Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2128

Search results for: hydrogen production

2128 Enhanced Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production on TiO2 by Using Carbon Materials

Authors: Bashir Ahmmad, Kensaku Kanomata, Fumihiko Hirose

Abstract:

The effect of carbon materials on TiO2 for the photocatalytic hydrogen gas production from water / alcohol mixtures was investigated. Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), carbon nanofiber (CNF), fullerene (FLN), graphite (GP), and graphite silica (GS) were used as co-catalysts by directly mixing with TiO2. Drastic synergy effects were found with increase in the amount of hydrogen gas by a factor of ca. 150 and 100 for SWNTs and GS with TiO2, respectively. Moreover, the increment factor of hydrogen production reached to 180, when the mixture of SWNTs and TiO2 were smashed in an agate mortar before photocatalytic reactions. The order of H2 gas production for these carbon materials was SWNTs > GS >> MWNTs > FLN > CNF > GP. To maximize the hydrogen production from SWNTs/TiO2, various parameters of experimental condition were changed. Also, a comparison between Pt/TiO2, SWNTs/TiO2 and GS/TiO2 was made for the amount of H2 gas production. Finally, the recyclability of SWNTs/TiO2or GS/TiO2 was tested.

Keywords: Photocatalysis, carbon materials, alcohol reforming, hydrogen production, titanium oxide.

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2127 Estimation Method for the Construction of Hydrogen Society with Various Biomass Resources in Japan-Project of Cost Reductions in Biomass Transport and Feasibility for Hydrogen Station with Biomass-

Authors: Masaki Tajima, Kenji Imou, Shinya Yokoyama

Abstract:

It was determined that woody biomass and livestock excreta can be utilized as hydrogen resources and hydrogen produced from such sources can be used to fill fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) at hydrogen stations. It was shown that the biomass transport costs for hydrogen production may be reduced the costs for co-generation. In the Tokyo Metropolitan Area, there are only a few sites capable of producing hydrogen from woody biomass in amounts greater than 200 m3/h-the scale required for a hydrogen station to be operationally practical. However, in the case of livestock excreta, it was shown that 15% of the municipalities in this area are capable of securing sufficient biomass to be operationally practical for hydrogen production. The differences in feasibility of practical operation depend on the type of biomass.

Keywords: Biomass Resources, Hydrogen Production, Hydrogen Station, Transport Cost.

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2126 Hydrogen Production by Gasification of Biomass from Copoazu Waste

Authors: Emilio Delgado, William Aperador, Alis Pataquiva

Abstract:

Biomass is becoming a large renewable resource for power generation; it is involved in higher frequency in environmentally clean processes, and even it is used for biofuels preparation. On the other hand, hydrogen – other energy source – can be produced in a variety of methods including gasification of biomass. In this study, the production of hydrogen by gasification of biomass waste is examined. This work explores the production of a gaseous mixture with high power potential from Amazonas´ specie known as copoazu, using a counter-flow fixed-bed bioreactor.

Keywords: Copoazu, Gasification, Hydrogen production.

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2125 Hydrogen Production from Alcohol Wastewater by Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactors under Mesophilic Temperature

Authors: Thipsalin Poontaweegeratigarn, Sumaeth Chavadej, Pramoch Rangsunvigit

Abstract:

In this work, biohydrogen production via dark fermentation from alcohol wastewater using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors (UASB) with a working volume of 4 L was investigated to find the optimum conditions for a maximum hydrogen yield. The system was operated at different COD loading rates (23, 31, 46 and 62 kg/m3d) at mesophilic temperature (37 ºC) and pH 5.5. The seed sludge was pretreated before being fed to the UASB system by boiling at 95 ºC for 15 min. When the system was operated under the optimum COD loading rate of 46 kg/m3d, it provided the hydrogen content of 27%, hydrogen yield of 125.1 ml H2/g COD removed and 95.1 ml H2/g COD applied, hydrogen production rate of 18 l/d, specific hydrogen production rate of 1080 ml H2/g MLVSS d and 1430 ml H2/ L d, and COD removal of 24%.

