Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 93

Search results for: exterior calculus

93 Exterior Calculus: Economic Profit Dynamics

Authors: Troy L. Story

Abstract:

A mathematical model for the Dynamics of Economic Profit is constructed by proposing a characteristic differential oneform for this dynamics (analogous to the action in Hamiltonian dynamics). After processing this form with exterior calculus, a pair of characteristic differential equations is generated and solved for the rate of change of profit P as a function of revenue R (t) and cost C (t). By contracting the characteristic differential one-form with a vortex vector, the Lagrangian is obtained for the Dynamics of Economic Profit.

Keywords: Differential geometry, exterior calculus, Hamiltonian geometry, mathematical economics, economic functions, and dynamics

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92 Exterior Calculus: Economic Growth Dynamics

Authors: Troy L. Story

Abstract:

Mathematical models of dynamics employing exterior calculus are mathematical representations of the same unifying principle; namely, the description of a dynamic system with a characteristic differential one-form on an odd-dimensional differentiable manifold leads, by analysis with exterior calculus, to a set of differential equations and a characteristic tangent vector (vortex vector) which define transformations of the system. Using this principle, a mathematical model for economic growth is constructed by proposing a characteristic differential one-form for economic growth dynamics (analogous to the action in Hamiltonian dynamics), then generating a pair of characteristic differential equations and solving these equations for the rate of economic growth as a function of labor and capital. By contracting the characteristic differential one-form with the vortex vector, the Lagrangian for economic growth dynamics is obtained.

Keywords: Differential geometry, exterior calculus, Hamiltonian geometry, mathematical economics.

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91 Calculus-based Runtime Verification

Authors: Xuan Qi, Changzhi Zhao

Abstract:

In this paper, a uniform calculus-based approach for synthesizing monitors checking correctness properties specified by a large variety of logics at runtime is provided, including future and past time logics, interval logics, state machine and parameterized temporal logics. We present a calculus mechanism to synthesize monitors from the logical specification for the incremental analysis of execution traces during test and real run. The monitor detects both good and bad prefix of a particular kind, namely those that are informative for the property under investigation. We elaborate the procedure of calculus as monitors.

Keywords: calculus, eagle logic, monitor synthesis, runtime verification

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90 Application of Smart Temperature Information Material for The Evaluation of Heat Storage Capacity and Insulation Capacity of Exterior Walls

Authors: Chih-Yuan Chang, Jin-Chiuan Chang, San-Shan Hung, Cheng-Jui Hsu

Abstract:

The heat storage capacity of concrete in building shells is a major reason for excessively large electricity consumption induced by indoor air conditioning. In this research, the previously developed Smart Temperature Information Material (STIM) is embedded in two groups of exterior wall specimens (the control group contains reinforced concrete exterior walls and the experimental group consists of tiled exterior walls). Long term temperature measurements within the concrete are taken by the embedded STIM. Temperature differences between the control group and the experimental group in walls facing the four cardinal directions (east, west, south, and north) are evaluated. This study aims to provide a basic reference for the design of exterior walls and the selection of heat insulation materials.

Keywords: building envelope, sensor, energy, thermal insulation, reinforced concrete

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89 Some Remarks About Riemann-Liouville and Caputo Impulsive Fractional Calculus

Authors: M. De la Sen

Abstract:

This paper establishes some closed formulas for Riemann- Liouville impulsive fractional integral calculus and also for Riemann- Liouville and Caputo impulsive fractional derivatives.

Keywords: Rimann- Liouville fractional calculus, Caputofractional derivative, Dirac delta, Distributional derivatives, Highorderdistributional derivatives.

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88 The Boundary Element Method in Excel for Teaching Vector Calculus and Simulation

Authors: Stephen Kirkup

Abstract:

This paper discusses the implementation of the boundary element method (BEM) on an Excel spreadsheet and how it can be used in teaching vector calculus and simulation. There are two separate spreadheets, within which Laplace equation is solved by the BEM in two dimensions (LIBEM2) and axisymmetric three dimensions (LBEMA). The main algorithms are implemented in the associated programming language within Excel, Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). The BEM only requires a boundary mesh and hence it is a relatively accessible method. The BEM in the open spreadsheet environment is demonstrated as being useful as an aid to teaching and learning. The application of the BEM implemented on a spreadsheet for educational purposes in introductory vector calculus and simulation is explored. The development of assignment work is discussed, and sample results from student work are given. The spreadsheets were found to be useful tools in developing the students’ understanding of vector calculus and in simulating heat conduction.

