Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: Image Encryption

14 Fingerprint Image Encryption Using a 2D Chaotic Map and Elliptic Curve Cryptography

Authors: D. M. S. Bandara, Yunqi Lei, Ye Luo

Abstract:

Fingerprints are suitable as long-term markers of human identity since they provide detailed and unique individual features which are difficult to alter and durable over life time. In this paper, we propose an algorithm to encrypt and decrypt fingerprint images by using a specially designed Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) procedure based on block ciphers. In addition, to increase the confusing effect of fingerprint encryption, we also utilize a chaotic-behaved method called Arnold Cat Map (ACM) for a 2D scrambling of pixel locations in our method. Experimental results are carried out with various types of efficiency and security analyses. As a result, we demonstrate that the proposed fingerprint encryption/decryption algorithm is advantageous in several different aspects including efficiency, security and flexibility. In particular, using this algorithm, we achieve a margin of about 0.1% in the test of Number of Pixel Changing Rate (NPCR) values comparing to the-state-of-the-art performances.

Keywords: Elliptic Curve Cryptography, block cipher, Arnold cat map, biometric encryption, fingerprint encryption, Koblitz’s Encoding

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13 Real-Time Image Encryption Using a 3D Discrete Dual Chaotic Cipher

Authors: M. F. Haroun, T. A. Gulliver

Abstract:

In this paper, an encryption algorithm is proposed for real-time image encryption. The scheme employs a dual chaotic generator based on a three dimensional (3D) discrete Lorenz attractor. Encryption is achieved using non-autonomous modulation where the data is injected into the dynamics of the master chaotic generator. The second generator is used to permute the dynamics of the master generator using the same approach. Since the data stream can be regarded as a random source, the resulting permutations of the generator dynamics greatly increase the security of the transmitted signal. In addition, a technique is proposed to mitigate the error propagation due to the finite precision arithmetic of digital hardware. In particular, truncation and rounding errors are eliminated by employing an integer representation of the data which can easily be implemented. The simple hardware architecture of the algorithm makes it suitable for secure real-time applications.

Keywords: FPGA, Chaotic systems, Image Encryption, non-autonomous modulation

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12 Gray Level Image Encryption

Authors: Roza Afarin, Saeed Mozaffari

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is image encryption using Genetic Algorithm (GA). The proposed encryption method consists of two phases. In modification phase, pixels locations are altered to reduce correlation among adjacent pixels. Then, pixels values are changed in the diffusion phase to encrypt the input image. Both phases are performed by GA with binary chromosomes. For modification phase, these binary patterns are generated by Local Binary Pattern (LBP) operator while for diffusion phase binary chromosomes are obtained by Bit Plane Slicing (BPS). Initial population in GA includes rows and columns of the input image. Instead of subjective selection of parents from this initial population, a random generator with predefined key is utilized. It is necessary to decrypt the coded image and reconstruct the initial input image. Fitness function is defined as average of transition from 0 to 1 in LBP image and histogram uniformity in modification and diffusion phases, respectively. Randomness of the encrypted image is measured by entropy, correlation coefficients and histogram analysis. Experimental results show that the proposed method is fast enough and can be used effectively for image encryption.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Image Encryption, correlation coefficients, image entropy

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11 Calculus Logarithmic Function for Image Encryption

Authors: Adil Al-Rammahi

Abstract:

When we prefer to make the data secure from various attacks and fore integrity of data, we must encrypt the data before it is transmitted or stored. This paper introduces a new effective and lossless image encryption algorithm using a natural logarithmic function. The new algorithm encrypts an image through a three stage process. In the first stage, a reference natural logarithmic function is generated as the foundation for the encryption image. The image numeral matrix is then analyzed to five integer numbers, and then the numbers’ positions are transformed to matrices. The advantages of this method is useful for efficiently encrypting a variety of digital images, such as binary images, gray images, and RGB images without any quality loss. The principles of the presented scheme could be applied to provide complexity and then security for a variety of data systems such as image and others.

