Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 46

Search results for: Air bubbles

46 Investigation of Recirculation Effects on the Formation of Vapor Bubbles in Centrifugal Pump Blades

Authors: Mohammad Taghi Shervani Tabar, Seyyed Hojjat Majidi, Zahra Poursharifi

Abstract:

Cavitation in pumps is known as the formation of vapor bubbles due to pressure drop and collapsing these bubbles. In some conditions, it has been observed that the formation of bubbles occurs at the pressure side of centrifugal pump blades. In this study, the formation of bubbles at the pressure side of blades has been investigated. Water is used in this study as the fluid and performance curves were depicted for different flow rates in an approximately constant speed. The results show that when a centrifugal pump works in low flow rates, a secondary flow namely recirculation starts to begin. In this condition, separation of flow increases which causes vortex formation and local pressure drop and eventually the formation of vapor bubbles starts.

Keywords: Cavitation, Centrifugal pump, Recirculation, Vapor bubble.

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45 Capacitive Air Bubble Detector Operated at Different Frequencies for Application in Hemodialysis

Authors: Mawahib Gafare Abdalrahman Ahmed, Abdallah Belal Adam, John Ojur Dennis

Abstract:

Air bubbles have been detected in human circulation of end-stage renal disease patients who are treated by hemodialysis. The consequence of air embolism, air bubbles, is under recognized and usually overlooked in daily practice. This paper shows results of a capacitor based detection method that capable of detecting the presence of air bubbles in the blood stream in different frequencies. The method is based on a parallel plates capacitor made of platinum with an area of 1.5 cm2 and a distance between the two plates is 1cm. The dielectric material used in this capacitor is Dextran70 solution which mimics blood rheology. Simulations were carried out using RC circuit at two frequencies 30Hz and 3 kHz and results compared with experiments and theory. It is observed that by injecting air bubbles of different diameters into the device, there were significant changes in the capacitance of the capacitor. Furthermore, it is observed that the output voltage from the circuit increased with increasing air bubble diameter. These results demonstrate the feasibility of this approach in improving air bubble detection in Hemodialysis.

Keywords: Air bubbles, Hemodialysis, Capacitor, Dextran70, Air bubbles diameters.

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44 Influence of the Flow Rate Ratio in a Jet Pump on the Size of Air Bubbles

Authors: L. Grinis, N. Lubashevsky, Y. Ostrovski

Abstract:

In wastewater treatment processes, aeration introduces air into a liquid. In these systems, air is introduced by different devices submerged in the wastewater. Smaller bubbles result in more bubble surface area per unit of volume and higher oxygen transfer efficiency. Jet pumps are devices that use air bubbles and are widely used in wastewater treatment processes. The principle of jet pumps is their ability to transfer energy of one fluid, called primary or motive, into a secondary fluid or gas. These pumps have no moving parts and are able to work in remote areas under extreme conditions. The objective of this work is to study experimentally the characteristics of the jet pump and the size of air bubbles in the laboratory water tank. The effect of flow rate ratio on pump performance is investigated in order to have a better understanding about pump behavior under various conditions, in order to determine the efficiency of receiving air bubbles different sizes. The experiments show that we should take care when increasing the flow rate ratio while seeking to decrease bubble size in the outlet flow. This study will help improve and extend the use of the jet pump in many practical applications.

Keywords: Jet pump, air bubbles size, retention time.

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43 Investigation Bubble Growth and Nucleation Rates during the Pool Boiling Heat Transfer of Distilled Water Using Population Balance Model

Authors: V. Nikkhah Rashidabad, M. Manteghian, M. Masoumi, S. Mousavian

Abstract:

In this research, the changes in bubbles diameter and  number that may occur due to the change in heat flux of pure water  during pool boiling process. For this purpose, test equipment was  designed and developed to collect test data. The bubbles were graded  using Caliper Screen software. To calculate the growth and  nucleation rates of bubbles under different fluxes, population balance  model was employed. The results show that the increase in heat flux  from q=20 kw/m2 to q= 102 kw/m2 raised the growth and nucleation  rates of bubbles.

 

Keywords: Heat flux, bubble growth, bubble nucleation, population balance model.

