Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 30836
Production of Carbon Nanotubes by Iron Catalyst
Abstract:Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with their high mechanical, electrical, thermal and chemical properties are regarded as promising materials for many different potential applications. Having unique properties they can be used in a wide range of fields such as electronic devices, electrodes, drug delivery systems, hydrogen storage, textile etc. Catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) is a common method for CNT production especially for mass production. Catalysts impregnated on a suitable substrate are important for production with chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Iron catalyst and MgO substrate is one of most common catalyst-substrate combination used for CNT. In this study, CNTs were produced by CCVD of acetylene (C2H2) on magnesium oxide (MgO) powder substrate impregnated by iron nitrate (Fe(NO3)3•9H2O) solution. The CNT synthesis conditions were as follows: at synthesis temperatures of 500 and 800°C multiwall and single wall CNTs were produced respectively. Iron (Fe) catalysts were prepared by with Fe:MgO ratio of 1:100, 5:100 and 10:100. The duration of syntheses were 30 and 60 minutes for all temperatures and catalyst percentages. The synthesized materials were characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1333632Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2592
 Pileni, M.P., "Nanostructured materials, Selected synthesis methods, properties and applications", edited by Knauth, P., Schoonman, J.,Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002, pp 1-22.
 Kroto, H. W., Heath, J. R., O-Brien, S. C., Curl, R. F., and Smalley, R. E., "C-60- Buckminsterfullerene", Nature, vol. 318, p. 162, 1985.
 Iijima, S., "Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon", Nature, Vol. 354, pp. 56-58, 1991.
 Bethune, D.S., Kiang, C.H., de Vries, M.S., Gorman, G., Savoy, R., Vazquez, J., and Beyers, R., "Cobalt-catalysed growth of carbon nanotubes with single-atomic-layer walls", Nature, 363, pp. 605-607, 1993.
 Bacon, R., Growth, structure, and properties of graphite whiskers, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 31, p 283,1960.
 Zettl, A., Saito, S., 2008: Carbon Nanotubes: Quantum cylinders of graphene, Elsevier, Oxford
 Treacy, M. M. J., Ebbesen, T. W., and Gibson, J. M., "Exceptionally high Young-s modulus observed for individual carbon nanotubes", Nature, Vol. 381, Issue 6584, p 678, 1996.
 Nakayama, Y., Akita, S., and Shimada, Y., "Thermally activated electrical conduction in carbon nanotubes", Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 34, pp L10-12, 1995.
 Dillon, A.C., Jones, K.M., Bekkedahl, T.A., Kiang, C.H., Bethune, D.S., and Haben, M.J., "Storage of hydrogen in single walled carbon nanotubes", Nature Vol. 386, Issue 6623, p. 377, 1997.
 Yacaman, M. J., Yoshida, M., Rendon, L., Santiesteban, J. G., "Catalytic growth of carbon microtubules with fullerene structure", Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 62, p 657, 1993.
 O-Connel, M.J., "Carbon nanotubes: Properties and Applications", Taylor & Francis., Florida, 2006.
 Mukhopadhyay, K., Koshio, K., Tanaka, N., and Shinohara, H., "A simple and novel way to synthesize aligned nanotube bundles at low temperature", Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 37: L1257, 1998.
 Maruyama, S., Kojima, R., Miyauchi, Y., Chiashi, S., and Kohno, M., "Low-temperature synthesis of high-purity single-walled carbon nanotubes from alcohol", Chemical Physics Letters, Vol. 360, p. 229, 2002.
[Endo, M., Takeuchi, K., Igarashi, S., Kobori, K., Shiraishi, M., and Kroto, H.W., "The production and structure of pyrolytic carbon nanotubes (PCNTs)", Journal of the Physics and Chemistry of Solids, Vol. 54, pp. 1841-1848, 1993.
 Colomer, J. F., Piedigrosso, P., Willems, I., Journet, C., Bernier, P., Van Tendeloo G., Fonseca, A., and Nagy, J. B., "Purification of catalytically produced MWCNTs", Journal of The Chemical Society, Faraday Transactions, Vol. 94, pp. 3753-3358, 1998.
 Liew, K.M., Wong, C.H., Tan, M.J., "Buckling properties of carbon nanotube bundles", Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 87, 041901, 2005.
