Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1134

Search results for: loss allocation

1134 Optimal Transmission Network Usage and Loss Allocation Using Matrices Methodology and Cooperative Game Theory

Authors: Baseem Khan, Ganga Agnihotri

Abstract:

Restructuring of Electricity supply industry introduced many issues such as transmission pricing, transmission loss allocation and congestion management. Many methodologies and algorithms were proposed for addressing these issues. In this paper a power flow tracing based method is proposed which involves Matrices methodology for the transmission usage and loss allocation for generators and demands. This method provides loss allocation in a direct way because all the computation is previously done for usage allocation. The proposed method is simple and easy to implement in a large power system. Further it is less computational because it requires matrix inversion only a single time. After usage and loss allocation cooperative game theory is applied to results for finding efficient economic signals. Nucleolus and Shapely value approach is used for optimal allocation of results. Results are shown for the IEEE 6 bus system and IEEE 14 bus system.

Keywords: Modified Kirchhoff Matrix, Power flow tracing, Transmission Pricing, Transmission Loss Allocation.

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1133 Transmission Loss Allocation via Loss Function Decomposition and Current Projection Concept

Authors: M.R. Ebrahimi, Z. Ghofrani, M. Ehsan

Abstract:

One of the major problems in liberalized power markets is loss allocation. In this paper, a different method for allocating transmission losses to pool market participants is proposed. The proposed method is fundamentally based on decomposition of loss function and current projection concept. The method has been implemented and tested on several networks and one sample summarized in the paper. The results show that the method is comprehensive and fair to allocating the energy losses of a power market to its participants.

Keywords: Transmission loss, loss allocation, current projectionconcept, loss function decomposition.

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1132 A Practical Scheme for Transmission Loss Allocation to Generators and Loads in Restructured Power Systems

Authors: M.R. Ebrahimi, M. Ehsan

Abstract:

This paper presents a practical scheme that can be used for allocating the transmission loss to generators and loads. In this scheme first the share of a generator or load on the current through a branch is determined using Z-bus modified matrix. Then the current components are decomposed and the branch loss allocation is obtained. A motivation of proposed scheme is to improve the results of Z-bus method and to reach more fair allocation. The proposed scheme has been implemented and tested on several networks. To achieve practical and applicable results, the proposed scheme is simulated and compared on the transmission network (400kv) of Khorasan region in Iran and the 14-bus standard IEEE network. The results show that the proposed scheme is comprehensive and fair to allocating the energy losses of a power market to its participants.

Keywords: Transmission Loss, Loss Allocation, Z-bus modifiedmatrix, current Components Decomposition and Restructured PowerSystems

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1131 Optimal Allocation of DG Units for Power Loss Reduction and Voltage Profile Improvement of Distribution Networks using PSO Algorithm

Authors: K. Varesi

Abstract:

This paper proposes a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) based technique for the optimal allocation of Distributed Generation (DG) units in the power systems. In this paper our aim is to decide optimal number, type, size and location of DG units for voltage profile improvement and power loss reduction in distribution network. Two types of DGs are considered and the distribution load flow is used to calculate exact loss. Load flow algorithm is combined appropriately with PSO till access to acceptable results of this operation. The suggested method is programmed under MATLAB software. Test results indicate that PSO method can obtain better results than the simple heuristic search method on the 30-bus and 33- bus radial distribution systems. It can obtain maximum loss reduction for each of two types of optimally placed multi-DGs. Moreover, voltage profile improvement is achieved.

Keywords: Distributed Generation (DG), Optimal Allocation, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Power Loss Minimization, Voltage Profile Improvement.

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1130 Remarks Regarding Queuing Model and Packet Loss Probability for the Traffic with Self-Similar Characteristics

Authors: Mihails Kulikovs, Ernests Petersons

Abstract:

Network management techniques have long been of interest to the networking research community. The queue size plays a critical role for the network performance. The adequate size of the queue maintains Quality of Service (QoS) requirements within limited network capacity for as many users as possible. The appropriate estimation of the queuing model parameters is crucial for both initial size estimation and during the process of resource allocation. The accurate resource allocation model for the management system increases the network utilization. The present paper demonstrates the results of empirical observation of memory allocation for packet-based services.