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42 Amplification of Compression Waves in Clean and Bubbly Liquid

Authors: Robert I. Nigmatulin, Raisa Kh. Bolotnova, Nailya K. Vakhitova, Andrey S. Topolnikov, Svetlana I. Konovalova, Nikolai A. Makhota

Abstract:

The theoretical investigation is carried out to describe the effect of increase of pressure waves amplitude in clean and bubbly liquid. The goal of the work is to capture the regime of multiple magnification of acoustic and shock waves in the liquid, which enables to get appropriate conditions to enlarge collapses of micro-bubbles. The influence of boundary conditions and frequency of the governing acoustic field is studied for the case of the cylindrical acoustic resonator. It has been observed the formation of standing waves with large amplitude at resonant frequencies. The interaction of the compression wave with gas and vapor bubbles is investigated for the convergent channel. It is shown theoretically that the chemical reactions, which occur inside gas bubbles, provide additional impulse to the wave, that affect strongly on the collapses of the vapor bubbles

Keywords: acoustics, cavitation, detonation, shock waves

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41 Liquid Temperature Effect on Sound Propagation in Polymeric Solution with Gas Bubbles

Authors: S. Levitsky

Abstract:

Acoustic properties of polymeric liquids are high sensitive to free gas traces in the form of fine bubbles. Their presence is typical for such liquids because of chemical reactions, small wettability of solid boundaries, trapping of air in technological operations, etc. Liquid temperature influences essentially its rheological properties, which may have an impact on the bubble pulsations and sound propagation in the system. The target of the paper is modeling of the liquid temperature effect on single bubble dynamics and sound dispersion and attenuation in polymeric solution with spherical gas bubbles. The basic sources of attenuation (heat exchange between gas in microbubbles and surrounding liquid, rheological and acoustic losses) are taken into account. It is supposed that in the studied temperature range the interface mass transfer has a minor effect on bubble dynamics. The results of the study indicate that temperature raise yields enhancement of bubble pulsations and increase in sound attenuation in the near-resonance range and may have a strong impact on sound dispersion in the liquid-bubble mixture at frequencies close to the resonance frequency of bubbles.

Keywords: Sound propagation, gas bubbles, temperature effect, polymeric liquid.

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40 Application of Neural Networks to Predict Changing the Diameters of Bubbles in Pool Boiling Distilled Water

Authors: V. Nikkhah Rashidabad, M. Manteghian, M. Masoumi, S. Mousavian, D. Ashouri

Abstract:

In this research, the capability of neural networks in  modeling and learning complicated and nonlinear relations has been  used to develop a model for the prediction of changes in the diameter  of bubbles in pool boiling distilled water. The input parameters used  in the development of this network include element temperature, heat  flux, and retention time of bubbles. The test data obtained from the  experiment of the pool boiling of distilled water, and the  measurement of the bubbles form on the cylindrical element. The  model was developed based on training algorithm, which is  typologically of back-propagation type. Considering the correlation  coefficient obtained from this model is 0.9633. This shows that this  model can be trusted for the simulation and modeling of the size of  bubble and thermal transfer of boiling.

Keywords: Bubble Diameter, Heat Flux, Neural Network, Training Algorithm.

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39 Electric Field Effect on the Rise of Single Bubbles during Boiling

Authors: N. Masoudnia, M. Fatahi

Abstract:

An experimental study of saturated pool boiling on a single artificial nucleation site without and with the application of an electric field on the boiling surface has been conducted. N-pentane is boiling on a copper surface and is recorded with a high speed camera providing high quality pictures and movies. The accuracy of the visualization allowed establishing an experimental bubble growth law from a large number of experiments. This law shows that the evaporation rate is decreasing during the bubble growth, and underlines the importance of liquid motion induced by the preceding bubble. Bubble rise is therefore studied: once detached, bubbles accelerate vertically until reaching a maximum velocity in good agreement with a correlation from literature. The bubbles then turn to another direction. The effect of applying an electric field on the boiling surface in finally studied. In addition to changes of the bubble shape, changes are also shown in the liquid plume and the convective structures above the surface. Lower maximum rising velocities were measured in the presence of electric fields, especially with a negative polarity.

Keywords: Single bubbles, electric field, boiling, effect.