 Nagaraju, N., Fonseca, A., Konya, Z., and Nagy, J.B., "Alumina and silica supported metal catalysts for the production of carbon nanotubes", Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical, Vol. 181, p. 57, 2002.
 Seo, J.W., Hernadi, K., Miko, C., and Forro, L., "Behaviour of transition metals catalysts over laser-treated vanadium support surfaces in the decomposition of acetylene", Applied Catalysis A: General, Vol. 260, p. 87, 2004.
 Willems, I., Konya, Z., Colomer, J. F., Tendelo, G. V., Nagaraju, N., Fonseca, A., and Nagy J. B., "Control of the outer diameter of thin carbon nanotubes synthesized by catalytic decomposition of hydrocarbons." Chemical Physics Letters, Vol. 317, pp. 71-76, 2001.
 Thaib, A., Martin, G.A., Pinheiro, P., Schouler, M.C., and Gadelle, P., "Formation of carbon nanotubes from the carbon monoxide disproportionation reaction over Co/Al2O3 and Co/SiO2 catalysts", Catalysis Letters, Vol. 63, p. 135, 1999.
 Alvin, S., "Catalyst Supports and Supported Catalysts Theoretical and Applied Concepts"; Butterworths: London, 1987.
 Zhu, J., Yudasaka, M., and Iijima, S., "A catalytic chemical vapour deposition synthesis of double-walled carbon nanotubes over metal catalysts supported on a mesoporous material", Chemical Physics Letters, Vol. 380, p. 496, 2003.
 Su, M., Zheng, B., and Liu, J., "A scalable CVD method for the synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes with high catalyst productivity", Chemical Physics Letters, Vol. 322, p. 321, 2000:.
 Hernadi, K., Konya, Z., Siska, A., Kiss, J., Oszko, A., Nagy, J.B., and Kiricsi, I., "On the role of catalyst, catalyst support and their interaction in synthesis of carbon nanotubes by CCVD", Materials Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 77, p. 536, 2002.
 Ward, J.W., Wei, B.Q., and Ajayan, P.M., "Substrate effects on the growth of carbon nanotubes by thermal decomposition of methane." Chemical Physics Letters, Vol. 376, p. 717, 2003.
 Sinha, A.K., Hwang, D.W., and Hwang, L.-P., "A novel approach to bulk synthesis of carbon nanotubes filled with metal by a catalytic chemical vapour deposition method", Chemical Physics Letters, Vol. 332, p. 455, 2000.
 Colomer, J.-F., Bister, G., Willems, I., Konya, Z., Fonseca, A., Van Tendeloo, G., and Nagy, J.B., "Synthesis of single-wall carbon nanotubes by catalytic decompositions of hydrocarbons", Chemical Communications, Issue 14, p 1343, 1999.
 Flahaut, E., Govindaraj, A., Peigney, A., Laurent, Ch., Rousset, A., and Rao, C.N.R., "Synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes using binary (Fe, Co, Ni) alloy nanoparticles prepared in situ by the reduction of oxide solid solutions", Chemical Physics Letters, Vol. 300, p. 236, 1999.
 Chen, M., Chen, C.-M., Koo, H.-S., and Chen, C.-F., "Catalyzed growth model of carbon nanotubes by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition using CH4 and CO2 gas mixtures", Diamond and Related Materials, Vol. 12, p. 1829, 2003.
 Esconjauregui, S., Whelan, C. M., and Maex, C., "The reasons why metals catalyze the nucleation and growth of carbon nanotubes and other carbon nanostructures", Carbon, Vol. 47, Issue 3, pp. 659-669, 2009.
 Curran, S., Carroll, D.L., Ajayan, P.M., Redlich, P., Roth, S., R├╝hle, M., Blau, W., "Picking Needles from the Nanotube-haystack" Advanced Materials, Vol. 10, Issue 14, p. 1091, 1998.
 Athalin, H., Lefrant, S., "A correlated method for quantifying mixed and dispersed carbon nanotubes: analysis of the Raman band intensities and evidence of wavenumber shift.", Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, Vol. 36, p. 40, 2005:.
 Mauron, P., "Growth mechanism and structure of carbon nanotubes", Dissertation, Hansdruckerei Universitat Freiburg, 2003.
 Montgomery, D.C., "Design and Analysis of Experiments", Third Edition, pp. 278-288, 1991.