Keywords: Linear Systems, Calculus, Image Encryption

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10 Digital Image Encryption Scheme using Chaotic Sequences with a Nonlinear Function

Authors: H. Ogras, M. Turk

Abstract:

In this study, a system of encryption based on chaotic sequences is described. The system is used for encrypting digital image data for the purpose of secure image transmission. An image secure communication scheme based on Logistic map chaotic sequences with a nonlinear function is proposed in this paper. Encryption and decryption keys are obtained by one-dimensional Logistic map that generates secret key for the input of the nonlinear function. Receiver can recover the information using the received signal and identical key sequences through the inverse system technique. The results of computer simulations indicate that the transmitted source image can be correctly and reliably recovered by using proposed scheme even under the noisy channel. The performance of the system will be discussed through evaluating the quality of recovered image with and without channel noise.

Keywords: Digital Image, Image Encryption, Secure communication

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9 A Survey on Principal Aspects of Secure Image Transmission

Authors: Ali Soleymani, Zulkarnain Md Ali, Md Jan Nordin

Abstract:

This paper is a review on the aspects and approaches of design an image cryptosystem. First a general introduction given for cryptography and images encryption and followed by different techniques in image encryption and related works for each technique surveyed. Finally, general security analysis methods for encrypted images are mentioned.

Keywords: Cryptography, Security, Image, Analysis, Encryption

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8 Visual Cryptography by Random Grids with Identifiable Shares

Authors: Ran-Zan Wang, Yao-Ting Lee

Abstract:

This paper proposes a visual cryptography by random grids scheme with identifiable shares. The method encodes an image O in two shares that exhibits the following features: (1) each generated share has the same scale as O, (2) any share singly has noise-like appearance that reveals no secret information on O, (3) the secrets can be revealed by superimposing the two shares, (4) folding a share up can disclose some identification patterns, and (5) both of the secret information and the designated identification patterns are recognized by naked eye without any computation. The property to show up identification patterns on folded shares establishes a simple and friendly interface for users to manage the numerous shares created by VC schemes.

Keywords: Secret sharing, Image Encryption, visual cryptography, Image Sharing

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7 A New Approach to Steganography using Sinc-Convolution Method

Authors: Ahmad R. Naghsh-Nilchi, Latifeh PourMohammadBagher

Abstract:

Both image steganography and image encryption have advantages and disadvantages. Steganograhy allows us to hide a desired image containing confidential information in a covered or host image while image encryption is decomposing the desired image to a non-readable, non-comprehended manner. The encryption methods are usually much more robust than the steganographic ones. However, they have a high visibility and would provoke the attackers easily since it usually is obvious from an encrypted image that something is hidden! The combination of steganography and encryption will cover both of their weaknesses and therefore, it increases the security. In this paper an image encryption method based on sinc-convolution along with using an encryption key of 128 bit length is introduced. Then, the encrypted image is covered by a host image using a modified version of JSteg steganography algorithm. This method could be applied to almost all image formats including TIF, BMP, GIF and JPEG. The experiment results show that our method is able to hide a desired image with high security and low visibility.

Keywords: Image Encryption, image steganography, Sinc approximation, Sincconvolution, JSTEG

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6 A New Image Encryption Approach using Combinational Permutation Techniques

Authors: A. Mitra, Y. V. Subba Rao, S. R. M. Prasanna

Abstract:

This paper proposes a new approach for image encryption using a combination of different permutation techniques. The main idea behind the present work is that an image can be viewed as an arrangement of bits, pixels and blocks. The intelligible information present in an image is due to the correlations among the bits, pixels and blocks in a given arrangement. This perceivable information can be reduced by decreasing the correlation among the bits, pixels and blocks using certain permutation techniques. This paper presents an approach for a random combination of the aforementioned permutations for image encryption. From the results, it is observed that the permutation of bits is effective in significantly reducing the correlation thereby decreasing the perceptual information, whereas the permutation of pixels and blocks are good at producing higher level security compared to bit permutation. A random combination method employing all the three techniques thus is observed to be useful for tactical security applications, where protection is needed only against a casual observer.