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38 Pressure Induced Isenthalpic Oscillations with Condensation and Evaporation in Saturated Two-Phase Fluids

Authors: Joel V. Madison, Hans E. Kimmel

Abstract:

Saturated two-phase fluid flows are often subject to pressure induced oscillations. Due to compressibility the vapor bubbles act as a spring with an asymmetric non-linear characteristic. The volume of the vapor bubbles increases or decreases differently if the pressure fluctuations are compressing or expanding; consequently, compressing pressure fluctuations in a two-phase pipe flow cause less displacement in the direction of the pipe flow than expanding pressure fluctuations. The displacement depends on the ratio of liquid to vapor, the ratio of pressure fluctuations over average pressure and on the exciting frequency of the pressure fluctuations. In addition, pressure fluctuations in saturated vapor bubbles cause condensation and evaporation within the bubbles and change periodically the ratio between liquid to vapor, and influence the dynamical parameters for the oscillation. The oscillations are conforming to an isenthalpic process at constant enthalpy with no heat transfer and no exchange of work. The paper describes the governing non-linear equation for twophase fluid oscillations with condensation and evaporation, and presents steady state approximate solutions for free and for pressure induced oscillations. Resonance criteria and stability are discussed.

Keywords: condensation, evaporation, non-linear oscillations, pressure induced, two-phase flow

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37 The Effect of Development of Two-Phase Flow Regimes on the Stability of Gas Lift Systems

Authors: Khalid. M. O. Elmabrok, M. L. Burby, G. G. Nasr

Abstract:

Flow instability during gas lift operation is caused by three major phenomena – the density wave oscillation, the casing heading pressure and the flow perturbation within the two-phase flow region. This paper focuses on the causes and the effect of flow instability during gas lift operation and suggests ways to control it in order to maximise productivity during gas lift operations. A laboratory-scale two-phase flow system to study the effects of flow perturbation was designed and built. The apparatus is comprised of a 2 m long by 66 mm ID transparent PVC pipe with air injection point situated at 0.1 m above the base of the pipe. This is the point where stabilised bubbles were visibly clear after injection. Air is injected into the water filled transparent pipe at different flow rates and pressures. The behavior of the different sizes of the bubbles generated within the two-phase region was captured using a digital camera and the images were analysed using the advanced image processing package. It was observed that the average maximum bubbles sizes increased with the increase in the length of the vertical pipe column from 29.72 to 47 mm. The increase in air injection pressure from 0.5 to 3 bars increased the bubble sizes from 29.72 mm to 44.17 mm and then decreasing when the pressure reaches 4 bars. It was observed that at higher bubble velocity of 6.7 m/s, larger diameter bubbles coalesce and burst due to high agitation and collision with each other. This collapse of the bubbles causes pressure drop and reverse flow within two phase flow and is the main cause of the flow instability phenomena.

Keywords: Gas lift instability, bubble forming, bubble collapsing, image processing.

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36 Investigation about Mechanical Equipment Needed to Break the Molecular Bonds of Heavy Oil by Using Hydrodynamic Cavitation

Authors: Mahdi Asghari

Abstract:

The cavitation phenomenon is the formation and production of micro-bubbles and eventually the bursting of the micro-bubbles inside the liquid fluid, which results in localized high pressure and temperature, causing physical and chemical fluid changes. This pressure and temperature are predicted to be 2000 atmospheres and 5000 °C, respectively. As a result of small bubbles bursting from this process, temperature and pressure increase momentarily and locally, so that the intensity and magnitude of these temperatures and pressures provide the energy needed to break the molecular bonds of heavy compounds such as fuel oil. In this paper, we study the theory of cavitation and the methods of cavitation production by acoustic and hydrodynamic methods and the necessary mechanical equipment and reactors for industrial application of the hydrodynamic cavitation method to break down the molecular bonds of the fuel oil and convert it into useful and economical products.

Keywords: Cavitation, hydrodynamic cavitation, cavitation reactor, fuel oil.

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35 Effect of Laser Input Energy on the Laser Joining of Polyethylene Terephthalate to Titanium

Authors: Y. J. Chen, T. M. Yue, Z. N. Guo

Abstract:

This paper reports the effects of laser energy on the characteristics of bubbles generated in the weld zone and the formation of new chemical bonds at the Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)/Ti joint interface in laser joining of PET to Ti. The samples were produced by using different laser energies ranging from 1.5 J – 6 J in steps of 1.5 J, while all other joining parameters remained unchanged. The types of chemical bonding at the joint interface were analysed by the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth-profiling method. The results show that the characteristics of the bubbles and the thickness of the chemically bonded interface, which contains the laser generated bonds of Ti–C and Ti–O, increase markedly with increasing laser energy input. The tensile failure load of the joint depends on the combined effect of the amount and distribution of the bubbles formed and the chemical bonding intensity of the joint interface.

Keywords: Laser direct joining, Ti/PET interface, laser energy, XPS depth profiling, chemical bond, tensile failure load.

