CNT, epoxy, Carbon fiber, RC columns.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3651
796 Carbon Nanotubes Based Porous Framework for Filtration Applications Using Industrial Grinding Waste
Authors: V. J. Pillewan, D. N. Raut, K. N. Patil, D. K. Shinde
Abstract:Forging, milling, turning, grinding and shaping etc. are the various industrial manufacturing processes which generate the metal waste. Grinding is extensively used in the finishing operation. The waste generated contains significant impurities apart from the metal particles. Due to these significant impurities, it becomes difficult to process and gets usually dumped in the landfills which create environmental problems. Therefore, it becomes essential to reuse metal waste to create value added products. Powder injection molding process is used for producing the porous metal matrix framework. This paper discusses the presented design of the porous framework to be used for the liquid filter application. Different parameters are optimized to obtain the better strength framework with variable porosity. Carbon nanotubes are used as reinforcing materials to enhance the strength of the metal matrix framework.
Keywords: Grinding waste, powder injection molding, carbon nanotubes, metal matrix composites.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 866
795 Thermo-Mechanical Characterization of MWCNTs-Modified Epoxy Resin
Authors: M. Dehghan, R. Al-Mahaidi, I. Sbarski
An industrial epoxy adhesive used in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) strengthening systems was modified by dispersing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Nanocomposites were fabricated using the solvent-assisted dispersion method and ultrasonic mixing. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and tensile tests were conducted to study the effect of nanotubes dispersion on the thermal and mechanical properties of the epoxy composite. Experimental results showed a substantial enhancement in the decomposition temperature and tensile properties of epoxy composite, while, the glass transition temperature (Tg) was slightly reduced due to the solvent effect. The morphology of the epoxy nanocomposites was investigated by SEM. It was proved that using solvent improves the nanotubes dispersion. However, at contents higher than 2 wt. %, nanotubes started to re-bundle in the epoxy matrix which negatively affected the final properties of epoxy composite.
Keywords: Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer, Epoxy, Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube, Glass Transition Temperature.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3221
794 Hydrogen Storage In Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Purified By Microwave Digestion Method
Authors: Neslihan Yuca, Nilgün Karatepe
Abstract:The aim of this study was to synthesize the single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and determine their hydrogen storage capacities. SWCNTs were firstly synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of acetylene (C2H2) on a magnesium oxide (MgO) powder impregnated with an iron nitrate (Fe(NO3)3·9H2O) solution. The synthesis parameters were selected as: the synthesis temperature of 800°C, the iron content in the precursor of 5% and the synthesis time of 30 min. Purification process of SWCNTs was fulfilled by microwave digestion at three different temperatures (120, 150 and 200 °C), three different acid concentrations (0.5, 1 and 1.5 M) and for three different time intervals (15, 30 and 60 min). Nitric acid (HNO3) was used in the removal of the metal catalysts. The hydrogen storage capacities of the purified materials were measured using volumetric method at the liquid nitrogen temperature and gas pressure up to 100 bar. The effects of the purification conditions such as temperature, time and acid concentration on hydrogen adsorption were investigated.
Keywords: Carbon nanotubes, purification, microwavedigestion, hydrogen storageProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2108
793 Thermal and Electrical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes Purified by Acid Digestion
Authors: Neslihan Yuca, Nilgün Karatepe, Fahrettin Yakuphanoğlu
Abstract:Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) possess unique structural, mechanical, thermal and electronic properties, and have been proposed to be used for applications in many fields. However, to reach the full potential of the CNTs, many problems still need to be solved, including the development of an easy and effective purification procedure, since synthesized CNTs contain impurities, such as amorphous carbon, carbon nanoparticles and metal particles. Different purification methods yield different CNT characteristics and may be suitable for the production of different types of CNTs. In this study, the effect of different purification chemicals on carbon nanotube quality was investigated. CNTs were firstly synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of acetylene (C2H2) on a magnesium oxide (MgO) powder impregnated with an iron nitrate (Fe(NO3)3·9H2O) solution. The synthesis parameters were selected as: the synthesis temperature of 800°C, the iron content in the precursor of 5% and the synthesis time of 30 min. The liquid phase oxidation method was applied for the purification of the synthesized CNT materials. Three different acid chemicals (HNO3, H2SO4, and HCl) were used in the removal of the metal catalysts from the synthesized CNT material to investigate the possible effects of each acid solution to the purification step. Purification experiments were carried out at two different temperatures (75 and 120 °C), two different acid concentrations (3 and 6 M) and for three different time intervals (6, 8 and 15 h). A 30% H2O2 : 3M HCl (1:1 v%) solution was also used in the purification step to remove both the metal catalysts and the amorphous carbon. The purifications using this solution were performed at the temperature of 75°C for 8 hours. Purification efficiencies at different conditions were evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis. Thermal and electrical properties of CNTs were also determined. It was found that the obtained electrical conductivity values for the carbon nanotubes were typical for organic semiconductor materials and thermal stabilities were changed depending on the purification chemicals.
Keywords: Carbon nanotubes, purification, acid digestion, thermalstability, electrical conductivityProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2292
792 Properties of MWCNTs/PAN Nanofiber Sheet Prepared from Chemically Modified MWCNTs
Authors: M. Seneewong-Na-Ayuttaya, T. Pongprayoon
The nanofiber sheet of Multiwall Cabon Nanotube (MWCNTs)/Polyacylonitile (PAN) composites was fabricated from electrospun nanofiber. Firstly the surface of MWCNTs was chemically modified, comparing two different techniques consisting of admicellar polymerization and functionalization to improve the dispersion and prevent the aggregation in the PAN matrix. The modified MWCNTs were characterized by the dispersion in dimethylformamide (DMF) solvent, Laser particle size, and FTRaman. Lastly, DSC, SEM and mechanical properties of the nanofiber sheet were examined. The results show that the mechanical properties of the nanofiber sheet prepared from admicellar polymerization-modified MWCNTs were higher than those of the others.
Keywords: Multiwall carbon nanotube, admicellar polymerization, functionalization, nanofiber sheet.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1740