Keywords: Boundary element method, laplace equation, vector calculus, simulation, education.

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87 Sinc-Galerkin Method for the Solution of Problems in Calculus of Variations

Authors: M. Zarebnia, N. Aliniya

Abstract:

In this paper, a numerical solution based on sinc functions is used for finding the solution of boundary value problems which arise from the problems of calculus of variations. This approximation reduce the problems to an explicit system of algebraic equations. Some numerical examples are also given to illustrate the accuracy and applicability of the presented method.

Keywords: Calculus of variation; Sinc functions; Galerkin; Numerical method

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86 Non-Polynomial Spline Method for the Solution of Problems in Calculus of Variations

Authors: M. Zarebnia, M. Hoshyar, M. Sedaghati

Abstract:

In this paper, a numerical solution based on nonpolynomial cubic spline functions is used for finding the solution of boundary value problems which arise from the problems of calculus of variations. This approximation reduce the problems to an explicit system of algebraic equations. Some numerical examples are also given to illustrate the accuracy and applicability of the presented method.

Keywords: Calculus of variation; Non-polynomial spline functions; Numerical method

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85 Influence of Proteolysis and Soluble Calcium Levels on Textural Changes in the Interior and Exterior of Iranian UF White Cheese during Ripening

Authors: I. Fathollahi, J. Hesari, S. Azadmard, S. Oustan

Abstract:

The relationships between Proteolysis and soluble calcium levels with hardness of cheese texture were investigated in Iranian UF white cheese during 90 d ripening. Cheeses were sampled in interior and exterior. Results showed that levels of proteolysis, soluble calcium and hardness of cheese texture changed significantly (p< 0.05) over ripening. Levels of proteolysis and hardness were significantly (p< 0.05) different in interior and exterior zones of cheeses. External zones of cheeses became softer and had higher levels of proteolysis compared to internal zones during ripening. The highest correlation coefficient (r2= 0.979; p<0.01) was observed between hardness and levels of pH 4.6-soluble nitrogen in exterior zones of cheese. These result showed that proteolysis can contribute to textural softening during ripening of Iranian UF white cheese.

Keywords: Calcium, Proteolysis, Softening, Ultrafiltration, White cheese.

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84 Assessing Overall Thermal Conductance Value of Low-Rise Residential Home Exterior Above-Grade Walls Using Infrared Thermography Methods

Authors: Matthew D. Baffa

Abstract:

Infrared thermography is a non-destructive test method used to estimate surface temperatures based on the amount of electromagnetic energy radiated by building envelope components. These surface temperatures are indicators of various qualitative building envelope deficiencies such as locations and extent of heat loss, thermal bridging, damaged or missing thermal insulation, air leakage, and moisture presence in roof, floor, and wall assemblies. Although infrared thermography is commonly used for qualitative deficiency detection in buildings, this study assesses its use as a quantitative method to estimate the overall thermal conductance value (U-value) of the exterior above-grade walls of a study home. The overall U-value of exterior above-grade walls in a home provides useful insight into the energy consumption and thermal comfort of a home. Three methodologies from the literature were employed to estimate the overall U-value by equating conductive heat loss through the exterior above-grade walls to the sum of convective and radiant heat losses of the walls. Outdoor infrared thermography field measurements of the exterior above-grade wall surface and reflective temperatures and emissivity values for various components of the exterior above-grade wall assemblies were carried out during winter months at the study home using a basic thermal imager device. The overall U-values estimated from each methodology from the literature using the recorded field measurements were compared to the nominal exterior above-grade wall overall U-value calculated from materials and dimensions detailed in architectural drawings of the study home. The nominal overall U-value was validated through calendarization and weather normalization of utility bills for the study home as well as various estimated heat loss quantities from a HOT2000 computer model of the study home and other methods. Under ideal environmental conditions, the estimated overall U-values deviated from the nominal overall U-value between ±2% to ±33%. This study suggests infrared thermography can estimate the overall U-value of exterior above-grade walls in low-rise residential homes with a fair amount of accuracy.