Keywords: Queuing System, Packet Loss Probability, Measurement-Based Admission Control (MBAC), Performanceevaluation, Quality of Service (QoS).

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1129 Exploring SSD Suitable Allocation Schemes Incompliance with Workload Patterns

Authors: Jae Young Park, Hwansu Jung, Jong Tae Kim

Abstract:

In the Solid-State-Drive (SSD) performance, whether the data has been well parallelized is an important factor. SSD parallelization is affected by allocation scheme and it is directly connected to SSD performance. There are dynamic allocation and static allocation in representative allocation schemes. Dynamic allocation is more adaptive in exploiting write operation parallelism, while static allocation is better in read operation parallelism. Therefore, it is hard to select the appropriate allocation scheme when the workload is mixed read and write operations. We simulated conditions on a few mixed data patterns and analyzed the results to help the right choice for better performance. As the results, if data arrival interval is long enough prior operations to be finished and continuous read intensive data environment static allocation is more suitable. Dynamic allocation performs the best on write performance and random data patterns.

Keywords: Dynamic allocation, NAND Flash based SSD, SSD parallelism, static allocation.

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1128 Using Genetic Algorithm for Distributed Generation Allocation to Reduce Losses and Improve Voltage Profile

Authors: M. Sedighizadeh, A. Rezazadeh

Abstract:

This paper presents a method for the optimal allocation of Distributed generation in distribution systems. In this paper, our aim would be optimal distributed generation allocation for voltage profile improvement and loss reduction in distribution network. Genetic Algorithm (GA) was used as the solving tool, which referring two determined aim; the problem is defined and objective function is introduced. Considering to fitness values sensitivity in genetic algorithm process, there is needed to apply load flow for decision-making. Load flow algorithm is combined appropriately with GA, till access to acceptable results of this operation. We used MATPOWER package for load flow algorithm and composed it with our Genetic Algorithm. The suggested method is programmed under MATLAB software and applied ETAP software for evaluating of results correctness. It was implemented on part of Tehran electricity distributing grid. The resulting operation of this method on some testing system is illuminated improvement of voltage profile and loss reduction indexes.

Keywords: Distributed Generation, Allocation, Voltage Profile, losses, Genetic Algorithm.

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1127 The Influence of the Commons Structure Modification on the Active Power Losses Allocation

Authors: O. Pop, C. Barbulescu, M. Nemes, St. Kilyeni

Abstract:

The tracing methods determine the contribution the power system sources have in their supplying. These methods can be used to assess the transmission prices, but also to recover the transmission fixed cost. In this paper is presented the influence of the modification of commons structure has on the specific price of transfer and on active power losses. The authors propose a power losses allocation method, based on Kirschen-s method. The system operator must make use of a few basic principles about allocation. The only necessary information is the power flows on system branches and the modifications applied to power system buses. In order to illustrate this method, the 25-bus test system is used, elaborated within the Electrical Power Engineering Department, from Timisoara, Romania.

Keywords: Power systems, P-U bus, P-Q bus, loss allocation, traceability methods.

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1126 Bandwidth Allocation in Mobile ATM Cellular Networks

Authors: Khaja Kamaluddin, Muhammed Yousoof

Abstract:

Bandwidth allocation in wired network is less complex and to allocate bandwidth in wireless networks is complex and challenging, due to the mobility of source end system.This paper proposes a new approach to bandwidth allocation to higher and lower priority mobile nodes.In our proposal bandwidth allocation to new mobile node is based on bandwidth utilization of existing mobile nodes.The first section of the paper focuses on introduction to bandwidth allocation in wireless networks and presents the existing solutions available for allocation of bandwidth. The second section proposes the new solution for the bandwidth allocation to higher and lower priority nodes. Finally this paper ends with the analytical evaluation of the proposed solution.

Keywords: Layered Approach, Bandwidth allocation, CBR, ABR, QOS.