Keywords: Hydrogen production, Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB), Optimum condition, Alcohol wastewater

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2124 Hydrogen Production from Dehydrogenation of Ethanol over Ag-Based Catalysts

Authors: S. Totong, K. Faungnawakij, N. Laosiripojana

Abstract:

The development of alternative energy is interesting in the present especially, hydrogen production because it is an important energy resource in the future. This paper studied the hydrogen production from catalytic dehydrogenation of ethanol through via low temperature (<500°C) reaction. Copper (Cu) and silver (Ag) supported on fumed silica (SiO2) were selected in the present work; in addition, bimetallic material; Ag-Cu supported on SiO2 was also investigated. The catalysts were prepared by the incipient wetness impregnation method and characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR)and nitrogen adsorption measurements. The catalytic dehydrogenation of ethanol was carried out in a fixed bed continuous flow reactor at atmospheric pressure. The effect of reaction temperature between 300-375°C was studied in order to maximize the hydrogen yield. It was found that Ag-Cu/SiO2 exhibited the highest hydrogen yield compared to Ag/SiO2 and Cu/SiO2 at low reaction temperature (300°C) with full ethanol conversion. The highest hydrogen yield observed was 40% and will be further used as a reactant in fuel cells to generate electricity or feedstock of chemical production. 

Keywords: Catalyst, dehydrogenation, ethanol, hydrogen production.

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2123 Electrolysis Ship for Green Hydrogen Production and Possible Applications

Authors: Julian David Hunt, Andreas Nascimento

Abstract:

Green hydrogen is the most environmental, renewable alternative to produce hydrogen. However, an important challenge to make hydrogen a competitive energy carrier is a constant supply of renewable energy, such as solar, wind and hydropower. Given that the electricity generation potential of these sources vary seasonally and interannually, this paper proposes installing an electrolysis hydrogen production plant in a ship and move the ship to the locations where electricity is cheap, or where the seasonal potential for renewable generation is high. An example of electrolysis ship application is to produce green hydrogen with hydropower from the North region of Brazil and then sail to the Northeast region of Brazil and generate hydrogen using excess electricity from offshore wind power. The electrolysis ship concept is interesting because it has the flexibility to produce green hydrogen using the cheapest renewable electricity available in the market.

Keywords: Green hydrogen, electrolysis ship, renewable energies, seasonal variations.

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2122 Hydrogen from Waste Tyres

Authors: Ibrahim F. Elbaba, Paul T. Williams

Abstract:

Hydrogen is regarded to play an important role in future energy systems because it can be produced from abundant resources and its combustion only generates water. The disposal of waste tyres is a major problem in environmental management throughout the world. The use of waste materials as a source of hydrogen is particularly of interest in that it would also solve a waste treatment problem. There is much interest in the use of alternative feedstocks for the production of hydrogen since more than 95% of current production is from fossil fuels. The pyrolysis of waste tyres for the production of liquid fuels, activated carbons and gases has been extensively researched. However, combining pyrolysis with gasification is a novel process that can gasify the gaseous products from pyrolysis. In this paper, an experimental investigation into the production of hydrogen and other gases from the bench scale pyrolysis-gasification of tyres has been investigated. Experiments were carried using a two stage system consisting of pyrolysis of the waste tyres followed by catalytic steam gasification of the evolved gases and vapours in a second reactor. Experiments were conducted at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C using Ni/Al2O3 as a catalyst. The results showed that there was a dramatic increase in gas yield and the potential H2 production when the gasification temperature was increased from 600 to 900 oC. Overall, the process showed that high yields of hydrogen can be produced from waste tyres.

