Effect of Enzyme and Heat Pretreatment on Sunflower Oil Recovery Using Aqueous and Hexane Extractions
Authors: E. Danso-Boateng
The effects of enzyme action and heat pretreatment on oil extraction yield from sunflower kernels were analysed using hexane extraction with Soxhlet, and aqueous extraction with incubator shaker. Ground kernels of raw and heat treated kernels, each with and without Viscozyme treatment were used. Microscopic images of the kernels were taken to analyse the visible effects of each treatment on the cotyledon cell structure of the kernels. Heat pretreated kernels before both extraction processes produced enhanced oil extraction yields than the control, with steam explosion the most efficient. In hexane extraction, applying a combination of steam explosion and Viscozyme treatments to the kernels before the extraction gave the maximum oil extractable in 1 hour; while for aqueous extraction, raw kernels treated with Viscozyme gave the highest oil extraction yield. Remarkable cotyledon cell disruption was evident in kernels treated with Viscozyme; whereas steam explosion and conventional heat treated kernels had similar effects.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1327718Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3105
 O. A. Den Braber, Aqueous enzymatic extraction of oil from rapeseeds, Case study: Institute for Applied Environmental Economics (TME), Netherlands, 1994.
 G. Röbbelen, R. K. Downey and A. Ashri, Oil crops of the world, McGraw-Hill Publishing Co, pp 301-316, 1989.
 M. Marcotte, S. Grabowski, D. I. M. LeBlanc and K. Darley, Separation technologies R&D for the food industry: A Canadian Survey, pp 13-39, 2002.
 J. F. Richardson, J. H. Harker, with J. R. Backhurks, Chemical engineering, vol. 2, 5th Ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, pp 502-512, 2002.
 J. A. Ward, Processing high oil content seeds in continuous screw presses, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., vol. 53, pp 261-264, 1976.
 H. Topallar and ├£. Gecgel, Kinetics and thermodynamics of oil extraction from sunflower seeds in the presence of aqueous acidic hexane solutions, J. Turk. Chem, vol. 24, pp 247-253, 2000.
 H. S. Olsen, Novo Industri A/S, Aqueous enzymatic extraction of oil from seeds, In Asian Food Conference, vol. 88, pp 24-26, A-06041a, 1988.
 L. A. Witting, P. S. Dimick, Effects of processing on food lipids, In: Rechcigl, M. Jr., editor, Handbook of nutritive value of processed food, CRC Press, USA, pp 416, 1984.
 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National emissions standards for hazardous air pollutants: Solvent extraction for vegetable oil production; 40 CFR Part 63. Final Rule, Federal Register 66:19005- 19026, 2001.
 P. Bhattacharjee, R. S. Singhal, and S. R. Tiwari, Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of cottonseed oil, J. Food Engng., vol. 79, pp 892- 989, 2006.
 S. Latif, Analytical investigations to compare the enzyme-assisted extraction of vegetable oils with conventional methods, PhD Thesis, UAF, pp 1-178, 2009.
 J. Bachmann, Oilseed processing for small-scale producers, National Sustainable Agricultural Information Services, NCAT-ATTRA, USA, pp 1-7, 2004.
 S. Meakin and J. Mackey, The use of enzymes in the processing of new oilseeds (UEPNO) to industrial raw material, AIR3-CT94-2199.
 A. Rosenthal, D. L. Pyle and K. Niranjan, Aqueous and enzymatic processes for edible oil extraction, Enzyme Microb. Technol, vol. 19, pp 402, 1996.
 A. Ranalli, A. Malfatti, and P. Cabras, Composition and Quality of Pressed Virgin Olive Oils Extracted with a New Enzyme Processing Aid, Journal of Food Science, vol. 66 (3), pp 592-603, 2001.
 M. E. Zuniga, C. Soto, A. Mora, R. Chamy, and J. M. Lema, Enzymic pre-treatment of Guevina avellana mol oil extraction by pressing, Process Biochemistry, vol. 39, pp 51-57, 2003.
 M. E. Z├║├▒ega, R. Charmy, H. Dominguez, M. J. Nu├▒ez, and J. M. Lema, Enzymatic treatment to improve sunflower and rapeseed oil production by pressing, Alimentaci├│n, Equipos y Tecnologia, vol. 4, pp 43-66, 1995.
 S. Latif, F. Anwar, and M. Ashraf, Characterization of enzyme-assisted cold pressed cottonseed oil, Journal of Food Lipid, vol. 14, pp 424-436, 2007.
 H. Dominguez, M. J. Nu├▒ez and J. M. Lema, Enzyme-assisted hexane extraction of soya bean oil, J. Food Chem, vol. 54, pp 223-231, 1995.
 A. K. A. Dandjouma, C. Tchie'gang, C. Kapseu, M. Linder and M. Parmentier, Enzyme-assisted hexane extraction of Ricinodendron heudelotii (Bail.) Pierre ex Pax seeds oil, Int. J. Food Sc. Technol., vol. 43, pp 1169-1175, 2008.
 H. Dominguez, M. J. Nunez, and J. M. Lema, Oil extractability from enzymatically treated soybean and sunflower: Range of operational Variables, Food Chem., vol. 46, pp 277-284, 1993.
 R. A. Moreau, D. B. Johnston, M. J. Powell, and K. B. Hicks, A Comparison of Commercial Enzymes for the Aqueous Enzymatic Extraction of Corn Oil from Corn Germ, JAOCS, vol. 81 (11), pp 1071- 1075, 2004.
 Y. Wang, Z. Wang, S. Cheng, and F. Han, Aqueous Enzymatic Extraction of Oil and Protein Hydrolysates from Peanut, Food Science and Technology Research, vol. 14 (6), pp 533, 2008.
 H. Dominguez, M. J. Nu├▒ez and J. M. Lema, Aqueous processing of sunflower kernels with enzymatic technology, J. Food Chem., vol. 53, pp 427-432, 1995.
 J. Seneiro, H. Dominguez, M. J. N├║├▒ez, and J. M. Lema, Optimization of the enzymatic treatment during oil extraction from sunflower seeds, J. Food Chem., vol. 61, pp 467 - 474, 1998.
 S. Latif, L. L. Diosady, and F. Anwar, Enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of oil and protein from canola (Brassica napus L.) seeds. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, vol. 110, pp 887- 892, 2008.