Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 206

Search results for: entropy

206 On Generalized Exponential Fuzzy Entropy

Authors: Rajkumar Verma, Bhu Dev Sharma

Abstract:

In the present communication, the existing measures of fuzzy entropy are reviewed. A generalized parametric exponential fuzzy entropy is defined.Our study of the four essential and some other properties of the proposed measure, clearly establishes the validity of the measure as an entropy.

Keywords: fuzzy sets, fuzzy entropy, exponential entropy, exponential fuzzy entropy.

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205 Normalization and Constrained Optimization of Measures of Fuzzy Entropy

Authors: K.C. Deshmukh, P.G. Khot, Nikhil

Abstract:

In the literature of information theory, there is necessity for comparing the different measures of fuzzy entropy and this consequently, gives rise to the need for normalizing measures of fuzzy entropy. In this paper, we have discussed this need and hence developed some normalized measures of fuzzy entropy. It is also desirable to maximize entropy and to minimize directed divergence or distance. Keeping in mind this idea, we have explained the method of optimizing different measures of fuzzy entropy.

Keywords: Fuzzy set, Uncertainty, Fuzzy entropy, Normalization, Membership function

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204 Entropy Measures on Neutrosophic Soft Sets and Its Application in Multi Attribute Decision Making

Authors: I. Arockiarani

Abstract:

The focus of the paper is to furnish the entropy measure for a neutrosophic set and neutrosophic soft set which is a measure of uncertainty and it permeates discourse and system. Various characterization of entropy measures are derived. Further we exemplify this concept by applying entropy in various real time decision making problems.

Keywords: Entropy measure, Hausdorff distance, neutrosophic set, soft set.

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203 Complexity of Multivalued Maps

Authors: David Sherwell, Vivien Visaya

Abstract:

We consider the topological entropy of maps that in general, cannot be described by one-dimensional dynamics. In particular, we show that for a multivalued map F generated by singlevalued maps, the topological entropy of any of the single-value map bounds the topological entropy of F from below.

Keywords: Multivalued maps, Topological entropy, Selectors

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202 Extending the Quantum Entropy to Multidimensional Signal Processing

Authors: Youssef Khmou, Said Safi, Miloud Frikel

Abstract:

This paper treats different aspects of entropy measure in classical information theory and statistical quantum mechanics, it presents the possibility of extending the definition of Von Neumann entropy to image and array processing. In the first part, we generalize the quantum entropy using singular values of arbitrary rectangular matrices to measure the randomness and the quality of denoising operation, this new definition of entropy can be implemented to compare the performance analysis of filtering methods. In the second part, we apply the concept of pure state in quantum formalism to generalize the maximum entropy method for narrowband and farfield source localization problem. Several computer simulation results are illustrated to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed techniques.

Keywords: Von Neumann entropy, Filtering, array, DoA, Maximum Entropy Method.

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201 Reasons for Non-Applicability of Software Entropy Metrics for Bug Prediction in Android

Authors: Arvinder Kaur, Deepti Chopra

Abstract:

Software Entropy Metrics for bug prediction have been validated on various software systems by different researchers. In our previous research, we have validated that Software Entropy Metrics calculated for Mozilla subsystem’s predict the future bugs reasonably well. In this study, the Software Entropy metrics are calculated for a subsystem of Android and it is noticed that these metrics are not suitable for bug prediction. The results are compared with a subsystem of Mozilla and a comparison is made between the two software systems to determine the reasons why Software Entropy metrics are not applicable for Android.

Keywords: Android, bug prediction, mining software repositories, Software Entropy.

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200 Analysis of EEG Signals Using Wavelet Entropy and Approximate Entropy: A Case Study on Depression Patients

Authors: Subha D. Puthankattil, Paul K. Joseph

Abstract:

Analyzing brain signals of the patients suffering from the state of depression may lead to interesting observations in the signal parameters that is quite different from a normal control. The present study adopts two different methods: Time frequency domain and nonlinear method for the analysis of EEG signals acquired from depression patients and age and sex matched normal controls. The time frequency domain analysis is realized using wavelet entropy and approximate entropy is employed for the nonlinear method of analysis. The ability of the signal processing technique and the nonlinear method in differentiating the physiological aspects of the brain state are revealed using Wavelet entropy and Approximate entropy.