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34 Study of the Particle Size Effect on Bubble Rise Velocities in a Three-Phase Bubble Column

Authors: Weiling Li, Wenqi Zhong, Baosheng Jin, Rui Xiao, Yong Lu, Tingting He

Abstract:

Experiments were performed in a three-phase bubble column to study variations of bubble rise velocities. The dynamic gas disengagement (DGD) technique and the fast response pressure transducers were utilized to investigate the bubble rise in the column. The superficial gas velocity of large bubbles and small bubbles, the rise velocities of larger and small bubble fractions were studied considering the effect of particle sizes. The results show that the superficial gas velocity associated with large bubbles linearly increase as superficial gas velocity increasing. Particle size has little effect on the both large and small bubble superficial gas velocities. The rise velocities of larger bubble fractions are larger than that of small bubble fractions, and it had different tendency at low and high superficial gas velocities when changing the particle sizes. The rise velocities of small bubble fractions increased and then had a decrease tendency when the particle size became greater.

Keywords: Bubble rise velocity, gas–liquid–solid, particle size effect, three–phase bubble column.

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33 Separation Characteristics of the Hollow Fiber Membrane Module Using Water Mixed with Small Sized Bubbles Composed of Synthesized Exhalations

Authors: Pil Woo Heo, Hyunse Kim

Abstract:

Fish can breathe freely under water using dissolved oxygen and survive for a long time without going out of the water. A human can also survive under water using dissolved oxygens, if properly used. He needs more dissolved oxygens than the fish, so efficient separation device is required. Since the amount of oxygen contained in water is weak, a person needs a lot of surface area to breathe in water, which leads to a large-sized device. It can be applied to various fields if it is developed as a device which is advantageous to carry in small size. In this paper, we have carried out a study on the effective use of exhalations and proposed the separation characteristics of the gas containing dissolved oxygen in the state of mixed gas considering the components of exhalation. The system was configured to have a fine bubble when the gas mixture injected into the front end of the separator. While the fluid containing the fine bubbles was supplied to the separator, the dissolved gas contained in water was separated using a vacuum pump. The gas separation amount of the separating apparatus with respect to the supplied mixed gas was measured. The amounts of separation of dissolved gas were increased as the amounts of mixed gas supplied were increased.

Keywords: Small sized bubbles, synthesized exhalations, separation, hollow fiber module.

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32 Effects of an Added Foaming Agent on Hydro-Mechanical Properties of Soil

Authors: Moez Selmi, Mariem Kacem, Mehrez Jamei, Philippe Dubujet

Abstract:

Earth pressure balance (EPB) tunnel boring machines are designed for digging in different types of soil, especially clay soils. This operation requires the treatment of soil by lubricants to facilitate the procedure of excavation. A possible use of this soil is limited by the effect of treatment on the hydro-mechanical properties of the soil. This work aims to study the effect of a foaming agent on the hydro-mechanical properties of clay soil. The injection of the foam agent in the soil leads to create a soil matrix in which they are incorporated gas bubbles. The state of the foam in the soil is scalable thanks to the degradation of the gas bubbles in the soil.

Keywords: EPB, clay soils, foam agent, hydro-mechanical properties, degradation.

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31 Analysis of Air-Water Two-Phase Flow in a 3x3 Rod Bundle

Authors: Pei-Syuan Ruan, Ya-Chi Yu, Shao-Wen Chen, Jin-Der Lee, Jong-Rong Wang, Chunkuan Shih

Abstract:

This study investigated the void fraction characteristics under low superficial gas velocity (Jg) and low superficial fluid velocity (Jf) conditions in a 3x3 rod bundle geometry. Three arrangements of conductivity probes were set to measure the void fraction at various cross-sectional regions, including rod-gap, sub-channel and rod-wall regions. The experimental tests were performed under the flow conditions of Jg = 0-0.236 m/s and Jf = 0-0.142 m/s, and the time-averaged void fractions were recorded at each flow condition. It was observed that while the superficial gas velocity increases, the small bubbles started to cluster together and become big bubbles. As the superficial fluid velocity increases, the local void fractions of the three test regions will get closer and the bubble distribution will be more uniform across the cross section.

Keywords: Conductivity probes, rod bundles, two-phase flow, void fraction.