Keywords: Catalyst, Hydrogen, Pyrolysis, Gasification, Tyre, Waste

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2121 Biohydrogen Production from Starch Residues

Authors: Francielo Vendruscolo

Abstract:

This review summarizes the potential of starch agroindustrial residues as substrate for biohydrogen production. Types of potential starch agroindustrial residues, recent developments and bio-processing conditions for biohydrogen production will be discussed. Biohydrogen is a clean energy source with great potential to be an alternative fuel, because it releases energy explosively in heat engines or generates electricity in fuel cells producing water as only by-product. Anaerobic hydrogen fermentation or dark fermentation seems to be more favorable, since hydrogen is yielded at high rates and various organic waste enriched with carbohydrates as substrate result in low cost for hydrogen production. Abundant biomass from various industries could be source for biohydrogen production where combination of waste treatment and energy production would be an advantage. Carbohydrate-rich nitrogendeficient solid wastes such as starch residues can be used for hydrogen production by using suitable bioprocess technologies. Alternatively, converting biomass into gaseous fuels, such as biohydrogen is possibly the most efficient way to use these agroindustrial residues.

Keywords: Biofuel, dark fermentation, starch residues, food waste.

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2120 Effect of COD Loading Rate on Hydrogen Production from Alcohol Wastewater

Authors: Patcharee Intanoo, Jittipan Chavadej, Sumaeth Chavadej

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to investigate hydrogen production from alcohol wastewater by anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) under thermophillic operation. The ASBR unit used in this study had a liquid holding volume of 4 L and was operated at 6 cycles per day. The seed sludge taken from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket unit treating the same wastewater was boiled at 95 °C for 15 min before being fed to the ASBR unit. The ASBR system was operated at different COD loading rates at a thermophillic temperature (55 °C), and controlled pH of 5.5. When the system was operated under optimum conditions (providing maximum hydrogen production performance) at a feed COD of 60 000 mg/l, and a COD loading rate of 68 kg/m3 d, the produced gas contained 43 % H2 content in the produced gas. Moreover, the hydrogen yield and the specific hydrogen production rate (SHPR) were 130 ml H2/g COD removed and 2100 ml H2/l d, respectively.

Keywords: Biohydrogen, Alcohol wastewater, Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR), Thermophillic operation

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2119 Use of Magnesium as a Renewable Energy Source

Authors: Rafayel K. Kostanyan

Abstract:

The opportunities of use of metallic magnesium as a generator of hydrogen gas, as well as thermal and electric energy is presented in the paper. Various schemes of magnesium application are discussed and power characteristics of corresponding devices are presented. Economic estimation of hydrogen price obtained by different methods is made, including the use of magnesium as a source of hydrogen for transportation in comparison with gasoline. Details and prospects of our new inexpensive technology of magnesium production from magnesium hydroxide and magnesium bearing rocks (which are available worldwide and in Armenia) are analyzed. It is estimated the threshold cost of Mg production at which application of this metal in power engineering is economically justified.

Keywords: Magnesium, power generation, production, renewable energy.

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2118 H2 Production and Treatment of Cake Wastewater Industry via Up-Flow Anaerobic Staged Reactor

Authors: Manal A. Mohsen, Ahmed Tawfik

Abstract:

Hydrogen production from cake wastewater by anaerobic dark fermentation via upflow anaerobic staged reactor (UASR) was investigated in this study. The reactor was continuously operated for four months at constant hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 21.57 hr, PH value of 6 ± 0.6, temperature of 21.1°C, and organic loading rate of 2.43 gCOD/l.d. The hydrogen production was 5.7 l H2/d and the hydrogen yield was 134.8 ml H2 /g CODremoved. The system showed an overall removal efficiency of TCOD, TBOD, TSS, TKN, and Carbohydrates of 40 ± 13%, 59 ± 18%, 84 ± 17%, 28 ± 27%, and 85 ± 15% respectively during the long term operation period. Based on the available results, the system is not sufficient for the effective treatment of cake wastewater, and the effluent quality of UASR is not complying for discharge into sewerage network, therefore a post treatment is needed (not covered in this study).

Keywords: Cake wastewater industry, chemical oxygen demand (COD), hydrogen production (HP), up-flow anaerobic staged reactor (UASR).