Keywords: EEG, Depression, Wavelet entropy, Approximate entropy, Relative Wavelet energy, Multiresolution decomposition.

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199 Codes and Formulation of Appropriate Constraints via Entropy Measures

Authors: R. K. Tuli

Abstract:

In present communication, we have developed the suitable constraints for the given the mean codeword length and the measures of entropy. This development has proved that Renyi-s entropy gives the minimum value of the log of the harmonic mean and the log of power mean. We have also developed an important relation between best 1:1 code and the uniquely decipherable code by using different measures of entropy.

Keywords: Codeword, Instantaneous code, Prefix code, Uniquely decipherable code, Best one-one code, Mean codewordlength

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198 Entropy Generation for Natural Convection in a Darcy – Brinkman Porous Cavity

Authors: Ali Mchirgui, Nejib Hidouri, Mourad Magherbi, Ammar Ben Brahim

Abstract:

The paper provides a numerical investigation of the entropy generation analysis due to natural convection in an inclined square porous cavity. The coupled equations of mass, momentum, energy and species conservation are solved using the Control Volume Finite-Element Method. Effect of medium permeability and inclination angle on entropy generation is analysed. It was found that according to the Darcy number and the porous thermal Raleigh number values, the entropy generation could be mainly due to heat transfer or to fluid friction irreversibility and that entropy generation reaches extremum values for specific inclination angles.

Keywords: Porous media, entropy generation, convection, numerical method.

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197 An Alternative Proof for the Topological Entropy of the Motzkin Shift

Authors: Fahad Alsharari, Mohd Salmi Md Noorani

Abstract:

A Motzkin shift is a mathematical model for constraints on genetic sequences. In terms of the theory of symbolic dynamics, the Motzkin shift is nonsofic, and therefore, we cannot use the Perron- Frobenius theory to calculate its topological entropy. The Motzkin shift M(M,N) which comes from language theory, is defined to be the shift system over an alphabet A that consists of N negative symbols, N positive symbols and M neutral symbols. For an x in the full shift, x will be in the Motzkin subshift M(M,N) if and only if every finite block appearing in x has a non-zero reduced form. Therefore, the constraint for x cannot be bounded in length. K. Inoue has shown that the entropy of the Motzkin shift M(M,N) is log(M + N + 1). In this paper, a new direct method of calculating the topological entropy of the Motzkin shift is given without any measure theoretical discussion.

Keywords: Motzkin shift, topological entropy.

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196 Assessing Complexity of Neuronal Multiunit Activity by Information Theoretic Measure

Authors: Young-Seok Choi

Abstract:

This paper provides a quantitative measure of the time-varying multiunit neuronal spiking activity using an entropy based approach. To verify the status embedded in the neuronal activity of a population of neurons, the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is used to isolate the inherent spiking activity of MUA. Due to the de-correlating property of DWT, the spiking activity would be preserved while reducing the non-spiking component. By evaluating the entropy of the wavelet coefficients of the de-noised MUA, a multiresolution Shannon entropy (MRSE) of the MUA signal is developed. The proposed entropy was tested in the analysis of both simulated noisy MUA and actual MUA recorded from cortex in rodent model. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the dynamics of a population can be quantified by using the proposed entropy.

Keywords: Discrete wavelet transform, Entropy, Multiresolution, Multiunit activity.

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195 Maximum Entropy Based Image Segmentation of Human Skin Lesion

Authors: Sheema Shuja Khattak, Gule Saman, Imran Khan, Abdus Salam

Abstract:

Image segmentation plays an important role in medical imaging applications. Therefore, accurate methods are needed for the successful segmentation of medical images for diagnosis and detection of various diseases. In this paper, we have used maximum entropy to achieve image segmentation. Maximum entropy has been calculated using Shannon, Renyi and Tsallis entropies. This work has novelty based on the detection of skin lesion caused by the bite of a parasite called Sand Fly causing the disease is called Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

Keywords: Shannon, Maximum entropy, Renyi, Tsallis entropy.