Keywords: Emissivity, heat loss, infrared thermography, thermal conductance.

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83 Unconventional Calculus Spreadsheet Functions

Authors: Chahid K. Ghaddar

Abstract:

The spreadsheet engine is exploited via a non-conventional mechanism to enable novel worksheet solver functions for computational calculus. The solver functions bypass inherent restrictions on built-in math and user defined functions by taking variable formulas as a new type of argument while retaining purity and recursion properties. The enabling mechanism permits integration of numerical algorithms into worksheet functions for solving virtually any computational problem that can be modelled by formulas and variables. Several examples are presented for computing integrals, derivatives, and systems of deferential-algebraic equations. Incorporation of the worksheet solver functions with the ubiquitous spreadsheet extend the utility of the latter as a powerful tool for computational mathematics.

Keywords: Calculus functions, nonlinear systems, differential algebraic equations, solvers, spreadsheet.

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82 Open Educational Resource in Online Mathematics Learning

Authors: Haohao Wang

Abstract:

Technology, multimedia in Open Educational Resources, can contribute positively to student performance in an online instructional environment. Student performance data of past four years were obtained from an online course entitled Applied Calculus (MA139). This paper examined the data to determine whether multimedia (independent variable) had any impact on student performance (dependent variable) in online math learning, and how students felt about the value of the technology. Two groups of student data were analyzed, group 1 (control) from the online applied calculus course that did not use multimedia instructional materials, and group 2 (treatment) of the same online applied calculus course that used multimedia instructional materials. For the MA139 class, results indicate a statistically significant difference (p = .001) between the two groups, where group 1 had a final score mean of 56.36 (out of 100), group 2 of 70.68. Additionally, student testimonials were discussed in which students shared their experience in learning applied calculus online with multimedia instructional materials.

Keywords: Online learning, Open Educational Resources, Multimedia, Technology.

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81 Numerical Investigation on the Interior Wind Noise of a Passenger Car

Authors: Liu Ying-jie, Lu Wen-bo, Peng Cheng-jian

Abstract:

With the development of the automotive technology and electric vehicle, the contribution of the wind noise on the interior noise becomes the main source of noise. The main transfer path which the exterior excitation is transmitted through is the greenhouse panels and side windows. Simulating the wind noise transmitted into the vehicle accurately in the early development stage can be very challenging. The basic methodologies of this study were based on the Lighthill analogy; the exterior flow field around a passenger car was computed using unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) firstly and then a Finite Element Method (FEM) was used to compute the interior acoustic response. The major findings of this study include: 1) The Sound Pressure Level (SPL) response at driver’s ear locations is mainly induced by the turbulence pressure fluctuation; 2) Peaks were found over the full frequency range. It is found that the methodology used in this study could predict the interior wind noise induced by the exterior aerodynamic excitation in industry.

Keywords: Wind noise, computational fluid dynamics, finite element method, passenger car.

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80 Riemann-Liouville Fractional Calculus and Multiindex Dzrbashjan-Gelfond-Leontiev Differentiation and Integration with Multiindex Mittag-Leffler Function

Authors: U.K. Saha, L.K. Arora

Abstract:

The multiindex Mittag-Leffler (M-L) function and the multiindex Dzrbashjan-Gelfond-Leontiev (D-G-L) differentiation and integration play a very pivotal role in the theory and applications of generalized fractional calculus. The object of this paper is to investigate the relations that exist between the Riemann-Liouville fractional calculus and multiindex Dzrbashjan-Gelfond-Leontiev differentiation and integration with multiindex Mittag-Leffler function.

Keywords: Multiindex Mittag-Leffler function, Multiindex Dzrbashjan-Gelfond-Leontiev differentiation and integration, Riemann-Liouville fractional integrals and derivatives.