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2117 The Prospect of Producing Hydrogen by Electrolysis of Idle Discharges of Water from Reservoirs and Recycling of Waste-Gas Condensates

Authors: Inom Sh. Normatov, Nurmakhmad Shermatov, Rajabali Barotov, Rano Eshankulova

Abstract:

The results of the studies for the hydrogen production by the application of water electrolysis and plasma-chemical processing of gas condensate-waste of natural gas production methods are presented. Thin coating covers the electrode surfaces in the process of water electrolysis. Therefore, water for electrolysis was first exposed to electrosedimentation. The threshold voltage is shifted to a lower value compared with the use of electrodes made of stainless steel. At electrolysis of electrosedimented water by use of electrodes from stainless steel, a significant amount of hydrogen is formed. Pyrolysis of gas condensates in the atmosphere of a nitrogen was followed by the formation of acetylene (3-7 vol.%), ethylene (4-8 vol.%), and pyrolysis carbon (10-15 wt.%).

Keywords: Electrolyze, gas condensate, hydrogen, pyrolysis.

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2116 Photovoltaic Array Sizing for PV-Electrolyzer

Authors: Panhathai Buasri

Abstract:

Hydrogen that used as fuel in fuel cell vehicles can be produced from renewable sources such as wind, solar, and hydro technologies. PV-electrolyzer is one of the promising methods to produce hydrogen with zero pollution emission. Hydrogen production from a PV-electrolyzer system depends on the efficiency of the electrolyzer and photovoltaic array, and sun irradiance at that site. In this study, the amount of hydrogen is obtained using mathematical equations for difference driving distance and sun peak hours. The results show that the minimum of 99 PV modules are used to generate 1.75 kgH2 per day for two vehicles.

Keywords: About four key words or phrases in alphabetical order, separated by commas.

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2115 The Interaction between Hydrogen and Surface Stress in Stainless Steel

Authors: O. Takakuwa, Y. Mano, H. Soyama

Abstract:

This paper reveals the interaction between hydrogen and surface stress in austenitic stainless steel by X-ray diffraction stress measurement and thermal desorption analysis before and after being charged with hydrogen. The surface residual stress was varied by surface finishing using several disc polishing agents. The obtained results show that the residual stress near surface had a significant effect on hydrogen absorption behavior, that is, tensile residual stress promoted the hydrogen absorption and compressive one did opposite. Also, hydrogen induced equi-biaxial stress and this stress has a linear correlation with hydrogen content.

Keywords: Hydrogen embrittlement, Residual stress, Surface finishing, Stainless steel.

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2114 Hydrogen Integration in Petrochemical Complexes, Using Modified Automated Targeting Method

Authors: M. Shariati, N. Tahouni, A. Khoshgard, M.H. Panjeshahi

Abstract:

Owing to extensive use of hydrogen in refining or petrochemical units, it is essential to manage hydrogen network in order to make the most efficient utilization of hydrogen. On the other hand, hydrogen is an important byproduct not properly used through petrochemical complexes and mostly sent to the fuel system. A few works have been reported in literature to improve hydrogen network for petrochemical complexes. In this study a comprehensive analysis is carried out on petrochemical units using a modified automated targeting technique which is applied to determine the minimum hydrogen consumption. Having applied the modified targeting method in two petrochemical cases, the results showed a significant reduction in required fresh hydrogen.

Keywords: Automated targeting, Hydrogen network, Petrochemical, Process integration.

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2113 Carbon Nanotubes–A Successful Hydrogen Storage Medium

Authors: Vijaya Ilango, Avika Gupta

Abstract:

Hydrogen fuel is a zero-emission fuel which uses electrochemical cells or combustion in internal engines, to power vehicles and electric devices. Methods of   hydrogen storage for subsequent use span many approaches, including high pressures, cryogenics and chemical compounds that reversibly release H2 upon heating. Most research into hydrogen storage is focused on storing hydrogen as a lightweight, compact energy carrier for mobile applications. With the accelerating demand for cleaner and more efficient energy sources, hydrogen research has attracted more attention in the scientific community. Until now, full implementation of a hydrogen-based energy system has been hindered in part by the challenge of storing hydrogen gas, especially onboard an automobile. New techniques being researched may soon make hydrogen storage more compact, safe and efficient. In   this overview, few hydrogen storage methods and mechanism of hydrogen uptake in carbon nanotubes are summarized.