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1125 Bandwidth allocation in ATM Network for different QOS Requirements

Authors: H. El-Madbouly

Abstract:

For future Broad band ISDN, Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is designed not only to support a wide range of traffic classes with diverse flow characteristics, but also to guarantee the different quality of service QOS requirements. The QOS may be measured in terms of cell loss probability and maximum cell delay. In this paper, ATM networks in which the virtual path (VP) concept is implemented are considered. By applying the Markov Deterministic process method, an efficient algorithm to compute the minimum capacity required to satisfy the QOS requirements when multiple classes of on-off are multiplexed on to a single VP. Using the result, we then proposed a simple algorithm to determine different combinations of VP to achieve the optimum of the total capacity required for satisfying the individual QOS requirements (loss- delay).

Keywords: Bandwidth allocation, Quality of services, ATMNetwork, virtual path.

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1124 Optimal Capacitor Allocation for loss reduction in Distribution System Using Fuzzy and Plant Growth Simulation Algorithm

Authors: R. Srinivasa Rao

Abstract:

This paper presents a new and efficient approach for capacitor placement in radial distribution systems that determine the optimal locations and size of capacitor with an objective of improving the voltage profile and reduction of power loss. The solution methodology has two parts: in part one the loss sensitivity factors are used to select the candidate locations for the capacitor placement and in part two a new algorithm that employs Plant growth Simulation Algorithm (PGSA) is used to estimate the optimal size of capacitors at the optimal buses determined in part one. The main advantage of the proposed method is that it does not require any external control parameters. The other advantage is that it handles the objective function and the constraints separately, avoiding the trouble to determine the barrier factors. The proposed method is applied to 9 and 34 bus radial distribution systems. The solutions obtained by the proposed method are compared with other methods. The proposed method has outperformed the other methods in terms of the quality of solution.

Keywords: Distribution systems, Capacitor allocation, Loss reduction, Fuzzy, PGSA.

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1123 State Estimation Solution with Optimal Allocation of Phasor Measurement Units Considering Zero Injection Bus Modeling

Authors: M. Ravindra, R. Srinivasa Rao, V. Shanmukha Naga Raju

Abstract:

This paper presents state estimation with Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) allocation to obtain complete observability of network. A matrix is designed with modeling of zero injection constraints to minimize PMU allocations. State estimation algorithm is developed with optimal allocation of PMUs to find accurate states of network. The incorporation of PMU into traditional state estimation process improves accuracy and computational performance for large power systems. The nonlinearity integrated with zero injection (ZI) constraints is remodeled to linear frame to optimize number of PMUs. The problem of optimal PMU allocation is regarded with modeling of ZI constraints, PMU loss or line outage, cost factor and redundant measurements. The proposed state estimation with optimal PMU allocation has been compared with traditional state estimation process to show its importance. MATLAB programming on IEEE 14, 30, 57, and 118 bus networks is implemented out by Binary Integer Programming (BIP) method and compared with other methods to show its effectiveness.

Keywords: Observability, phasor measurement units, synchrophasors, SCADA measurements, zero injection bus.

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1122 Application of CPN Tools for Simulation and Analysis of Bandwidth Allocation

Authors: Julija Asmuss, Gunars Lauks, Viktors Zagorskis

Abstract:

We consider the problem of bandwidth allocation in a substrate network as an optimization problem for the aggregate utility of multiple applications with diverse requirements and describe a simulation scheme for dynamically adaptive bandwidth allocation protocols. The proposed simulation model based on Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is realized using CPN Tools.

Keywords: Bandwidth Allocation Problem, Coloured Petri Nets, CPN Tools, Simulation

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1121 Ec-A: A Task Allocation Algorithm for Energy Minimization in Multiprocessor Systems

Authors: Anju S. Pillai, T.B. Isha

Abstract:

With the necessity of increased processing capacity with less energy consumption; power aware multiprocessor system has gained more attention in the recent future. One of the additional challenges that is to be solved in a multi-processor system when compared to uni-processor system is job allocation. This paper presents a novel task dependent job allocation algorithm: Energy centric- Allocation (Ec-A) and Rate Monotonic (RM) scheduling to minimize energy consumption in a multiprocessor system. A simulation analysis is carried out to verify the performance increase with reduction in energy consumption and required number of processors in the system.