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194 Information Theoretical Analysis of Neural Spiking Activity with Temperature Modulation

Authors: Young-Seok Choi

Abstract:

This work assesses the cortical and the sub-cortical neural activity recorded from rodents using entropy and mutual information based approaches to study how hypothermia affects neural activity. By applying the multi-scale entropy and Shannon entropy, we quantify the degree of the regularity embedded in the cortical and sub-cortical neurons and characterize the dependency of entropy of these regions on temperature. We study also the degree of the mutual information on thalamocortical pathway depending on temperature. The latter is most likely an indicator of coupling between these highly connected structures in response to temperature manipulation leading to arousal after global cerebral ischemia.

Keywords: Spiking activity, entropy, mutual information, temperature modulation.

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193 Information Entropy of Isospectral Hydrogen Atom

Authors: Anil Kumar, C. Nagaraja Kumar

Abstract:

The position and momentum space information entropies of hydrogen atom are exactly evaluated. Using isospectral Hamiltonian approach, a family of isospectral potentials is constructed having same energy eigenvalues as that of the original potential. The information entropy content is obtained in position space as well as in momentum space. It is shown that the information entropy content in each level can be re-arranged as a function of deformation parameter.

Keywords: Information Entropy, BBM inequality, Isospectral Potential.

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192 Generalized Maximum Entropy Method for Cosmic Source Localization

Authors: Youssef Khmou, Said Safi, Miloud Frikel

Abstract:

The Maximum entropy principle in spectral analysis was used as an estimator of Direction of Arrival (DoA) of electromagnetic or acoustic sources impinging on an array of sensors, indeed the maximum entropy operator is very efficient when the signals of the radiating sources are ergodic and complex zero mean random processes which is the case for cosmic sources. In this paper, we present basic review of the maximum entropy method (MEM) which consists of rank one operator but not a projector, and we elaborate a new operator which is full rank and sum of all possible projectors. Two dimensional Simulation results based on Monte Carlo trials prove the resolution power of the new operator where the MEM presents some erroneous fluctuations.

Keywords: Maximum entropy, Cosmic source, Localization, operator, projector, azimuth, elevation, DoA, circular array.

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191 Generalized Measures of Fuzzy Entropy and their Properties

Authors: K.C. Deshmukh, P.G. Khot, Nikhil

Abstract:

In the present communication, we have proposed some new generalized measure of fuzzy entropy based upon real parameters, discussed their and desirable properties, and presented these measures graphically. An important property, that is, monotonicity of the proposed measures has also been studied.

Keywords: Fuzzy numbers, Fuzzy entropy, Characteristicfunction, Crisp set, Monotonicity.

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190 Entropy Generation Analysis of Free Convection Film Condensation on a Vertical Ellipsoid with Variable Wall Temperature

Authors: Sheng-An Yang, Ren-Yi Hung, Ying-Yi Ho

Abstract:

This paper aims to perform the second law analysis of thermodynamics on the laminar film condensation of pure saturated vapor flowing in the direction of gravity on an ellipsoid with variable wall temperature. The analysis provides us understanding how the geometric parameter- ellipticity and non-isothermal wall temperature variation amplitude “A." affect entropy generation during film-wise condensation heat transfer process. To understand of which irreversibility involved in this condensation process, we derived an expression for the entropy generation number in terms of ellipticity and A. The result indicates that entropy generation increases with ellipticity. Furthermore, the irreversibility due to finite temperature difference heat transfer dominates over that due to condensate film flow friction and the local entropy generation rate decreases with increasing A in the upper half of ellipsoid. Meanwhile, the local entropy generation rate enhances with A around the rear lower half of ellipsoid.

Keywords: Free convection; Non-isothermal; Thermodynamic second law; Entropy, Ellipsoid.