Keywords: Carbon nanotubes, Chemisorption, Hydrogen storage, Physisorption.

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2112 Numerical Simulation of High Pressure Hydrogen Emerges to Air

Authors: Mohamed H. Elhsnawi, Mesbah M. Salem, Saleh B. Mohamed

Abstract:

Numerical simulation performed to investigate the behavior of the high pressure hydrogen jetting of air. High pressure hydrogen (30–40 MPa) was injected to air at atmospheric pressure through 2mm orifice. Numerical simulations were performed with Kiva3V code with 2D axisymmetric geometry. Numerical simulations showed that auto ignition of high pressure hydrogen to air are possible due to molecular diffusion. Auto ignition was predicted at hydrogen-air contact surface due to mass and energy exchange between high temperature hydrogen and air heated by shock wave.

Keywords: Spontaneous Ignition, Diffusion Ignition, Hydrogen ignition, Hydrogen Jet.

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2111 Catalytical Effect of Fluka 05120 on Methane Decomposition

Authors: Vidyasagar Shilapuram, Nesrin Ozalp, Anam Waheed

Abstract:

Carboneous catalytical methane decomposition is an attractive process because it produces two valuable products: hydrogen and carbon. Furthermore, this reaction does not emit any green house or hazardous gases. In the present study, experiments were conducted in a thermo gravimetric analyzer using Fluka 05120 as carboneous catalyst to analyze its effectiveness in methane decomposition. Various temperatures and methane partial pressures were chosen and carbon mass gain was observed as a function of time. Results are presented in terms of carbon formation rate, hydrogen production and catalytical activity. It is observed that there is linearity in carbon deposition amount by time at lower reaction temperature (780 °C). On the other hand, it is observed that carbon and hydrogen formation rates are increased with increasing temperature. Finally, we observed that the carbon formation rate is highest at 950 °C within the range of temperatures studied.

Keywords: Catalysis, Fluka 05120, Hydrogen production, Methane decomposition

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2110 Numerical Analysis of Hydrogen Transport using a Hydrogen-Enhanced Localized Plasticity Mechanism

Authors: Seul-Kee Kim, Chi-Seung Lee, Myung-Hyun Kim, Jae-Myung Lee

Abstract:

In this study, the hydrogen transport phenomenon was numerically evaluated by using hydrogen-enhanced localized plasticity (HELP) mechanisms. Two dominant governing equations, namely, the hydrogen transport model and the elasto-plastic model, were introduced. In addition, the implicitly formulated equations of the governing equations were implemented into ABAQUS UMAT user-defined subroutines. The simulation results were compared to published results to validate the proposed method.

Keywords: Hydrogen-enhanced localized plasticity (HELP), Hydrogen embrittlement, Hydrogen transport analysis, ABAQUS UMAT, Finite element method (FEM).

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2109 Hydrogen Rich Fuel Gas Production from 2- Propanol Using Pt/Al2O3 and Ni/Al2O3 Catalysts in Supercritical Water

Authors: Yağmur Karakuş, Fatih Aynacı, Ekin Kıpçak, Mesut Akgün

Abstract:

Hydrogen is an important chemical in many industries and it is expected to become one of the major fuels for energy generation in the future. Unfortunately, hydrogen does not exist in its elemental form in nature and therefore has to be produced from hydrocarbons, hydrogen-containing compounds or water. Above its critical point (374.8oC and 22.1MPa), water has lower density and viscosity, and a higher heat capacity than those of ambient water. Mass transfer in supercritical water (SCW) is enhanced due to its increased diffusivity and transport ability. The reduced dielectric constant makes supercritical water a better solvent for organic compounds and gases. Hence, due to the aforementioned desirable properties, there is a growing interest toward studies regarding the gasification of organic matter containing biomass or model biomass solutions in supercritical water. In this study, hydrogen and biofuel production by the catalytic gasification of 2-Propanol in supercritical conditions of water was investigated. Pt/Al2O3and Ni/Al2O3were the catalysts used in the gasification reactions. All of the experiments were performed under a constant pressure of 25MPa. The effects of five reaction temperatures (400, 450, 500, 550 and 600°C) and five reaction times (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 s) on the gasification yield and flammable component content were investigated.