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30 Experimental and CFD Simulation of the Jet Pump for Air Bubbles Formation

Authors: L. Grinis, N. Lubashevsky, Y. Ostrovski

Abstract:

A jet pump is a type of pump that accelerates the flow of a secondary fluid (driven fluid) by introducing a motive fluid with high velocity into a converging-diverging nozzle. Jet pumps are also known as adductors or ejectors depending on the motivator phase. The ejector's motivator is of a gaseous nature, usually steam or air, while the educator's motivator is a liquid, usually water. Jet pumps are devices that use air bubbles and are widely used in wastewater treatment processes. In this work, we will discuss about the characteristics of the jet pump and the computational simulation of this device. To find the optimal angle and depth for the air pipe, so as to achieve the maximal air volumetric flow rate, an experimental apparatus was constructed to ascertain the best geometrical configuration for this new type of jet pump. By using 3D printing technology, a series of jet pumps was printed and tested whilst aspiring to maximize air flow rate dependent on angle and depth of the air pipe insertion. The experimental results show a major difference of up to 300% in performance between the different pumps (ratio of air flow rate to supplied power) where the optimal geometric model has an insertion angle of 600 and air pipe insertion depth ending at the center of the mixing chamber. The differences between the pumps were further explained by using CFD for better understanding the reasons that affect the airflow rate. The validity of the computational simulation and the corresponding assumptions have been proved experimentally. The present research showed high degree of congruence with the results of the laboratory tests. This study demonstrates the potential of using of the jet pump in many practical applications.

Keywords: Air bubbles, CFD simulation, jet pump, practical applications.

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29 Numerical Simulation of a Single Air Bubble Rising in Water with Various Models of Surface Tension Force

Authors: Afshin Ahmadi Nadooshan, Ebrahim Shirani

Abstract:

Different numerical methods are employed and developed for simulating interfacial flows. A large range of applications belong to this group, e.g. two-phase flows of air bubbles in water or water drops in air. In such problems surface tension effects often play a dominant role. In this paper, various models of surface tension force for interfacial flows, the CSF, CSS, PCIL and SGIP models have been applied to simulate the motion of small air bubbles in water and the results were compared and reviewed. It has been pointed out that by using SGIP or PCIL models, we are able to simulate bubble rise and obtain results in close agreement with the experimental data.

Keywords: Volume-of-Fluid, Bubble Rising, SGIP model, CSS model, CSF model, PCIL model, interface, surface tension force.

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28 Investigation of the Effect of Cavitator Angle and Dimensions for a Supercavitating Vehicle

Authors: Sri Raman A., A.K.Ghosh

Abstract:

At very high speeds, bubbles form in the underwater vehicles because of sharp trailing edges or of places where the local pressure is lower than the vapor pressure. These bubbles are called cavities and the size of the cavities grows as the velocity increases. A properly designed cavitator can induce the formation of a single big cavity all over the vehicle. Such a vehicle travelling in the vaporous cavity is called a supercavitating vehicle and the present research work mainly focuses on the dynamic modeling of such vehicles. Cavitation of the fins is also accounted and the effect of the same on trajectory is well explained. The entire dynamics has been developed using the state space approach and emphasis is given on the effect of size and angle of attack of the cavitator. Control law has been established for the motion of the vehicle using Non-linear Dynamic Inverse (NDI) with cavitator as the control surface.

Keywords: High speed underwater vehicle, Non-Linear Dynamic Inverse (NDI), six-dof modeling, Supercavitation, Torpedo.

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27 A Wall Law for Two-Phase Turbulent Boundary Layers

Authors: Dhahri Maher, Aouinet Hana

Abstract:

The presence of bubbles in the boundary layer introduces corrections into the log law, which must be taken into account. In this work, a logarithmic wall law was presented for bubbly two phase flows. The wall law presented in this work was based on the postulation of additional turbulent viscosity associated with bubble wakes in the boundary layer. The presented wall law contained empirical constant accounting both for shear induced turbulence interaction and for non-linearity of bubble. This constant was deduced from experimental data. The wall friction prediction achieved with the wall law was compared to the experimental data, in the case of a turbulent boundary layer developing on a vertical flat plate in the presence of millimetric bubbles. A very good agreement between experimental and numerical wall friction prediction was verified. The agreement was especially noticeable for the low void fraction when bubble induced turbulence plays a significant role.

Keywords: Bubbly flows, log law, boundary layer.