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189 Identification of the Main Transition Velocities in a Bubble Column Based on a Modified Shannon Entropy

Authors: Stoyan Nedeltchev, Markus Schubert

Abstract:

The gas holdup fluctuations in a bubble column (0.15 m in ID) have been recorded by means of a conductivity wire-mesh sensor in order to extract information about the main transition velocities. These parameters are very important for bubble column design, operation and scale-up. For this purpose, the classical definition of the Shannon entropy was modified and used to identify both the onset (at UG=0.034 m/s) of the transition flow regime and the beginning (at UG=0.089 m/s) of the churn-turbulent flow regime. The results were compared with the Kolmogorov entropy (KE) results. A slight discrepancy was found, namely the transition velocities identified by means of the KE were shifted to somewhat higher (0.045 and 0.101 m/s) superficial gas velocities UG.

Keywords: Bubble column, gas holdup fluctuations, Modified Shannon entropy, Kolmogorov entropy.

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188 Entropy Analysis in a Bubble Column Based on Ultrafast X-Ray Tomography Data

Authors: Stoyan Nedeltchev, Markus Schubert

Abstract:

By means of the ultrafast X-ray tomography facility, data were obtained at different superficial gas velocities UG in a bubble column (0.1 m in ID) operated with an air-deionized water system at ambient conditions. Raw reconstructed images were treated by both the information entropy (IE) and the reconstruction entropy (RE) algorithms in order to identify the main transition velocities in a bubble column. The IE values exhibited two well-pronounced minima at UG=0.025 m/s and UG=0.085 m/s identifying the boundaries of the homogeneous, transition and heterogeneous regimes. The RE extracted from the central region of the column’s cross-section exhibited only one characteristic peak at UG=0.03 m/s, which was attributed to the transition from the homogeneous to the heterogeneous flow regime. This result implies that the transition regime is non-existent in the core of the column.

Keywords: Bubble column, ultrafast X-ray tomography, information entropy, reconstruction entropy.

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187 Empirical Mode Decomposition Based Multiscale Analysis of Physiological Signal

Authors: Young-Seok Choi

Abstract:

We present a refined multiscale Shannon entropy for analyzing electroencephalogram (EEG), which reflects the underlying dynamics of EEG over multiple scales. The rationale behind this method is that neurological signals such as EEG possess distinct dynamics over different spectral modes. To deal with the nonlinear and nonstationary nature of EEG, the recently developed empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is incorporated, allowing a decomposition of EEG into its inherent spectral components, referred to as intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). By calculating the Shannon entropy of IMFs in a time-dependent manner and summing them over adaptive multiple scales, it results in an adaptive subscale entropy measure of EEG. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed entropy properly reveals the dynamical changes over multiple scales.

Keywords: EEG, subscale entropy, Empirical mode decomposition, Intrinsic mode function.

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186 Mean Codeword Lengths and Their Correspondence with Entropy Measures

Authors: R.K.Tuli

Abstract:

The objective of the present communication is to develop new genuine exponentiated mean codeword lengths and to study deeply the problem of correspondence between well known measures of entropy and mean codeword lengths. With the help of some standard measures of entropy, we have illustrated such a correspondence. In literature, we usually come across many inequalities which are frequently used in information theory. Keeping this idea in mind, we have developed such inequalities via coding theory approach.

Keywords: Codeword, Code alphabet, Uniquely decipherablecode, Mean codeword length, Uncertainty, Noiseless channel

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185 A New Objective Weight on Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Sets

Authors: Nurnadiah Z., Lazim A.

Abstract:

The design of weight is one of the important parts in fuzzy decision making, as it would have a deep effect on the evaluation results. Entropy is one of the weight measure based on objective evaluation. Non--probabilistic-type entropy measures for fuzzy set and interval type-2 fuzzy sets (IT2FS) have been developed and applied to weight measure. Since the entropy for (IT2FS) for decision making yet to be explored, this paper proposes a new objective weight method by using entropy weight method for multiple attribute decision making (MADM). This paper utilizes the nature of IT2FS concept in the evaluation process to assess the attribute weight based on the credibility of data. An example was presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the new method in decision making. The entropy measure of interval type-2 fuzzy sets yield flexible judgment and could be applied in decision making environment.