Keywords: 2-Propanol, Gasification, Ni/Al2O3, Pt/Al2O3, Supercritical water.

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2108 Effects of TiO2 and Nb2O5 on Hydrogen Desorption of Mg(BH4)2

Authors: Wipada Ploysuksai, Pramoch Rangsunvigit, Santi Kulprathipanja

Abstract:

In this work, effects of catalysts (TiO2, and Nb2O5) were investigated on the hydrogen desorption of Mg(BH4)2. LiBH4 and MgCl2 with 2:1 molar ratio were mixed by using ball milling to prepare Mg(BH4)2. The desorption behaviors were measured by thermo-volumetric apparatus. The hydrogen desorption capacity of the mixed sample milled for 2 h was 4.78 wt% with a 2-step released. The first step occurred at 214 °C and the second step appeared at 374 °C. The addition of 16 wt% Nb2O5 decreased the desorption temperature in the second step about 66 °C and increased the hydrogen desorption capacity to 4.86 wt% hydrogen. The addition of TiO2 also improved the desorption temperature in the second step and the hydrogen desorption capacity. It decreased the desorption temperature about 71°C and showed a high amount of hydrogen, 5.27 wt%, released from the mixed sample. The hydrogen absorption after desorption of Mg(BH4)2 was also studied under 9.5 MPa and 350 °C for 12 h.

Keywords: hydrogen storage, LiBH4, metal hydride, Mg(BH4)2

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2107 Hydrogen Production at the Forecourt from Off-Peak Electricity and Its Role in Balancing the Grid

Authors: Abdulla Rahil, Rupert Gammon, Neil Brown

Abstract:

The rapid growth of renewable energy sources and their integration into the grid have been motivated by the depletion of fossil fuels and environmental issues. Unfortunately, the grid is unable to cope with the predicted growth of renewable energy which would lead to its instability. To solve this problem, energy storage devices could be used. Electrolytic hydrogen production from an electrolyser is considered a promising option since it is a clean energy source (zero emissions). Choosing flexible operation of an electrolyser (producing hydrogen during the off-peak electricity period and stopping at other times) could bring about many benefits like reducing the cost of hydrogen and helping to balance the electric systems. This paper investigates the price of hydrogen during flexible operation compared with continuous operation, while serving the customer (hydrogen filling station) without interruption. The optimization algorithm is applied to investigate the hydrogen station in both cases (flexible and continuous operation). Three different scenarios are tested to see whether the off-peak electricity price could enhance the reduction of the hydrogen cost. These scenarios are: Standard tariff (1 tier system) during the day (assumed 12 p/kWh) while still satisfying the demand for hydrogen; using off-peak electricity at a lower price (assumed 5 p/kWh) and shutting down the electrolyser at other times; using lower price electricity at off-peak times and high price electricity at other times. This study looks at Derna city, which is located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea (32° 46′ 0 N, 22° 38′ 0 E) with a high potential for wind resource. Hourly wind speed data which were collected over 24½ years from 1990 to 2014 were in addition to data on hourly radiation and hourly electricity demand collected over a one-year period, together with the petrol station data.

Keywords: Hydrogen filling station off-peak electricity, renewable energy, off-peak electricity, electrolytic hydrogen.