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26 Detecting Financial Bubbles Using Gap between Common Stocks and Preferred Stocks

Authors: Changju Lee, Seungmo Ku, Sondo Kim, Woojin Chang

Abstract:

How to detecting financial bubble? Addressing this simple question has been the focus of a vast amount of empirical research spanning almost half a century. However, financial bubble is hard to observe and varying over the time; there needs to be more research on this area. In this paper, we used abnormal difference between common stocks price and those preferred stocks price to explain financial bubble. First, we proposed the ‘W-index’ which indicates spread between common stocks and those preferred stocks in stock market. Second, to prove that this ‘W-index’ is valid for measuring financial bubble, we showed that there is an inverse relationship between this ‘W-index’ and S&P500 rate of return. Specifically, our hypothesis is that when ‘W-index’ is comparably higher than other periods, financial bubbles are added up in stock market and vice versa; according to our hypothesis, if investors made long term investments when ‘W-index’ is high, they would have negative rate of return; however, if investors made long term investments when ‘W-index’ is low, they would have positive rate of return. By comparing correlation values and adjusted R-squared values of between W-index and S&P500 return, VIX index and S&P500 return, and TED index and S&P500 return, we showed only W-index has significant relationship between S&P500 rate of return. In addition, we figured out how long investors should hold their investment position regard the effect of financial bubble. Using this W-index, investors could measure financial bubble in the market and invest with low risk.

Keywords: Financial bubbles, detection, preferred stocks, pairs trading, future return, forecast.

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25 Design and Fabrication of Micro-Bubble Oxygenator

Authors: Chiang-Ho Cheng, An-Shik Yang, Hong-Yih Cheng

Abstract:

This paper applies the MEMS technology to design and fabricate a micro-bubble generator by a piezoelectric actuator. Coupled with a nickel nozzle plate, an annular piezoelectric ceramic was utilized as the primary structure of the generator. In operations, the piezoelectric element deforms transversely under an electric field applied across the thickness of the generator. The surface of the nozzle plate can expand or contract because of the induction of radial strain, resulting in the whole structure to bend, and successively transport oxygen micro-bubbles into the blood flow for enhancing the oxygen content in blood. In the tests, a high magnification microscope and a high speed CCD camera were employed to photograph the time evolution of meniscus shape of gaseous bubbles dispensed from the micro-bubble generator for flow visualization. This investigation thus explored the bubble formation process including the influences of inlet gas pressure along with driving voltage and resonance frequency on the formed bubble extent.

Keywords: Micro-bubble, nozzle, oxygenator, piezoelectric.

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24 Terminal Velocity of a Bubble Rise in a Liquid Column

Authors: Mário A. R. Talaia

Abstract:

As it is known, buoyancy and drag forces rule bubble's rise velocity in a liquid column. These forces are strongly dependent on fluid properties, gravity as well as equivalent's diameter. This study reports a set of bubble rising velocity experiments in a liquid column using water or glycerol. Several records of terminal velocity were obtained. The results show that bubble's rise terminal velocity is strongly dependent on dynamic viscosity effect. The data set allowed to have some terminal velocities data interval of 8.0 ? 32.9 cm/s with Reynolds number interval 1.3 -7490. The bubble's movement was recorded with a video camera. The main goal is to present an original set data and results that will be discussed based on two-phase flow's theory. It will also discussed, the prediction of terminal velocity of a single bubble in liquid, as well as the range of its applicability. In conclusion, this study presents general expressions for the determination of the terminal velocity of isolated gas bubbles of a Reynolds number range, when the fluid proprieties are known.

Keywords: Bubbles, terminal velocity, two phase-flow, vertical column.

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23 Current Density Effect on Nickel Electroplating Using Post Supercritical CO2 Mixed Watts Electrolyte

Authors: Chun-Ying Lee, Mei-Wen Wu, Van Cuong Nguyen, Hung-Wei Chuang

Abstract:

In this study, a nickel film with nano-crystalline grains, high hardness and smooth surface was electrodeposited using a post supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) mixed Watts electrolyte. Although the hardness was not as high as its Sc-CO2 counterpart, the thin coating contained significantly less number of nano-sized pinholes. By measuring the escape concentration of the dissolved CO2 in post Sc-CO2 mixed electrolyte with the elapsed time, it was believed that the residue of dissolved CO2 bubbles should closely relate to the improvement in hardness and surface roughness over its conventional plating counterpart. Therefore, shortening the duration of electroplating with the raise of current density up to 0.5 A/cm2 could effectively retain more post Sc-CO2 mixing effect. This study not only confirms the roles of dissolved CO2 bubbles in electrolyte but also provides a potential process to overcome most issues associated with the cost in building high-pressure chamber for large size products and continuous plating using supercritical method.

Keywords: Additive-free electrolyte, electroplating, nickel, supercritical CO2.