Keywords: Objective weight, entropy weight, multiple attributedecision making, type-2 fuzzy sets, interval type-2 fuzzy sets

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184 Applications of Trigonometic Measures of Fuzzy Entropy to Geometry

Authors: Om Parkash, C.P.Gandhi

Abstract:

In the literature of fuzzy measures, there exist many well known parametric and non-parametric measures, each with its own merits and limitations. But our main emphasis is on applications of these measures to a variety of disciplines. To extend the scope of applications of these fuzzy measures to geometry, we need some special fuzzy measures. In this communication, we have introduced two new fuzzy measures involving trigonometric functions and simultaneously provided their applications to obtain the basic results already existing in the literature of geometry.

Keywords: Entropy, Uncertainty, Fuzzy Entropy, Concavity, Symmetry.

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183 Assessment of Multiscale Information for Short Physiological Time Series

Authors: Young-Seok Choi

Abstract:

This paper presents a multiscale information measure of Electroencephalogram (EEG) for analysis with a short data length. A multiscale extension of permutation entropy (MPE) is capable of fully reflecting the dynamical characteristics of EEG across different temporal scales. However, MPE yields an imprecise estimation due to coarse-grained procedure at large scales. We present an improved MPE measure to estimate entropy more accurately with a short time series. By computing entropies of all coarse-grained time series and averaging those at each scale, it leads to the modified MPE (MMPE) which provides an enhanced accuracy as compared to MPE. Simulation and experimental studies confirmed that MMPE has proved its capability over MPE in terms of accuracy.

Keywords: Multiscale entropy, permutation entropy, EEG, seizure.

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182 Color Image Segmentation and Multi-Level Thresholding by Maximization of Conditional Entropy

Authors: R.Sukesh Kumar, Abhisek Verma, Jasprit Singh

Abstract:

In this work a novel approach for color image segmentation using higher order entropy as a textural feature for determination of thresholds over a two dimensional image histogram is discussed. A similar approach is applied to achieve multi-level thresholding in both grayscale and color images. The paper discusses two methods of color image segmentation using RGB space as the standard processing space. The threshold for segmentation is decided by the maximization of conditional entropy in the two dimensional histogram of the color image separated into three grayscale images of R, G and B. The features are first developed independently for the three ( R, G, B ) spaces, and combined to get different color component segmentation. By considering local maxima instead of the maximum of conditional entropy yields multiple thresholds for the same image which forms the basis for multilevel thresholding.

Keywords: conditional entropy, multi-level thresholding, segmentation, two dimensional image histogram

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181 Method of Estimating Absolute Entropy of Municipal Solid Waste

Authors: Francis Chinweuba Eboh, Peter Ahlström, Tobias Richards

Abstract:

Entropy, as an outcome of the second law of thermodynamics, measures the level of irreversibility associated with any process. The identification and reduction of irreversibility in the energy conversion process helps to improve the efficiency of the system. The entropy of pure substances known as absolute entropy is determined at an absolute reference point and is useful in the thermodynamic analysis of chemical reactions; however, municipal solid waste (MSW) is a structurally complicated material with unknown absolute entropy. In this work, an empirical model to calculate the absolute entropy of MSW based on the content of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur, and chlorine on a dry ash free basis (daf) is presented. The proposed model was derived from 117 relevant organic substances which represent the main constituents in MSW with known standard entropies using statistical analysis. The substances were divided into different waste fractions; namely, food, wood/paper, textiles/rubber and plastics waste and the standard entropies of each waste fraction and for the complete mixture were calculated. The correlation of the standard entropy of the complete waste mixture derived was found to be somsw= 0.0101C + 0.0630H + 0.0106O + 0.0108N + 0.0155S + 0.0084Cl (kJ.K-1.kg) and the present correlation can be used for estimating the absolute entropy of MSW by using the elemental compositions of the fuel within the range of 10.3%  C 95.1%, 0.0%  H  14.3%, 0.0%  O  71.1%, 0.0  N  66.7%, 0.0%  S  42.1%, 0.0%  Cl  89.7%. The model is also applicable for the efficient modelling of a combustion system in a waste-to-energy plant.