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2106 Porous Ni Electrodes Modified with Au Nanoparticles for Hydrogen Production

Authors: V. Pérez-Herranz, C. González-Buch, E. M. Ortega, S. Mestre

Abstract:

In this work new macroporous Ni electrodes modified with Au nanoparticles for hydrogen production have been developed. The supporting macroporous Ni electrodes have been obtained by means of the electrodeposition at high current densities. Then, the Au nanoparticles were synthesized and added to the electrode surface. The electrocatalytic behaviour of the developed electrocatalysts was studied by means of pseudo-steady-state polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and hydrogen discharge curves. The size of the Au synthetized nanoparticles shows a monomodal distribution, with a very sharp band between 10 and 50 nm. The characteristic parameters d10, d50 and d90 were 14, 20 and 31 nm respectively. From Tafel polarization data has been concluded that the Au nanoparticles improve the catalytic activity of the developed electrodes towards the HER respect to the macroporous Ni electrodes. EIS permits to obtain the electrochemically active area by means of the roughness factor value. All the developed electrodes show roughness factor values in the same order of magnitude. From the activation energy results it can be concluded that the Au nanoparticles improve the intrinsic catalytic activity of the macroporous Ni electrodes.

Keywords: Au nanoparticles, hydrogen evolution reaction, porous Ni electrodes.

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2105 Hydrogen and Biofuel Production from 2-Propanol Over Ru/Al2O3 Catalyst in Supercritical Water

Authors: Ekin Kıpçak, Yağmur Karakuş, Mesut Akgün

Abstract:

Hydrogen is an important chemical in many industries and it is expected to become one of the major fuels for energy generation in the future. Unfortunately, hydrogen does not exist in its elemental form in nature and therefore has to be produced from hydrocarbons, hydrogen-containing compounds or water.

Above its critical point (374.8oC and 22.1MPa), water has lower density and viscosity, and a higher heat capacity than those of ambient water. Mass transfer in supercritical water (SCW) is enhanced due to its increased diffusivity and transport ability. The reduced dielectric constant makes supercritical water a better solvent for organic compounds and gases. Hence, due to the aforementioned desirable properties, there is a growing interest toward studies regarding the gasification of organic matter containing biomass or model biomass solutions in supercritical water.

In this study, hydrogen and biofuel production by the catalytic gasification of 2-Propanol in supercritical conditions of water was investigated. Ru/Al2O3 was the catalyst used in the gasification reactions. All of the experiments were performed under a constant pressure of 25 MPa. The effects of five reaction temperatures (400, 450, 500, 550 and 600oC) and five reaction times (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 s) on the gasification yield and flammable component content were investigated.

Keywords: 2-Propanol, Gasification, Ru/Al2O3, Supercritical water.

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2104 Simulation and Configuration of Hydrogen Assisted Renewable Energy Power System

Authors: V. Karri, W. K. Yap, J. Titchen

Abstract:

A renewable energy system discussed in this paper is a stand-alone wind-hydrogen system for a remote island in Australia. The analysis of an existing wind-diesel power system was performed. Simulation technique was used to model the power system currently employed on the island, and simulated different configurations of additional hydrogen energy system. This study aims to determine the suitable hydrogen integrated configuration to setting up the prototype system for the island, which helps to reduce the diesel consumption on the island. A set of configurations for the hydrogen system and associated parameters that consists of wind turbines, electrolysers, hydrogen internal combustion engines, and storage tanks has been purposed. The simulation analyses various configurations that perfectly balances the system to meet the demand on the island.

Keywords: Hydrogen power systems, hydrogen internal combustion engine, modeling and simulation of hydrogen power systems.

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2103 Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Hydrogen Manifold Injection on the Performance of Compression Ignition Engines

Authors: Haroun A.K. Shahad, Nabeel Abdul-Hadi

Abstract:

Experiments were carried out to evaluate the influence of the addition of hydrogen to the inlet air on the performance of a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine. Hydrogen was injected in the inlet manifold. The addition of hydrogen was done on energy replacement basis. It was found that the addition of hydrogen improves the combustion process due to superior combustion characteristics of hydrogen in comparison to conventional diesel fuels. It was also found that 10% energy replacement improves the engine thermal efficiency by about 40% and reduces the sfc by about 35% however the volumetric efficiency was reduced by about 35%.