Keywords: Energy consumption, Job allocation, Multiprocessor systems, Task dependent.

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1120 A New Reliability Allocation Method Based On Fuzzy Numbers

Authors: Peng Li, Chuanri Li, Tao Li

Abstract:

Reliability allocation is quite important during early design and development stages for a system to apportion its specified reliability goal to subsystems. This paper improves the reliability fuzzy allocation method, and gives concrete processes on determining the factor and sub-factor sets, weight sets, judgment set, and multi-stage fuzzy evaluation. To determine the weight of factor and sub-factor sets, the modified trapezoidal numbers are proposed to reduce errors caused by subjective factors. To decrease the fuzziness in fuzzy division, an approximation method based on linear programming is employed. To compute the explicit values of fuzzy numbers, centroid method of defuzzification is considered. An example is provided to illustrate the application of the proposed reliability allocation method based on fuzzy arithmetic.

Keywords: Reliability allocation, fuzzy arithmetic, allocation weight.

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1119 Operation Strategy of Multi-Energy Storage System Considering Power System Reliability

Authors: Wook-Won Kim, Je-Seok Shin, Jin-O Kim

Abstract:

As the penetration of Energy Storage System (ESS) increases in the power system due to higher performance and lower cost than ever, ESS is expanding its role to the ancillary service as well as the storage of extra energy from the intermittent renewable energy resources. For multi-ESS with different capacity and SOC level each other, it is required to make the optimal schedule of SOC level use the multi-ESS effectively. This paper proposes the energy allocation method for the multiple battery ESS with reliability constraint, in order to make the ESS discharge the required energy as long as possible. A simple but effective method is proposed in this paper, to satisfy the power for the spinning reserve requirement while improving the system reliability. Modelling of ESS is also proposed, and reliability is evaluated by using the combined reliability model which includes the proposed ESS model and conventional generation one. In the case study, it can be observed that the required power is distributed to each ESS adequately and accordingly, the SOC is scheduled to improve the reliability indices such as Loss of Load Probability (LOLP) and Loss of Load Expectation (LOLE).

Keywords: Multiple energy storage system, energy allocation method, SOC schedule, reliability constraints.

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1118 Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation in Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) Networks

Authors: Eman I. Raslan, Haitham S. Hamza, Reda A. El-Khoribi

Abstract:

Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) networks are a promising candidate for future broadband access networks. These networks combine the optical network as the back end where different passive optical network (PON) technologies are realized and the wireless network as the front end where different wireless technologies are adopted, e.g. LTE, WiMAX, Wi-Fi, and Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs). The convergence of both optical and wireless technologies requires designing architectures with robust efficient and effective bandwidth allocation schemes. Different bandwidth allocation algorithms have been proposed in FiWi networks aiming to enhance the different segments of FiWi networks including wireless and optical subnetworks. In this survey, we focus on the differentiating between the different bandwidth allocation algorithms according to their enhancement segment of FiWi networks. We classify these techniques into wireless, optical and Hybrid bandwidth allocation techniques.

Keywords: Fiber-Wireless (FiWi), dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA), passive optical networks (PON), media access control (MAC).

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1117 Vector Control Using Series Iron Loss Model of Induction, Motors and Power Loss Minimization

Authors: Kheldoun Aissa, Khodja Djalal Eddine

Abstract:

The iron loss is a source of detuning in vector controlled induction motor drives if the classical rotor vector controller is used for decoupling. In fact, the field orientation will not be satisfied and the output torque will not truck the reference torque mostly used by Loss Model Controllers (LMCs). In addition, this component of loss, among others, may be excessive if the vector controlled induction motor is driving light loads. In this paper, the series iron loss model is used to develop a vector controller immune to iron loss effect and then an LMC to minimize the total power loss using the torque generated by the speed controller.

Keywords: Field Oriented Controller, Induction Motor, Loss ModelController, Series Iron Loss.