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22 Development of a Water-Jet Assisted Underwater Laser Cutting Process

Authors: Suvradip Mullick, Yuvraj K. Madhukar, Subhranshu Roy, Ashish K. Nath

Abstract:

We present the development of a new underwater laser cutting process in which a water-jet has been used along with the laser beam to remove the molten material through kerf. The conventional underwater laser cutting usually utilizes a high pressure gas jet along with laser beam to create a dry condition in the cutting zone and also to eject out the molten material. This causes a lot of gas bubbles and turbulence in water, and produces aerosols and waste gas. This may cause contamination in the surrounding atmosphere while cutting radioactive components like burnt nuclear fuel. The water-jet assisted underwater laser cutting process produces much less turbulence and aerosols in the atmosphere. Some amount of water vapor bubbles is formed at the laser-metal-water interface; however, they tend to condense as they rise up through the surrounding water. We present the design and development of a water-jet assisted underwater laser cutting head and the parametric study of the cutting of AISI 304 stainless steel sheets with a 2 kW CW fiber laser. The cutting performance is similar to that of the gas assist laser cutting; however, the process efficiency is reduced due to heat convection by water-jet and laser beam scattering by vapor. This process may be attractive for underwater cutting of nuclear reactor components.

Keywords: Laser, underwater cutting, water-jet.

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21 The Study on the Stationarity of Housing Price-to-Rent and Housing Price-to-Income Ratios in China

Authors: Wen-Chi Liu

Abstract:

This paper aims to examine whether a bubble is present in the housing market of China. Thus, we use the housing  price-to-income ratios and housing price-to-rent ratios of 35 cities from 1998 to 2010. The methods of the panel KSS unit root test with a  Fourier function and the SPSM process are likewise used. The panel  KSS unit root test with a Fourier function considers the problem of  non-linearity and structural changes, and the SPSM process can avoid  the stationary time series from dominating the result-generated bias.  Through a rigorous empirical study, we determine that the housing  price-to-income ratios are stationary in 34 of the 35 cities in China.  Only Xining is non-stationary. The housing price-to-rent ratios are  stationary in 32 of the 35 cities in China. Chengdu, Fuzhou, and  Zhengzhou are non-stationary. Overall, the housing bubbles are not a  serious problem in China at the time.

 

Keywords: Housing Price-to-Income Ratio, Housing Price-to-Rent Ratio, Housing Bubbles, Panel Unit-Root Test.

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20 Analysis of Impact Load Induced by Ultrasonic Cavitation Bubble Collapse Using Thin Film Pressure Sensors

Authors: Moiz S. Vohra, Nagalingam Arun Prasanth, Wei L. Tan, S. H. Yeo

Abstract:

The understanding of generation and collapse of acoustic cavitation bubbles are prerequisites for application of cavitation erosion. Microbubbles generated due to rapid fluctuation of pressure induced by propagation of ultrasonic wave lead to formation of high velocity microjets and or shock waves upon collapse. Due to vast application of ultrasonic, it is important to characterize and understand cavitation collapse pressure under the radiating surface at different conditions. A comparative investigation is carried out to determine impact load and dynamic pressure distribution exerted upon bubble collapse using thin film pressure sensors. Measurements were recorded at different input conditions such as amplitude, stand-off distance, insertion depth of the horn inside the liquid and pulse on-off time of acoustic vibrations. Impact force of 2.97 N is recorded at amplitude of 108 μm and stand-off distance of 1 mm from the sensor film, whereas impulsive force as low as 0.4 N is recorded at amplitude of 12 μm and stand-off distance of 5 mm from the sensor film. The results drawn from the investigation indicated that variety of impact loads can be achieved by controlling generation and collapse of bubbles, making it suitable to use for numerous application.

Keywords: Ultrasonic cavitation, bubble collapse, pressure mapping sensor, impact load.