Keywords: Hydrogen, Blended fuel, Manifold injection , Performance , Combustion

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2102 Porous Ni and Ni-Co Electrodeposits for Alkaline Water Electrolysis – Energy Saving

Authors: I. Herraiz-Cardona, C. González-Buch, E. Ortega, V. Pérez-Herranz, J. García-Antón

Abstract:

Hydrogen is considered to be the most promising candidate as a future energy carrier. One of the most used technologies for the electrolytic hydrogen production is alkaline water electrolysis. However, due to the high energy requirements, the cost of hydrogen produced in such a way is high. In continuous search to improve this process using advanced electrocatalytic materials for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), Ni type Raney and macro-porous Ni-Co electrodes were prepared on AISI 304 stainless steel substrates by electrodeposition. The developed electrodes were characterized by SEM and confocal laser scanning microscopy. HER on these electrodes was evaluated in 30 wt.% KOH solution by means of hydrogen discharge curves and galvanostatic tests. Results show that the developed electrodes present a most efficient behaviour for HER when comparing with the smooth Ni cathode. It has been reported a reduction in the energy consumption of the electrolysis cell of about 25% by using the developed coatings as cathodes.

Keywords: Alkaline water electrolysis, energy efficiency, porous nickel electrodes

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2101 Ferroelectric Relaxor Behaviour in Some Lead- Free Compositions and their Potential Applications as Photocatalyst to Hydrogen Production

Authors: A. Kerfah, K. Taïbi, S. Omeiri, M. Trari.

Abstract:

New lead-free ferroelectric relaxor ceramics were prepared by conventional solid-state synthesis in the BaTiO3-Bi2O3- Y2O3 systems. Some of these ceramics present a ferroelectric relaxor with transition temperature close to room temperature. These new materials are very interesting for applications and can replace leadbased ceramic to prevent the toxic pollutions during the preparation state. In the other hand, the energy band diagram shows the potentiality of these compounds for the solar energy conversion. Thus, some compositions have been tested successfully for H2 production upon visible light. The best activity occurs in alkaline media with a rate evolution of about 0.15 mL g-1 mn-1 and a quantum yield of 1% under polychromatic light.

Keywords: Ferroelectric, Hydrogen production, Lead-free, Photocatalysis.

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2100 Progressive Loading Effect of Co over SiO2/Al2O3 Catalyst for Cox Free Hydrogen and Carbon Nanotubes Production via Catalytic Decomposition of Methane

Authors: Sushil Kumar Saraswat, K. K. Pant

Abstract:

Co metal supported on SiO2 and Al2O3 catalysts with a metal loading varied from 30 of 70 wt.% were evaluated for decomposition of methane to COx free hydrogen and carbon nanomaterials. The catalytic runs were carried out from 550-800oC under atmospheric pressure using fixed bed vertical flow reactor. The fresh and spent catalysts were characterized by BET surface area analyzer, XRD, SEM, TEM and TG analysis. The data showed that 50% Co/Al2O3 catalyst exhibited remarkable higher activity at 800oC with respect to H2 production compared to rest of the catalysts. However, the catalytic activity and durability was greatly declined at higher temperature. The main reason for the catalytic inhibition of Co containing SiO2 catalysts is the higher reduction temperature of Co2SiO4. TEM images illustrate that the carbon materials with various morphologies, carbon nanofibers (CNFs), helical-shaped CNFs and branched CNFs depending on the catalyst composition and reaction temperature were obtained.

Keywords: Carbon nanotubes, Cobalt, Hydrogen Production, Methane decomposition.

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2099 Contaminated Soil Remediation with Hydrogen Peroxide Oxidation

Authors: A. Goi, M. Trapido, N. Kulik

Abstract:

The hydrogen peroxide treatment was able to remediate chlorophenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, diesel and transformer oil contaminated soil. Chemical treatment of contaminants adsorbed in peat resulted in lower contaminants- removal and required higher addition of chemicals than the treatment of contaminants in sand. The hydrogen peroxide treatment was found to be feasible for soil remediation at natural soil pH. Contaminants in soil could degrade with the addition of hydrogen peroxide only indicating the ability of transition metals ions and minerals of these metals presented in soil to catalyse the reaction of hydrogen peroxide decomposition.

Keywords: Hydrogen peroxide, oxidation, soil treatment, decontamination.

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