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1116 Model Development for Allocation of Raw Material in Timber Processing Industry in Indonesia

Authors: Muh. Hisjam, Nancy Oktyajati, Wakhid A. Jauhari, Wahyudi Sutopo

Abstract:

This research is intended to develop a raw material allocation model in timber processing industry in Perum Perhutani Unit I, Central Java, Indonesia. The model can be used to determine the quantity of allocation of timber between chain in the supply chain to select supplier considering factors that are log price and the distance. In determining the quantity of allocation of timber between chains in the supply chain, the model considers the optimal inventory in each chain. Whilst the optimal inventory is determined based on demand forecast, the capacity and safety stock. Problem solving allocation is conducted by developing linear programming model that aims to minimize the total cost of the purchase, transportation cost and storage costs at each chain. The results of numerical examples show that the proposed model can generate savings of the purchase cost of 20.84% and select suppliers with mileage closer.

Keywords: Allocation model, linear programming, purchase costs, storage costs, suppliers, transportation costs.

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1115 Target Tracking in Sensor Networks: A Distributed Constraint Satisfaction Approach

Authors: R.Mostafaei, A.Habiboghli, M.R.Meybodi

Abstract:

In distributed resource allocation a set of agents must assign their resources to a set of tasks. This problem arises in many real-world domains such as distributed sensor networks, disaster rescue, hospital scheduling and others. Despite the variety of approaches proposed for distributed resource allocation, a systematic formalization of the problem, explaining the different sources of difficulties, and a formal explanation of the strengths and limitations of key approaches is missing. We take a step towards this goal by using a formalization of distributed resource allocation that represents both dynamic and distributed aspects of the problem. In this paper we present a new idea for target tracking in sensor networks and compare it with previous approaches. The central contribution of the paper is a generalized mapping from distributed resource allocation to DDCSP. This mapping is proven to correctly perform resource allocation problems of specific difficulty. This theoretical result is verified in practice by a simulation on a realworld distributed sensor network.

Keywords: Distributed CSP, Target Tracking, Sensor Network

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1114 Harnessing Replication in Object Allocation

Authors: H. T. Barney, G. C. Low

Abstract:

The design of distributed systems involves the partitioning of the system into components or partitions and the allocation of these components to physical nodes. Techniques have been proposed for both the partitioning and allocation process. However these techniques suffer from a number of limitations. For instance object replication has the potential to greatly improve the performance of an object orientated distributed system but can be difficult to use effectively and there are few techniques that support the developer in harnessing object replication. This paper presents a methodological technique that helps developers decide how objects should be allocated in order to improve performance in a distributed system that supports replication. The performance of the proposed technique is demonstrated and tested on an example system.

Keywords: Allocation, Distributed Systems, Replication.

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1113 Loss of P16/INK4A Protein Expression is a Common Abnormality in Hodgkin's Lymphoma

Authors: Fawzi Irshaid, Fatiha Dilmi, Khaled Tarawneh, Raji Hadeth, Adnan Jaran, Ahad Al-Khatib

Abstract:

P16/INK4A is tumor suppressor protein that plays a critical role in cell cycle regulation. Loss of P16 protein expression has been implicated in pathogenesis of many cancers, including lymphoma. Therefore, we sought to investigate if loss of P16 protein expression is associated with lymphoma and/or any specific lymphoma subtypes (Hodgkin-s lymphoma (HL) and nonHodgkin-s lymphoma (NHL)). Fifty-five lymphoma cases consisted of 30 cases of HL and 25 cases of NHL, with an age range of 3 to 78 years, were examined for loss of P16 by immunohistochemical technique using a specific antibody reacting against P16. In total, P16 loss was seen in 33% of all lymphoma cases. P16 loss was identified in 47.7% of HL cases. In contrast, only 16% of NHL showed loss of P16. Loss of P16 was seen in 67% of HL patients with 50 years of age or older, whereas P16 loss was found in only 42% of HL patients with less than 50 years of age. P16 loss in HL is somewhat higher in male (55%) than in female (30%). In subtypes of HL, P16 loss was found exclusively in all cases of lymphocyte depletion, lymphocyte predominance and unclassified cases, whereas P16 loss was seen in 39% of mixed cellularity and 29% of nodular sclerosis cases. In low grade NHL patients, P16 loss was seen in approximately one-third of cases, whereas no or very rare of P16 loss was found in intermediate and high grade cases. P16 loss did not show any correlation with age or gender of NHL patients. In conclusion, the high rate of P16 loss seen in our study suggests that loss of P16 expression plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of lymphoma, particularly with HL.