Keywords: Encryption, permutation, Good key, Combinationalpermutation, Pseudo random index generator

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5 An Image Encryption Method with Magnitude and Phase Manipulation using Carrier Images

Authors: A. Mitra, Y. V. Subba Rao, S. R. M. Prasanna

Abstract:

We describe an effective method for image encryption which employs magnitude and phase manipulation using carrier images. Although it involves traditional methods like magnitude and phase encryptions, the novelty of this work lies in deploying the concept of carrier images for encryption purpose. To this end, a carrier image is randomly chosen from a set of stored images. One dimensional (1-D) discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is then carried out on the original image to be encrypted along with the carrier image. Row wise spectral addition and scaling is performed between the magnitude spectra of the original and carrier images by randomly selecting the rows. Similarly, row wise phase addition and scaling is performed between the original and carrier images phase spectra by randomly selecting the rows. The encrypted image obtained by these two operations is further subjected to one more level of magnitude and phase manipulation using another randomly chosen carrier image by 1-D DFT along the columns. The resulting encrypted image is found to be fully distorted, resulting in increasing the robustness of the proposed work. Further, applying the reverse process at the receiver, the decrypted image is found to be distortionless.

Keywords: Encryption, Carrier images, Magnitude manipulation, Phase manipulation

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4 Implementation of RC5 Block Cipher Algorithm for Image Cryptosystems

Authors: Hossam El-din H. Ahmed, Hamdy M. Kalash, Osama S. Farag Allah

Abstract:

This paper examines the implementation of RC5 block cipher for digital images along with its detailed security analysis. A complete specification for the method of application of the RC5 block cipher to digital images is given. The security analysis of RC5 block cipher for digital images against entropy attack, bruteforce, statistical, and differential attacks is explored from strict cryptographic viewpoint. Experiments and results verify and prove that RC5 block cipher is highly secure for real-time image encryption from cryptographic viewpoint. Thorough experimental tests are carried out with detailed analysis, demonstrating the high security of RC5 block cipher algorithm.

Keywords: security analysis, Image Encryption

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3 A Modified AES Based Algorithm for Image Encryption

Authors: M. Zeghid, M. Machhout, L. Khriji, A. Baganne, R. Tourki

Abstract:

With the fast evolution of digital data exchange, security information becomes much important in data storage and transmission. Due to the increasing use of images in industrial process, it is essential to protect the confidential image data from unauthorized access. In this paper, we analyze the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), and we add a key stream generator (A5/1, W7) to AES to ensure improving the encryption performance; mainly for images characterised by reduced entropy. The implementation of both techniques has been realized for experimental purposes. Detailed results in terms of security analysis and implementation are given. Comparative study with traditional encryption algorithms is shown the superiority of the modified algorithm.

Keywords: Cryptography, Statistical Analysis, Encryption, Advanced EncryptionStandard (AES), ECB mode, key streamgenerator

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2 Analysis and Comparison of Image Encryption Algorithms

Authors: İsmet Öztürk, İbrahim Soğukpınar

Abstract:

With the fast progression of data exchange in electronic way, information security is becoming more important in data storage and transmission. Because of widely using images in industrial process, it is important to protect the confidential image data from unauthorized access. In this paper, we analyzed current image encryption algorithms and compression is added for two of them (Mirror-like image encryption and Visual Cryptography). Implementations of these two algorithms have been realized for experimental purposes. The results of analysis are given in this paper.

Keywords: Security, Transmission, Image Encryption, image cryptosystem

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1 Encryption Efficiency Analysis and Security Evaluation of RC6 Block Cipher for Digital Images

Authors: Hossam El-din H. Ahmed, Hamdy M. Kalash, Osama S. Farag Allah

Abstract:

This paper investigates the encryption efficiency of RC6 block cipher application to digital images, providing a new mathematical measure for encryption efficiency, which we will call the encryption quality instead of visual inspection, The encryption quality of RC6 block cipher is investigated among its several design parameters such as word size, number of rounds, and secret key length and the optimal choices for the best values of such design parameters are given. Also, the security analysis of RC6 block cipher for digital images is investigated from strict cryptographic viewpoint. The security estimations of RC6 block cipher for digital images against brute-force, statistical, and differential attacks are explored. Experiments are made to test the security of RC6 block cipher for digital images against all aforementioned types of attacks. Experiments and results verify and prove that RC6 block cipher is highly secure for real-time image encryption from cryptographic viewpoint. Thorough experimental tests are carried out with detailed analysis, demonstrating the high security of RC6 block cipher algorithm. So, RC6 block cipher can be considered to be a real-time secure symmetric encryption for digital images.

Keywords: Image Encryption, block cipher, encryption quality, and Security analysis

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