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79 A Mathematical Model Approach Regarding the Children’s Height Development with Fractional Calculus

Authors: Nisa Özge Önal, Kamil Karaçuha, Göksu Hazar Erdinç, Banu Bahar Karaçuha, Ertuğrul Karaçuha

Abstract:

The study aims to use a mathematical approach with the fractional calculus which is developed to have the ability to continuously analyze the factors related to the children’s height development. Until now, tracking the development of the child is getting more important and meaningful. Knowing and determining the factors related to the physical development of the child any desired time would provide better, reliable and accurate results for childcare. In this frame, 7 groups for height percentile curve (3th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th) of Turkey are used. By using discrete height data of 0-18 years old children and the least squares method, a continuous curve is developed valid for any time interval. By doing so, in any desired instant, it is possible to find the percentage and location of the child in Percentage Chart. Here, with the help of the fractional calculus theory, a mathematical model is developed. The outcomes of the proposed approach are quite promising compared to the linear and the polynomial method. The approach also yields to predict the expected values of children in the sense of height.

Keywords: Children growth percentile, children physical development, fractional calculus, linear and polynomial model.

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78 The Gasoil Hydrofining Kinetics Constants Identification

Authors: C. Patrascioiu, V. Matei, N. Nicolae

Abstract:

The paper describes the experiments and the kinetic parameters calculus of the gasoil hydrofining. They are presented experimental results of gasoil hidrofining using Mo and promoted with Ni on aluminum support catalyst. The authors have adapted a kinetic model gasoil hydrofining. Using this proposed kinetic model and the experimental data they have calculated the parameters of the model. The numerical calculus is based on minimizing the difference between the experimental sulf concentration and kinetic model estimation.

Keywords: Hydrofining, kinetic, modeling, optimization.

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77 Design and Development of Architectural Model Darul Ridzuan Museum

Authors: Jafreezal Jaafar, Hasiah Mohamed, Hazida Razali

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the 3D reconstruction of the architectural design of Darul Ridzuan Museum. It has concentrated on designing exterior part of the building according to colored digital photo of the real museum. Besides viewing the architecture, walkthroughs are generated for the user to control it in an easier way. User can travel through the museum to get the feel of the environment and to explore the design of the museum as a whole; both exterior and interior. The result has shown positive result in terms of realism, navigation, collision detection, suitability, usability and user-s acceptance. In brief, the 3D virtual museum has provided an alternative to present a real museum.

Keywords: Virtual Heritage, 3D Modelling, Virtual Museum, Usability Evaluation

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76 Fractional-Order PI Controller Tuning Rules for Cascade Control System

Authors: Truong Nguyen Luan Vu, Le Hieu Giang, Le Linh

Abstract:

The fractional–order proportional integral (FOPI) controller tuning rules based on the fractional calculus for the cascade control system are systematically proposed in this paper. Accordingly, the ideal controller is obtained by using internal model control (IMC) approach for both the inner and outer loops, which gives the desired closed-loop responses. On the basis of the fractional calculus, the analytical tuning rules of FOPI controller for the inner loop can be established in the frequency domain. Besides, the outer loop is tuned by using any integer PI/PID controller tuning rules in the literature. The simulation study is considered for the stable process model and the results demonstrate the simplicity, flexibility, and effectiveness of the proposed method for the cascade control system in compared with the other methods.

Keywords: Fractional calculus, fractional–order proportional integral controller, cascade control system, internal model control approach.

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75 Development of Active Learning Calculus Course for Biomedical Program

Authors: Mikhail Bouniaev

Abstract:

The paper reviews design and implementation of a Calculus Course required for the Biomedical Competency Based Program developed as a joint project between The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, and the University of Texas’ Institute for Transformational Learning, from the theoretical perspective as presented in scholarly work on active learning, formative assessment, and on-line teaching. Following a four stage curriculum development process (objective, content, delivery, and assessment), and theoretical recommendations that guarantee effectiveness and efficiency of assessment in active learning, we discuss the practical recommendations on how to incorporate a strong formative assessment component to address disciplines’ needs, and students’ major needs. In design and implementation of this project, we used Constructivism and Stage-by-Stage Development of Mental Actions Theory recommendations.