Keywords: B-cells, immunostaining, P16 protein, Reed-Sternberg cells, tumors.

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1112 Design and Bandwidth Allocation of Embedded ATM Networks using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: H. El-Madbouly

Abstract:

In this paper, genetic algorithm (GA) is proposed for the design of an optimization algorithm to achieve the bandwidth allocation of ATM network. In Broadband ISDN, the ATM is a highbandwidth; fast packet switching and multiplexing technique. Using ATM it can be flexibly reconfigure the network and reassign the bandwidth to meet the requirements of all types of services. By dynamically routing the traffic and adjusting the bandwidth assignment, the average packet delay of the whole network can be reduced to a minimum. M/M/1 model can be used to analyze the performance.

Keywords: Bandwidth allocation, Genetic algorithm, ATMNetwork, packet delay.

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1111 Optimal Resource Configuration and Allocation Planning Problem for Bottleneck Machines and Auxiliary Tools

Authors: Yin-Yann Chen, Tzu-Ling Chen

Abstract:

This study presents the case of an actual Taiwanese semiconductor assembly and testing manufacturer. Three major bottleneck manufacturing processes, namely, die bond, wire bond, and molding, are analyzed to determine how to use finite resources to achieve the optimal capacity allocation. A medium-term capacity allocation planning model is developed by considering the optimal total profit to satisfy the promised volume demanded by customers and to obtain the best migration decision among production lines for machines and tools. Finally, sensitivity analysis based on the actual case is provided to explore the effect of various parameter levels.

Keywords: Capacity planning, capacity allocation, machine migration, resource configuration.

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1110 Optimal Distributed Generator Sizing and Placement by Analytical Method and PSO Algorithm Considering Optimal Reactive Power Dispatch

Authors: Kyaw Myo Lin, Pyone Lai Swe, Khine Zin Oo

Abstract:

In this paper, an approach combining analytical method for the distributed generator (DG) sizing and meta-heuristic search for the optimal location of DG has been presented. The optimal size of DG on each bus is estimated by the loss sensitivity factor method while the optimal sites are determined by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) based optimal reactive power dispatch for minimizing active power loss. To confirm the proposed approach, it has been tested on IEEE-30 bus test system. The adjustments of operating constraints and voltage profile improvements have also been observed. The obtained results show that the allocation of DGs results in a significant loss reduction with good voltage profiles and the combined approach is competent in keeping the system voltages within the acceptable limits.

Keywords: Analytical approach, distributed generations, optimal size, optimal location, optimal reactive power dispatch, particle swarm optimization algorithm.

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1109 A Simulation Modeling Approach for Optimization of Storage Space Allocation in Container Terminal

Authors: Gamal Abd El-Nasser A. Said, El-Sayed M. El-Horbaty

Abstract:

Container handling problems at container terminals are NP-hard problems. This paper presents an approach using discrete-event simulation modeling to optimize solution for storage space allocation problem, taking into account all various interrelated container terminal handling activities. The proposed approach is applied on a real case study data of container terminal at Alexandria port. The computational results show the effectiveness of the proposed model for optimization of storage space allocation in container terminal where 54% reduction in containers handling time in port is achieved.

Keywords: Container terminal, discrete-event simulation, optimization, storage space allocation.