Keywords: Absolute entropy, irreversibility, municipal solid waste, waste-to-energy.

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180 Minimization Entropic Applied to Rotary Dryers to Reduce the Energy Consumption

Authors: I. O. Nascimento, J. T. Manzi

Abstract:

The drying process is an important operation in the chemical industry and it is widely used in the food, grain industry and fertilizer industry. However, for demanding a considerable consumption of energy, such a process requires a deep energetic analysis in order to reduce operating costs. This paper deals with thermodynamic optimization applied to rotary dryers based on the entropy production minimization, aiming at to reduce the energy consumption. To do this, the mass, energy and entropy balance was used for developing a relationship that represents the rate of entropy production. The use of the Second Law of Thermodynamics is essential because it takes into account constraints of nature. Since the entropy production rate is minimized, optimals conditions of operations can be established and the process can obtain a substantial gain in energy saving. The minimization strategy had been led using classical methods such as Lagrange multipliers and implemented in the MATLAB platform. As expected, the preliminary results reveal a significant energy saving by the application of the optimal parameters found by the procedure of the entropy minimization It is important to say that this method has shown easy implementation and low cost.

Keywords: Drying, entropy minimization, modeling dryers, thermodynamic optimization.

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179 An Efficient Segmentation Method Based on Local Entropy Characteristics of Iris Biometrics

Authors: Ali Shojaee Bakhtiari, Ali Asghar Beheshti Shirazi, Amir Sepasi Zahmati

Abstract:

An efficient iris segmentation method based on analyzing the local entropy characteristic of the iris image, is proposed in this paper and the strength and weaknesses of the method are analyzed for practical purposes. The method shows special strength in providing designers with an adequate degree of freedom in choosing the proper sections of the iris for their application purposes.

Keywords: Iris segmentation, entropy, biocryptosystem, biometric identification.

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178 Entropic Measures of a Probability Sample Space and Exponential Type (α, β) Entropy

Authors: Rajkumar Verma, Bhu Dev Sharma

Abstract:

Entropy is a key measure in studies related to information theory and its many applications. Campbell for the first time recognized that the exponential of the Shannon’s entropy is just the size of the sample space, when distribution is uniform. Here is the idea to study exponentials of Shannon’s and those other entropy generalizations that involve logarithmic function for a probability distribution in general. In this paper, we introduce a measure of sample space, called ‘entropic measure of a sample space’, with respect to the underlying distribution. It is shown in both discrete and continuous cases that this new measure depends on the parameters of the distribution on the sample space - same sample space having different ‘entropic measures’ depending on the distributions defined on it. It was noted that Campbell’s idea applied for R`enyi’s parametric entropy of a given order also. Knowing that parameters play a role in providing suitable choices and extended applications, paper studies parametric entropic measures of sample spaces also. Exponential entropies related to Shannon’s and those generalizations that have logarithmic functions, i.e. are additive have been studies for wider understanding and applications. We propose and study exponential entropies corresponding to non additive entropies of type (α, β), which include Havard and Charvˆat entropy as a special case.

Keywords: Sample space, Probability distributions, Shannon’s entropy, R`enyi’s entropy, Non-additive entropies .

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177 Entropy Based Data Hiding for Document Images

Authors: Swetha Kurup, Sridhar G., Sridhar V.

Abstract:

In this paper we present a novel technique for data hiding in binary document images. We use the concept of entropy in order to identify document specific least distortive areas throughout the binary document image. The document image is treated as any other image and the proposed method utilizes the standard document characteristics for the embedding process. Proposed method minimizes perceptual distortion due to embedding and allows watermark extraction without the requirement of any side information at the decoder end.

Keywords: Entropy, Steganography, Watermarking.

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