Keywords: Active learning, assessment, Calculus, cognitive demand, constructivism, mathematics, Stage-by-Stage Development of Mental Action Theory.

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74 A Stochastic Approach of Mitochondrial Dynamics

Authors: Athanasios T. Alexiou, Maria M. Psiha, John A. Rekkas, Panayiotis M. Vlamos

Abstract:

Mitochondria are dynamic organelles, capable to interact with each other. While the number of mitochondria in a cell varies, their quality and functionality depends on the operation of fusion, fission, motility and mitophagy. Nowadays, several researches declare as an important factor in neurogenerative diseases the disruptions in the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics. In this paper a stochastic model in BioAmbients calculus is presented, concerning mitochondrial fusion and its distribution in the renewal of mitochondrial population in a cell. This model describes the successive and dependent stages of protein synthesis, protein-s activation and merging of two independent mitochondria.

Keywords: Mitochondrial Dynamics, P-Calculus, StochasticModeling.

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73 Experimental Study of Exhaust Muffler System for Direct-Injection Gasoline Engine

Authors: Abdallah F. Abd El-Mohsen, Ahmed A. Abdelsamee, Nouby M. Ghazaly

Abstract:

Engine exhaust noise is considered one of the largest sources of vehicle exterior noise. Further reduction of noise from the vehicle exhaust system will be required, as the vehicle exterior noise regulations become stricter. Therefore, the present study has been carried out to illustrate the role of engine operating parameters and exhaust system construction factors on exhaust noise emitted. The measurements carried out using different exhaust systems, which are mainly used in today’s vehicle. The effect of engine speed on the spectra level of exhaust noise is recorded at engine speeds of 900 rpm, 1800 rpm, 2700, rpm 3600 rpm and 4500 rpm. The results indicate that the increase of engine speed causes a significant increase in the spectrum level of exhaust noise. The increase in the number of the outlet of the expansion chamber also reduces the overall level of exhaust noise.

Keywords: Exhaust system, engine speed, expansion chamber.

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72 Refinement of Object-Z Specifications Using Morgan-s Refinement Calculus

Authors: Mehrnaz Najafi, Hassan Haghighi

Abstract:

Morgan-s refinement calculus (MRC) is one of the well-known methods allowing the formality presented in the program specification to be continued all the way to code. On the other hand, Object-Z (OZ) is an extension of Z adding support for classes and objects. There are a number of methods for obtaining code from OZ specifications that can be categorized into refinement and animation methods. As far as we know, only one refinement method exists which refines OZ specifications into code. However, this method does not have fine-grained refinement rules and thus cannot be automated. On the other hand, existing animation methods do not present mapping rules formally and do not support the mapping of several important constructs of OZ, such as all cases of operation expressions and most of constructs in global paragraph. In this paper, with the aim of providing an automatic path from OZ specifications to code, we propose an approach to map OZ specifications into their counterparts in MRC in order to use fine-grained refinement rules of MRC. In this way, having counterparts of our specifications in MRC, we can refine them into code automatically using MRC tools such as RED. Other advantages of our work pertain to proposing mapping rules formally, supporting the mapping of all important constructs of Object-Z, and considering dynamic instantiation of objects while OZ itself does not cover this facility.

Keywords: Formal method, Formal specification, Formalprogram development, Morgan's Refinement Calculus, Object-Z

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71 A Hygrothermal Analysis and Structural Performance of Wood-Frame Wall Systems with Low-Permeance Exterior Insulation

Authors: Marko Spasojevic, Ying Hei Chui, Yuxiang Chen

Abstract:

Increasing the level of exterior insulation in residential buildings is a popular way for improving the thermal characteristic of building enclosure and reducing heat loss. However, the layout and properties of materials composing the wall have a great effect on moisture accumulation within the wall cavity, long-term durability of a wall as well as the structural performance. A one-dimensional hygrothermal modeling has been performed to investigate moisture condensation risks and the drying capacity of standard 2×4 and 2×6 light wood-frame wall assemblies including exterior low-permeance extruded polystyrene (XPS) insulation. The analysis considered two different wall configurations whereby the rigid insulation board was placed either between Oriented Strand Board (OSB) sheathing and the stud or outboard to the structural sheathing. The thickness of the insulation varied between 0 mm and 50 mm and the analysis has been conducted for eight different locations in Canada, covering climate zone 4 through zone 8. Results show that the wall configuration with low-permeance insulation inserted between the stud and OSB sheathing accumulates more moisture within the stud cavity, compared to the assembly with the same insulation placed exterior to the sheathing. On the other hand, OSB moisture contents of the latter configuration were markedly higher. Consequently, the analysis of hygrothermal performance investigated and compared moisture accumulation in both the OSB and stud cavity. To investigate the structural performance of the wall and the effect of soft insulation layer inserted between the sheathing and framing, forty nail connection specimens were tested. Results have shown that both the connection strength and stiffness experience a significant reduction as the insulation thickness increases. These results will be compared with results from a full-scale shear wall tests in order to investigate if the capacity of shear walls with insulated sheathing would experience a similar reduction in structural capacities.

Keywords: Hygrothermal analysis, insulated sheathing, moisture performance, nail joints, wood shear wall.

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70 Mechanized Proof of Resistance of Denial of Service Attacks in Voting Protocol with ProVerif

Authors: Bo Meng, Wei Wang

Abstract:

Resistance of denial of service attacks is a key security requirement in voting protocols. Acquisti protocol plays an important role in development of internet voting protocols and claims its security without strong physical assumptions. In this study firstly Acquisti protocol is modeled in extended applied pi calculus, and then resistance of denial of service attacks is proved with ProVerif. The result is that it is not resistance of denial of service attacks because two denial of service attacks are found. Finally we give the method against the denial of service attacks.

Keywords: Applied pi calculus, protocol state, symbolic model, availability.

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69 An Implementation of MacMahon's Partition Analysis in Ordering the Lower Bound of Processing Elements for the Algorithm of LU Decomposition

Authors: Halil Snopce, Ilir Spahiu, Lavdrim Elmazi

Abstract:

A lot of Scientific and Engineering problems require the solution of large systems of linear equations of the form bAx in an effective manner. LU-Decomposition offers good choices for solving this problem. Our approach is to find the lower bound of processing elements needed for this purpose. Here is used the so called Omega calculus, as a computational method for solving problems via their corresponding Diophantine relation. From the corresponding algorithm is formed a system of linear diophantine equalities using the domain of computation which is given by the set of lattice points inside the polyhedron. Then is run the Mathematica program DiophantineGF.m. This program calculates the generating function from which is possible to find the number of solutions to the system of Diophantine equalities, which in fact gives the lower bound for the number of processors needed for the corresponding algorithm. There is given a mathematical explanation of the problem as well. Keywordsgenerating function, lattice points in polyhedron, lower bound of processor elements, system of Diophantine equationsand : calculus.

Keywords: generating function, lattice points in polyhedron, lower bound of processor elements, system of Diophantine equations and calculus.

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68 Calculus Logarithmic Function for Image Encryption

Authors: Adil AL-Rammahi

Abstract:

When we prefer to make the data secure from various attacks and fore integrity of data, we must encrypt the data before it is transmitted or stored. This paper introduces a new effective and lossless image encryption algorithm using a natural logarithmic function. The new algorithm encrypts an image through a three stage process. In the first stage, a reference natural logarithmic function is generated as the foundation for the encryption image. The image numeral matrix is then analyzed to five integer numbers, and then the numbers’ positions are transformed to matrices. The advantages of this method is useful for efficiently encrypting a variety of digital images, such as binary images, gray images, and RGB images without any quality loss. The principles of the presented scheme could be applied to provide complexity and then security for a variety of data systems such as image and others.

Keywords: Linear Systems, Image Encryption, Calculus.