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1108 Downlink Scheduling and Radio Resource Allocation in Adaptive OFDMA Wireless Communication Systems for User-Individual QoS

Authors: Lu Yanhui, Wang Chunming, Yin Changchuan, Yue Guangxin

Abstract:

In this paper, we address the problem of adaptive radio resource allocation (RRA) and packet scheduling in the downlink of a cellular OFDMA system, and propose a downlink multi-carrier proportional fair (MPF) scheduler and its joint with adaptive RRA algorithm to distribute radio resources among multiple users according to their individual QoS requirements. The allocation and scheduling objective is to maximize the total throughput, while at the same time maintaining the fairness among users. The simulation results demonstrate that the methods presented provide for user more explicit fairness relative to RRA algorithm, but the joint scheme achieves the higher sum-rate capacity with flexible parameters setting compared with MPF scheduler.

Keywords: OFDMA, adaptive radio resource allocation, scheduling, QoS.

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1107 Using Fuzzy Numbers in Heavy Aggregation Operators

Authors: José M. Merigó, Montserrat Casanovas

Abstract:

We consider different types of aggregation operators such as the heavy ordered weighted averaging (HOWA) operator and the fuzzy ordered weighted averaging (FOWA) operator. We introduce a new extension of the OWA operator called the fuzzy heavy ordered weighted averaging (FHOWA) operator. The main characteristic of this aggregation operator is that it deals with uncertain information represented in the form of fuzzy numbers (FN) in the HOWA operator. We develop the basic concepts of this operator and study some of its properties. We also develop a wide range of families of FHOWA operators such as the fuzzy push up allocation, the fuzzy push down allocation, the fuzzy median allocation and the fuzzy uniform allocation.

Keywords: Aggregation operators, Fuzzy numbers, Fuzzy OWAoperator, Heavy OWA operator.

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1106 Modeling and Analysis of Adaptive Buffer Sharing Scheme for Consecutive Packet Loss Reduction in Broadband Networks

Authors: Sakshi Kausha, R.K Sharma

Abstract:

High speed networks provide realtime variable bit rate service with diversified traffic flow characteristics and quality requirements. The variable bit rate traffic has stringent delay and packet loss requirements. The burstiness of the correlated traffic makes dynamic buffer management highly desirable to satisfy the Quality of Service (QoS) requirements. This paper presents an algorithm for optimization of adaptive buffer allocation scheme for traffic based on loss of consecutive packets in data-stream and buffer occupancy level. Buffer is designed to allow the input traffic to be partitioned into different priority classes and based on the input traffic behavior it controls the threshold dynamically. This algorithm allows input packets to enter into buffer if its occupancy level is less than the threshold value for priority of that packet. The threshold is dynamically varied in runtime based on packet loss behavior. The simulation is run for two priority classes of the input traffic – realtime and non-realtime classes. The simulation results show that Adaptive Partial Buffer Sharing (ADPBS) has better performance than Static Partial Buffer Sharing (SPBS) and First In First Out (FIFO) queue under the same traffic conditions.

Keywords: Buffer Management, Consecutive packet loss, Quality-of-Service, Priority based packet discarding, partial buffersharing.

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1105 Distributed Generator Placement for Loss Reduction and Improvement in Reliability

Authors: Priyanka Paliwal, N.P. Patidar

Abstract:

Distributed Power generation has gained a lot of attention in recent times due to constraints associated with conventional power generation and new advancements in DG technologies .The need to operate the power system economically and with optimum levels of reliability has further led to an increase in interest in Distributed Generation. However it is important to place Distributed Generator on an optimum location so that the purpose of loss minimization and voltage regulation is dully served on the feeder. This paper investigates the impact of DG units installation on electric losses, reliability and voltage profile of distribution networks. In this paper, our aim would be to find optimal distributed generation allocation for loss reduction subjected to constraint of voltage regulation in distribution network. The system is further analyzed for increased levels of Reliability. Distributed Generator offers the additional advantage of increase in reliability levels as suggested by the improvements in various reliability indices such as SAIDI, CAIDI and AENS. Comparative studies are performed and related results are addressed. An analytical technique is used in order to find the optimal location of Distributed Generator. The suggested technique is programmed under MATLAB software. The results clearly indicate that DG can reduce the electrical line loss while simultaneously improving the reliability of the system.

Keywords: AENS, CAIDI, Distributed Generation, lossreduction, Reliability, SAIDI

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