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19 Streamwise Vorticity in the Wake of a Sliding Bubble

Authors: R. O’Reilly Meehan, D. B. Murray

Abstract:

In many practical situations, bubbles are dispersed in a liquid phase. Understanding these complex bubbly flows is therefore a key issue for applications such as shell and tube heat exchangers, mineral flotation and oxidation in water treatment. Although a large body of work exists for bubbles rising in an unbounded medium, that of bubbles rising in constricted geometries has received less attention. The particular case of a bubble sliding underneath an inclined surface is common to two-phase flow systems. The current study intends to expand this knowledge by performing experiments to quantify the streamwise flow structures associated with a single sliding air bubble under an inclined surface in quiescent water. This is achieved by means of two-dimensional, two-component particle image velocimetry (PIV), performed with a continuous wave laser and high-speed camera. PIV vorticity fields obtained in a plane perpendicular to the sliding surface show that there is significant bulk fluid motion away from the surface. The associated momentum of the bubble means that this wake motion persists for a significant time before viscous dissipation. The magnitude and direction of the flow structures in the streamwise measurement plane are found to depend on the point on its path through which the bubble enters the plane. This entry point, represented by a phase angle, affects the nature and strength of the vortical structures. This study reconstructs the vorticity field in the wake of the bubble, converting the field at different instances in time to slices of a large-scale wake structure. This is, in essence, Taylor’s ”frozen turbulence” hypothesis. Applying this to the vorticity fields provides a pseudo three-dimensional representation from 2-D data, allowing for a more intuitive understanding of the bubble wake. This study provides insights into the complex dynamics of a situation common to many engineering applications, particularly shell and tube heat exchangers in the nucleate boiling regime.

Keywords: Bubbly flow, particle image velocimetry, two-phase flow, wake structures.

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18 Nickel Electroplating in Post Supercritical CO2 Mixed Watts Bath under Different Agitations

Authors: Chun-Ying Lee, Kun-Hsien Lee, Bor-Wei Wang

Abstract:

The process of post-supercritical CO2 electroplating uses the electrolyte solution after being mixed with supercritical CO2 and released to atmospheric pressure. It utilizes the microbubbles that form when oversaturated CO2 in the electrolyte returns to gaseous state, which gives the similar effect of pulsed electroplating. Under atmospheric pressure, the CO2 bubbles gradually diffuse. Therefore, the introduction of ultrasound and/or other agitation can potentially excite the CO2 microbubbles to achieve an electroplated surface of even higher quality. In this study, during the electroplating process, three different modes of agitation: magnetic stirrer agitation, ultrasonic agitation and a combined mode (magnetic + ultrasonic) were applied, respectively, in order to obtain an optimal surface morphology and mechanical properties for the electroplated Ni coating. It is found that the combined agitation mode at a current density of 40 A/dm2 achieved the smallest grain size, lower surface roughness, and produced an electroplated Ni layer that achieved hardness of 320 HV, much higher when compared with conventional method, which were usually in the range of 160 to 300 HV. However, at the same time, the electroplating with combined agitation developed a higher internal stress of 320 MPa due to the lower current efficiency of the process and finer grain in the coating. Moreover, a new control methodology for tailoring the coating’s mechanical property through its thickness was demonstrated by the timely introduction of ultrasonic agitation during the electroplating process with post supercritical CO2 mixed electrolyte.

Keywords: Nickel electroplating, micro-bubbles, supercritical carbon dioxide, ultrasonic agitation, magnetic stirring.

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17 CFD Study of Subcooled Boiling Flow at Elevated Pressure Using a Mechanistic Wall Heat Partitioning Model

Authors: Machimontorn Promtong, Sherman C. P. Cheung, Guan H. Yeoh, Sara Vahaji, Jiyuan Tu

Abstract:

The wide range of industrial applications involved with boiling flows promotes the necessity of establishing fundamental knowledge in boiling flow phenomena. For this purpose, a number of experimental and numerical researches have been performed to elucidate the underlying physics of this flow. In this paper, the improved wall boiling models, implemented on ANSYS CFX 14.5, were introduced to study subcooled boiling flow at elevated pressure. At the heated wall boundary, the Fractal model, Force balance approach and Mechanistic frequency model are given for predicting the nucleation site density, bubble departure diameter, and bubble departure frequency. The presented wall heat flux partitioning closures were modified to consider the influence of bubble sliding along the wall before the lift-off, which usually happens in the flow boiling. The simulation was performed based on the Two-fluid model, where the standard k-ω SST model was selected for turbulence modelling. Existing experimental data at around 5 bars were chosen to evaluate the accuracy of the presented mechanistic approach. The void fraction and Interfacial Area Concentration (IAC) are in good agreement with the experimental data. However, the predicted bubble velocity and Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) are over-predicted. This over-prediction may be caused by consideration of only dispersed and spherical bubbles in the simulations. In the future work, the important physical mechanisms of bubbles, such as merging and shrinking during sliding on the heated wall will be incorporated into this mechanistic model to enhance its capability for a wider range of flow prediction.

Keywords: CFD, mechanistic model, subcooled boiling flow, two-fluid model.

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