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67 Performance Evaluation of AOMDV-PAMAC Protocols for Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: B. Malarkodi, S. K. Riyaz Hussain, B. Venkataramani

Abstract:

Power consumption of nodes in ad hoc networks is a critical issue as they predominantly operate on batteries. In order to improve the lifetime of an ad hoc network, all the nodes must be utilized evenly and the power required for connections must be minimized. In this project a link layer algorithm known as Power Aware medium Access Control (PAMAC) protocol is proposed which enables the network layer to select a route with minimum total power requirement among the possible routes between a source and a destination provided all nodes in the routes have battery capacity above a threshold. When the battery capacity goes below a predefined threshold, routes going through these nodes will be avoided and these nodes will act only as source and destination. Further, the first few nodes whose battery power drained to the set threshold value are pushed to the exterior part of the network and the nodes in the exterior are brought to the interior. Since less total power is required to forward packets for each connection. The network layer protocol AOMDV is basically an extension to the AODV routing protocol. AOMDV is designed to form multiple routes to the destination and it also avoid the loop formation so that it reduces the unnecessary congestion to the channel. In this project, the performance of AOMDV is evaluated using PAMAC as a MAC layer protocol and the average power consumption, throughput and average end to end delay of the network are calculated and the results are compared with that of the other network layer protocol AODV.

Keywords: AODV, PAMAC, AOMDV, Power consumption.

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66 Myths and Strategies for Teaching Calculus in English for Taiwanese Students: A Report Based on Three-Years of Practice

Authors: Shin-Shin Kao

Abstract:

This paper reviews the crucial situation in higher education in Taiwan due to the rapid decline of the birth rate in the past three decades, and how the government and local colleges/universities work to face the challenge. Recruiting international students is one of the possible ways to resolve the problem, but offering enough courses in English is one of the main obstacles when the majority of learners are still Taiwanese students. In the academic year of 2012, Chung Yuan Christian University determined to make its campus international and began to enforce two required courses for freshmen taught in English. It failed in the beginning, but succeeded in the following academic year of 2013. Using the teaching evaluations accumulated in the past three years, this paper aims to clarify the myths which had been bothering most faculties. It also offers some suggestions for college/university teachers interested in giving lectures in English to English as Second Language (ESL) learners. A conclusion is presented at the end of the paper, in which the author explained why Taiwanese students could learn their profession in English.

Keywords: Calculus, English, teaching evaluation, teaching strategy, vocabulary.

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65 A Differential Calculus Based Image Steganography with Crossover

Authors: Srilekha Mukherjee, Subha Ash, Goutam Sanyal

Abstract:

Information security plays a major role in uplifting the standard of secured communications via global media. In this paper, we have suggested a technique of encryption followed by insertion before transmission. Here, we have implemented two different concepts to carry out the above-specified tasks. We have used a two-point crossover technique of the genetic algorithm to facilitate the encryption process. For each of the uniquely identified rows of pixels, different mathematical methodologies are applied for several conditions checking, in order to figure out all the parent pixels on which we perform the crossover operation. This is done by selecting two crossover points within the pixels thereby producing the newly encrypted child pixels, and hence the encrypted cover image. In the next lap, the first and second order derivative operators are evaluated to increase the security and robustness. The last lap further ensures reapplication of the crossover procedure to form the final stego-image. The complexity of this system as a whole is huge, thereby dissuading the third party interferences. Also, the embedding capacity is very high. Therefore, a larger amount of secret image information can be hidden. The imperceptible vision of the obtained stego-image clearly proves the proficiency of this approach.

Keywords: Steganography, Crossover, Differential Calculus, Peak Signal to Noise Ratio, Cross-correlation Coefficient.

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64 Some Investigations on Higher Mathematics Scores for Chinese University Student

Authors: Xun Ge, Jingju Qian

Abstract:

To investigate some relations between higher mathe¬matics scores in Chinese graduate student entrance examination and calculus (resp. linear algebra, probability statistics) scores in subject's completion examination of Chinese university, we select 20 students as a sample, take higher mathematics score as a decision attribute and take calculus score, linear algebra score, probability statistics score as condition attributes. In this paper, we are based on rough-set theory (Rough-set theory is a logic-mathematical method proposed by Z. Pawlak. In recent years, this theory has been widely implemented in the many fields of natural science and societal science.) to investigate importance of condition attributes with respective to decision attribute and strength of condition attributes supporting decision attribute. Results of this investigation will be helpful for university students to raise higher mathematics scores in Chinese graduate student entrance examination.

Keywords: Rough set, higher mathematics scores, decision attribute, condition attribute.

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